Helena Machado

Helena Machado
University of Minho · CECS, Institute for Social Sciences

PhD and Habilitation

About

254
Publications
64,785
Reads
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1,532
Citations
Citations since 2016
110 Research Items
1119 Citations
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Introduction
Full Professor of Sociology at the Institute for Social Sciences, University of Minho. Her current research critically engages STS, bioethics, sociological and criminological perspectives to explore the challenges emerging from the uses of genetics in contemporary modes of governance of criminality. She has written extensively about societal implications of criminal DNA databases, informed consent and practices of volunteering in the criminal field, media discourses about DNA technologies, public attitudes and convicted offenders’ views about forensic genetic technologies. Helena’s current research has a focus on the transnational surveillance of criminalized populations through sociotechnical systems of exchange of forensic DNA data and intelligence information in the EU.
Additional affiliations
March 2009 - March 2015
University of Minho
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Director of the Masters Course in Crime, Difference and Inequality; Director of the Doctorate Course in Sociology. Coordinator of the Research Group "Culture, Science and Identity" of the Research Centre for the Social Sciences of the University of Minho.

Publications

Publications (254)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As narrativas em torno da aplicação de técnicas de Big Data no turismo prometem proporcionar um mapeamento mais rigoroso de tendências turísticas e possibilitar uma resposta mais eficaz às necessidades dos turistas. Contudo, o tecno-otimismo que rodeia esta prática tecnológica tende a comprometer a capacidade de avaliar riscos e implicações sociais...
Article
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Assessing public and patients’ expectations and concerns about genomic data sharing is essential to promote adequate data governance and engagement in rare diseases genomics research. This cross-sectional study compared the views of 159 rare disease patients, 478 informal carers and 63 healthcare professionals in Northern Portugal about the benefit...
Article
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Objectives The aim of this study was to explore concerns and coping mechanisms during the first national COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal. The general population provided statements via an open comment box as part of an online prospective study. Study design Internet-based open cohort study. Methods Individuals aged ≥16 years were eligible to partic...
Chapter
Big Data na previsão criminal e o seu potencial para desencadear efeitos de desempoderamento, entendidos como consequências sociais negativas sobre indivíduos, grupos e sociedades. Considerando as linhas orientadoras da inovação responsável, argumentamos sobre a necessidade de promover um debate interdisciplinar e colaborativo sobre a implementação...
Chapter
O presente capítulo aborda as tendências gerais dos impactos provocados no setor do turismo através de tecnologias que permitem a acumulação e utilização de grandes volumes de dados, comumente, conhecida por “Big Data”. Um mapeamento das principais linhas do debate académico sobre Big Data no turismo permite constatar a prevalência de três temática...
Data
Open Access resource available for research purposes. The data collected in this dataset are narratives exploring public policies, attitudes, individual behaviors, and the collective experiences of the involved communities regarding vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic. The narratives were written by the members of the interdisciplinary resear...
Article
Full-text available
Investigative genetic genealogy (IGG) is a technique for identifying criminal suspects that involves uploading a crime scene DNA profile to one or more genetic genealogy databases to identify a criminal offender’s genetic relatives and, eventually, locating the offender within the family tree in both cold and active law enforcement cases. Law enfor...
Article
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In the summer of 2021, European governments removed most NPIs after experiencing prolonged second and third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most countries failed to achieve immunization rates high enough to avoid resurgence of the virus. Public health strategies for autumn and winter 2021 have ranged from countries aiming at low incidence by re-int...
Article
Big Data is seen as an increasingly important tool to support policing activities, define security governance policies and assist criminal investigations. Although significant literature has explored the predictive capabilities of Big Data, there has been less focus on the uses of Big Data in criminal investigations, focused on detection and appreh...
Article
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The SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant is spreading rapidly in Europe, even in countries with high levels of vaccination, including those that have moved quickly with booster vaccinations. We write as health professionals and researchers from across Europe to call for concerted European action to address the immediate threat and to move rapidly to develop...
Article
Full-text available
The so-called Prüm system made mandatory for all EU Member States to join the pan-European network for the exchange of fingerprints, DNA profiles and motor vehicle information for stepping up on cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime. Taking into consideration the number of DNA profiles archived in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Por via de uma análise interpretativa e compreensiva do Regulamento Geral da Proteção de Dados 2016/679 e da Diretiva 2016/680, complementada por uma análise de discursos da Comissão Europeia que enquadram esta legislação, este texto reflete sobre o "Imaginário Europeu" em torno de Big Data, tecnologias e proteção de dados no contexto da investigaç...
Book
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Genetic Surveillance and Crime Control presents a new empirical and conceptual framework for understanding trends of genetic surveillance in different countries in Europe and in other jurisdictions around the world. The use of DNA or genome for state-level surveillance for crime governance is becoming the norm in democratic societies. In the post-D...
Book
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Este livro aborda as relações entre ciência, cultura e política a partir do olhar sociológico sobre as implicações societais e éticas da presença da genética forense na prevenção da criminalidade e terrorismo na União Europeia. As contingências, controvérsias e expectativas dirigidas à genética forense num contexto híbrido, em que se cruzam agendas...
Preprint
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How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence COVID-19 in Europe. The future challenges and developments will strongly depend on the progress of national and global vaccination programs, the emergence and spread of vari...
Article
Full-text available
How will the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic develop in the coming months and years? Based on an expert survey, we examine key aspects that are likely to influence the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. The challenges and developments will strongly depend on the progress of national and global vaccination programs, the emergence and spread o...
Book
Full-text available
[Chinese version of the book "Forensic Genetics in the Governance of Crime"]. This open access book uses a critical sociological perspective to explore contemporary ways of reformulating the governance of crime through genetics. Through the lens of scientific knowledge and genetic technology, Machado and Granja offer a unique perspective on current...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction International policy imperatives for the public and patient involvement in the governance of health data coexist with conflicting cross-border policies on data sharing. This can challenge the planning and implementation of participatory data governance in healthcare services locally. Engaging with local stakeholders and understanding h...
Book
Full-text available
Este livro mobiliza uma perspectiva sociológica crítica para explorar modos contemporâneos da governança da criminalidade por via da genética forense. Helena Machado e Rafaela Granja abordam um conjunto de temas útil à compreensão do lugar e do papel da genética nos sistemas de justiça criminal, bem como os desafios sociais, éticos e políticos subj...
Article
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This article is about the governance of expectations of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) innovations in Germany used for the prediction of human externally visible traits such as eye, hair, and skin color, as well as biological age and biogeographic ancestry. In 2019, FDP technologies were regulated under the label "extended DNA analysis". We focus o...
Article
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Wearing face masks is recommended as part of personal protective equipment and as a public health measure to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Their use, however, is deeply connected to social and cultural practices and has acquired a variety of personal and social meanings. This article aims to identify the divers...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an outline of the historical evolution of biometric databases in the European Union and explores how these developments reconfigure notions of borders within this region of the world. This sets the scene for understanding how the melange of biometrical technologies and digitization has reconfigured how we think about the mobil...
Chapter
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The concluding chapter reviews and compares the modes of biobordering at the EU level and in Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the UK with a particular focus on the transnational exchange of DNA data within the Prüm system. This analysis reveals the multiplicity of heterogeneous biobordering regimes that enact different visions of Euro...
Chapter
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The UK is the possessor of the world’s oldest and largest DNA database by proportion of population: the National Criminal Intelligence DNA Database, established in 1995. As a nation-state that holds one of the world’s largest DNA databases, the UK has been dealing systematically with the societal effects triggered by various ethical controversies....
Data
The data collected in this dataset are narratives exploring public policies, attitudes, individual behaviors, and the collective experiences of the affected communities regarding face mask wearing at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The narratives were written by the members of the interdisciplinary research network Navigating Knowledge Landscap...
Book
Full-text available
Este volume reúne um conjunto de leituras que apresentam a experiência da crise como uma experiência transversal. É esse o ponto de originalidade desta obra, que reúne contributos de vários membros da comunidade do Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade do Minho. O tema da crise tem sido apresentado na produção científica em abordagens espec...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book explores how biometric data is increasingly flowing across borders in order to limit, control and contain the mobility of selected people, namely criminalized populations. It introduces the concept of bio-bordering, using it to capture reverse patterns of bordering and ordering practices linked to transnational biometric data...
Article
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Public involvement in the governance of epidemiological and public health studies can foster needs-driven research, enhance participants’ recruitment, reduce attrition and improve the quality of and ethics in research and surveillance. However, it can also reinforce health inequalities if it fails to ensure public representation across socioeconomi...
Chapter
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This chapter introduces the concept of ‘biobordering’. Taking the nationally grown crime control regimes into account, we argue that the proposed concept of bioborders is useful in capturing how the territorial foundations of national state autonomy are partially reclaimed (what we call rebordering) and at the same time partially purposefully suspe...
Chapter
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The Portuguese DNA database was established in 2008 and is one of the smallest DNA databases in the EU. Portugal has one of the most restrictive regulatory frameworks in the EU in relation to the criteria for the entry and deletion of DNA profiles. The country started connecting with the Prüm system’s genetic data exchange in 2015. In terms of bord...
Chapter
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The Netherlands’ DNA database was legally established in 1994 and became operational in 1997. It represents one of the mid-sized databases in the EU. The Netherlands has a track record of ‘innovation’ regarding the regulation and practical application of genetic technologies for forensic purposes. The Netherlands was involved with the Prüm regime f...
Chapter
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Germany’s DNA database was established in 1998 and grew into one of the mid-sized databases in the EU. Under the leadership of its Minister of the Interior, Germany was among the countries that drove the creation of the Prüm system and was among the first signatories of the Prüm Treaty in 2005. The 2007 German Presidency of the EU, along with the E...
Chapter
Full-text available
Poland established its DNA database in 2007 and joined the Prüm system in 2013. In comparison to the other countries in the European Union, the Polish DNA database is small. The facilitation of international DNA data exchange was considered as fundamental to Poland’s project to technologically modernize, integrate into Europe and incorporate intern...
Article
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Purpose Regulation of payment to gamete donors varies substantially across countries. The development of an ethically sustainable governance system of payments in gamete donation demands that the preferences of different stakeholders be heard. This study intends to contribute to improving the understanding of payment to gamete donors by analysing t...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP) is a set of techniques that aim to infer externally visible characteristics in humans – such as eye, hair and skin color – and biogeographical ancestry of an unknown person, based on biological material. FDP has been applied in various jurisdictions in a limited number of high-profile cases to provide intelligence for...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic DNA phenotyping is a genetic technology that might be used in criminal investigations. Based on DNA samples of the human body found at crime scenes, it allows to infer externally visible characteristics (such as eye, hair and skin colour) and continental-based biogeographical ancestry. By indicating the probable visible appearance of a cri...
Article
Full-text available
Background Systems for large-scale data exchanges are playing a pivotal role in the governance, surveillance, and social control of criminality in different parts of the world. Analysis This article explores the case study of the Prüm system, which is a technological system for the exchange of DNA data among several European Union (EU) countries. M...
Chapter
This chapter provides an explanation and context for situating the particular approach of sociology to the social phenomenon of the uses of forensic genetics in criminal justice systems. The aim is to describe, in an accessible manner, why the governance of crime using science and technology is a fertile domain for sociological enquiry and identify...
Chapter
Criminal DNA databases are expanding in different regions of the world to support the activities of the criminal justice system. The use of techniques that combine different sources of digital information for preventing and anticipating the risk of crime (one of the potential uses of so-called Big Data) is increasingly seen as a promising strategy...
Chapter
This chapter provides a historical and sociological overview of the biological explanations for violent and criminal behaviour. It starts with a detailed description of the seminal work by Cesare Lombroso (nineteenth century) and highlights the risks of biological determinism and the potential stigmatization raised by this line of research. It then...
Chapter
This chapter succinctly summarizes the contents presented in the book, highlighting the main arguments. In particular, we revisit the various modalities and roles of forensic genetics in the governance of crime in contemporary societies. Additionally, we reflect upon paths for the future of research in the field of the social studies of forensic ge...
Chapter
DNA profiling has been assuming a prominent role in the activities of the criminal justice system. Genetic technologies support criminal investigations, while also being seen as holding a highly valuable potential for producing evidence to be used in courts. This chapter has two main objectives: on the one hand, to describe and explain the ways tha...
Chapter
Despite their consolidated role in providing evidence for criminal justice, DNA technologies have been subjected to continuous investment that has given rise to the emergence of new DNA technologies. This chapter will focus on such innovations, explaining how forensic genetics is increasingly expanding its role in the criminal justice system. Recen...
Chapter
Contemporary societies are increasingly facilitating movement while simultaneously creating forms of restricting and monitoring the mobility of persons deemed problematic. This chapter focuses on the growing relevance of genetic technologies in this domain by discussing the several forms whereby genetics has been used to prevent, manage and survey...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book uses a critical sociological perspective to explore contemporary ways of reformulating the governance of crime through genetics. Through the lens of scientific knowledge and genetic technology, Machado and Granja offer a unique perspective on current trends in crime governance. They explore the place and role of genetics in cr...
Article
Full-text available
Assiste-se hoje à crescente visibilidade do designado Big Data. Trata-se de uma técnica que agrega conjuntos massivos de dados, manuseando um volume assinalável de informação, que é analisado a uma velocidade sem precedentes e em tempo real. Enquanto fenómeno social, apresenta três vertentes: a interação entre tecnologia (maximização do poder compu...
Article
Full-text available
Under EU Law, Member States are compelled to engage in reciprocal automated forensic DNA profile exchange within the so-called Prüm system. Presently, 25 operational EU Member States exchange DNA data within the Prüm system to combat terrorism and cross-border crime. This article discusses the perceived risks and benefits of the Prüm system on the...
Research
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No seu belo ensaio A Ideia de Europa, George Steiner romanticamente eterniza e descreve uma Europa que se enaltece como multicultural, cosmopolita, solidária e sem fronteiras. Mas esta é também uma Europa que se confronta com os fantasmas do seu passado, perante os atentados que temos testemunhado em França, em Espanha, na Bélgica, no Reino Unido,...
Article
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This article explores the fluid and flexible forms of constructing suspicion, which take shape in transnational governance of crime through forensic DNA databases. The empirical examples are the views of professionals engaged with the so-called Prüm system. This technological identification system was developed to enable DNA data exchange across EU...
Article
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Este estudo pretende avaliar a qualidade da informação online sobre doação de gametas em sites de clínicas de fertilidade em Portugal. Todos os sites com informação sobre doação de gametas foram escrutinados em junho de 2017. A confiabilidade e usabilidade de 43 páginas web foram avaliadas usando o instrumento Website Information Evaluation do Offi...
Article
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Background: Forensic DNA testing is a powerful tool used to identify, convict, and exonerate individuals charged of criminal offenses, but there are different views on its benefits and risks. Knowledge about public views on forensic DNA testing applied in the criminal field is socially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. This paper aims to...
Article
Full-text available
The exchange of forensic DNA data is seen as an increasingly important tool in criminal investigations into organised crime, control strategies and counter-terrorism measures. On the basis of a set of interviews with police professionals involved in the transnational exchange of DNA data between EU countries, this paper examines how forensic DNA ev...
Technical Report
Machado, Helena (2019), "Geopolítica do DNA", Dicionário Alice. Consultado a 09.04.19, em https://alice.ces.uc.pt/dictionary/?id=23838&pag=23918&id_lingua=1&entry=24291. ISBN: 978-989-8847-08-9
Article
Full-text available
The United Kingdom has a long tradition of collecting and storing DNA data for criminal identification purposes. The development of the UK National Criminal Intelligence DNA Database has been accompanied by public controversies. Building on recent developments in Science and Technology Studies on public engagement, we elaborate on the concept of em...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo: Conhecer a discussão em torno dos desafios sociais e éticos da doação de gametas é fundamental para a boa governança das técnicas de reprodução assistida. Neste artigo, analisam-se os tópicos que orientaram o debate nas organizações de ética portuguesas, discutindo as suas conexões com os temas abordados internacionalmente. Para tal, em mar...
Article
Familial searching is a technology that detects genetic relatedness. The term is generally used to refer to searches conducted in criminal DNA databases to identify criminal suspects through their connection with relatives. Beyond criminal investigation purposes, familial searching might also be used for the identification of unknown bodies and mis...
Article
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The use of photography in representing the criminal body has long been a focus of interest in the social sciences, especially so when exploring the historical evolution of criminal identification practices. By contributing to the emerging field of visual criminology, this article explores current practices around photography of prisoners in the eve...
Chapter
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A aplicação da genética forense na identificação criminal, tornada expressiva pela expansão de bases de dados estatais contendo milhares de perfis genéticos, tem suscitado ampla discussão bioética. O debate bioético tradicional tem focado a necessidade de equilíbrio entre o reforço dos poderes do Estado, em nome da segurança pública, e o contrapont...
Article
Full-text available
Under EU Law, Member States are compelled to engage in reciprocal automated forensic DNA profile exchange for stepping up on cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime. The ethical implications of this transnational DNA data exchange are paramount. Exploring what the concept of ethics means to forensic prac...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study analyzed couples’ perceptions about the factors that contextualize informed consent regarding embryo cryopreservation, through 34 semi-structured interviews, in Portugal. Data were analyzed according to the principles of grounded theory. The results revealed the following needs: timely provision of detailed, accurate and inte...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a study of the 5-year operation (2011–2015) of the transnational exchange of forensic DNA data between Member States of the European Union (EU) for the purpose of combating cross-border crime and terrorism within the so-called Prüm system. This first systematisation of the full official statistical dataset provides an overall as...