Helena Haapio

Helena Haapio
University of Vaasa · Department of Economics and Business Law

LL.M. (Master of Laws), MQ (Master of Quality), DSc (Doctor of Science (Econ.))

About

72
Publications
17,729
Reads
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632
Citations

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
The data protection lawyer of the future will be a key intermediary of innovation—or ‘transaction engineer’—who facilitates and coordinates new forms of business and other social relationships in rapidly evolving multi-disciplinary settings. The effective performance of this function requires legal professionals to develop a different mindset, alo...
Article
Research shows that strategic dispute resolution and early intervention reduce direct and indirect costs of conflicts. Minimal costs are involved in preventing and de-escalating disputes, compared with the costs of arbitration and litigation, for example. In this context, the traditional view of contracts as legal documents or reactive enforcement...
Chapter
During the Industrial Revolution, the structure and methods of Western legal systems facilitated commercial expansion and technological innovation. But as the Information Age gradually re-shapes pre-conditions for successful innovation, legal systems generally—and contracting in particular—may be obstructing rather than enabling continuing growth....
Article
Many legal problems are caused by misunderstandings. People do not read complex documents. Even if they do, they may not find what they look for or understand what they find. This chapter shows how proactive legal care can help, not only to deal with challenges of complex legal information, but also to improve access to justice and prevent unnecess...
Article
Full-text available
The use of digital technologies in healthcare is changing how medical treatments are developed by researchers, applied/practiced by medical professionals and experienced by patients. This article argues that a defining feature of this disruption is the emergence of new medical “apps” that leverage algorithm-based AI systems. As the use of such apps...
Conference Paper
Patterns are a central tool in legal design. They are conceptual schemes or entities describing solutions to a recurring legal problem, helping to make contracts, disclosures and policies accessible to users and easier to prepare. In this paper, we take stock of existing legal design patterns and pattern libraries and present the idea of a legal de...
Conference Paper
Legal Design is an umbrella term for merging forward-looking legal thinking with design thinking. It applies human-centered design to prevent or solve legal problems. Legal Design takes an interdisciplinary and proactive approach to law, covering not only legal information and documents, but also legal services, processes, and systems. This paper i...
Conference Paper
In recent years, legal departments and law firms around the world have been busy developing legal guidance for business people to follow. Legal compliance handbooks and policy manuals vary in coverage and title, but many have one thing in common: the guidance remains unread. People prefer to ask the lawyers instead, or ignore the legal aspects of t...
Chapter
Legal Technology—or “Legal Tech”—is disrupting the traditional operations and self-understanding of the legal profession. This chapter introduces the central claim of this book, namely that these developments are having and will continue to have a disruptive effect on the work of lawyers and that adapting to this new operating environment is crucia...
Chapter
Commercial contracts are sometimes ruefully described as “documents written by lawyers, for lawyers,” artifacts of a negotiated exchange wrapped tightly in pages of clauses intended to insulate the agreement against litigation attacks. Yet this verbal padding decreases accessibility, functionality, and efficiency. Reforms to the classic forms and m...
Book
There is a broad consensus amongst law firms and in-house legal departments that next generation “Legal Tech” – particularly in the form of Blockchain-based technologies and Smart Contracts – will have a profound impact on the future operations of all legal service providers. Legal Tech startups are already revolutionizing the legal industry by inc...
Conference Paper
Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the use of their data. Lawyers across countries and industries are facing recurring problems when (re)writing privacy notices and terms. Visual and int...
Conference Paper
Contracts, once almost exclusively written by lawyers for lawyers, are undergoing a major transformation. Technology and design have enabled entirely new contract genres. When the focus shifts from legal issues to functionality and ease of use, automation and communication come to the fore. We envision a future where contracts are designed to conta...
Conference Paper
Smart contracts are becoming all smarter and increasingly available. Yet there seems to be a reluctance in mainstream industry to actually use them. It seems hard to convince general counsel, law firms, and purchasers of legal services to implement smart systems. This is a challenge for the providers of smart technology. The technology is not the p...
Chapter
One thesis of this book is that the legal function within businesses will shift from a paradigm of security to one of opportunity. This chapter embraces that likelihood in the context of business contracting, where voices calling for a major shift are starting to surface. It explores how contracts can be used to reach better outcomes and relationsh...
Chapter
Full-text available
Communication between legal experts and laypersons takes place in many contexts related to law: contracts, for example. Visualization can support the communication and mitigate its barriers. In the field of legal visualization different approaches have been discussed, but a common language and standards are missing. This paper aims to identify the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern economies are held together by innumerable contracts. However, current contracts are neither machine-readable nor easily human-readable. The Ricardian Contract paradigm of parameters, prose and code posits a hybrid model of automation and conventional legal text. This paper connects recent work on design criteria for 'Smart Contract Template...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern economies are held together by innumerable contracts. However, current contracts are neither machine-readable nor easily human-readable. The Ricardian Contract paradigm of parameters, prose and code posits a hybrid model of automation and conventional legal text. This paper connects recent work on design criteria for 'Smart Contract Template...
Conference Paper
Contracts are undergoing fundamental changes. New technology and new design are transforming the look and feel of contracts, and entirely new contract genres are being born. Smart, self-enforcing contracts promise to disrupt how contracts are made and executed. This paper illustrates how the world of contracting is embracing the transformation away...
Conference Paper
While many researchers are interested in making their data open, it is not always clear what they should do to ensure that their data is FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. This paper reports how we applied the Design Jam method to help experts and policymakers ideate user-friendly solutions to implement the FAIR Data Principles...
Conference Paper
Automation is everywhere. Robots can become lawyers and nurses – as well as investment advisors. Investment advisors have a pedagogic role in making sure that investors can under-stand where they are putting their money. Human-to-human interaction, discussions between investors and advisors, often help to enlighten the features of the products bett...
Article
Modern economies are held together by innumerable contracts. However, current contracts are neither machine-readable nor easily human-readable. The Ricardian Contract paradigm of parameters, prose and code posits a hybrid model of automation and conventional legal text. This paper connects recent work on design criteria for «Smart Contract Template...
Article
Contracts are undergoing fundamental changes. New technology and new design are transforming the look and feel of contracts, and entirely new contract genres are being born. Smart, self-enforcing contracts promise to disrupt how contracts are made and executed. This paper illustrates how the world of contracting is embracing the transformation away...
Article
While many researchers are interested in making their data open, it is not always clear what they should do to ensure that their data is FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. This paper reports how we applied the Design Jam method to help experts and policymakers ideate user-friendly solutions to implement the FAIRData Principles...
Article
Automation is everywhere. Robots can become lawyers and nurses - as well as investment advisors. Investment advisors have a pedagogic role in making sure that investors can understand where they are putting their money. Human-to-human interaction, discussions between investors and advisors, often help to enlighten the features of the products bette...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the role of law as a positive force within companies through parallel developments in Europe and the United States and a Colombian case study that illustrates how contract simplification and visualization can help bring user-friendly contracts and Proactive Law to practice.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a case study of an innovative contract simplification project. The context is an energy industry facility to be built in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, where it is important to gain social license from Aboriginal communities by sharing employment opportunities. However, the complexity of contract documentation was seen as...
Conference Paper
Law as a profession has much in common with architecture and engineering. In contexts as diverse as business transactions, legislative work, and mediation, lawyers have been called legal architects or engineers. We propose seeing contracts as things or artefacts – something to be designed – and borrowing from architects and engineers the idea of de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Major gaps may exist between the legal representation of an agreement (“the paper deal”) and the goals and intentions of its negotiators (“the real deal”). This paper outlines contracting pitfalls and proposes new approaches to the use of visualisation to overcome them. We categorise contract visualisation and introduce comics and visual interfaces...
Conference Paper
Financial regulation and investment products have become more and more complex. Informa-tion disclosures tend to be off-puttingly long and densely texted documents. Investor behavior studies indicate that investors often skip and skim information – and even worse, sometimes they do not read it at all. Investors’ abilities to comprehend and use fina...
Conference Paper
In recent years, technology investors have published templates for investment deals, with the aim of reducing the costs and delays of startup financings by standardising common agreements and summarising complex contracts into shorter term sheets. These practices allow experienced investors and entrepreneurs to efficiently negotiate high-level busi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The last two decades have seen law emerge online. This development has engaged computer scientists and web designers in communicating law. Recently, serious work has begun on visualizing contract clauses, generating cooperation between designers, computer scientists, business people, lawyers and others. New insights arise from such cross disciplina...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Today’s contracts are complex and their meaning is not always clear to those who are impacted. What can we do to provide transparency and understandability and to prevent inadvertent non-compliance and negative surprises? In our previous work, we have brought information design, user experience, readability, visualization and natural language proce...
Conference Paper
Legal materials are widely available, online and offline. But are they actually read and understood? Empirical research shows that this is not always the case. Turning to lawyers does not necessarily help: legal advice may be too complex to be useful. If legal documents are ignored or misunderstood by those who are expected to read and act upon the...
Chapter
In the crafting of commercial contracts, many participants are involved, often professionals from different countries and backgrounds. The challenge, then, is to achieve a balance between the business and legal requirements and to facilitate communication and coordination. While some contracts may need to work as evidence in court, most contracts d...
Chapter
In today's networked economy, contracts are everywhere. Many of them are watertight and legally perfect documents attempting to refer to every conceivable contingency. For people expected to use or comply with them, such contracts are often difficult to read, comprehend, and/or implement. As an alternative to the current predominantly legal and tex...
Article
In this paper, we illustrate how merging contract design with information design, especially visualization, can help to transform contracts (and people's perceptions about contracts) from legal rules to communication tools. We argue that improved human-contract interaction can maximize the value of commercial relationships, minimize risk, and preve...
Conference Paper
In today's networked economy, contracts are everywhere. Most contracts are complex, as is the business they describe. Contracts are not easy to read, and their misinterpretation can cause expensive disputes between the parties. Recent research suggests an alternative to contracts written in legalese, by harnessing the benefits brought by plain lang...
Article
VISUALIZATION: SEEING CONTRACTS FOR WHAT THEY ARE, AND WHAT THEY COULD BECOME By Thomas D. Barton Gerlinde Berger-Walliser Helena Haapio ABSTRACT Commercial contract users read their contract documents infrequently, and understand them inadequately. The disincentives may be several: perhaps because contract language is too technical and too long; o...
Conference Paper
Motivation -- To change the way contracts are perceived, designed and communicated in order to improve their usability as tools for inter-firm collaboration. Research approach -- Work-in-progress: a literature review and interviews with participating companies will be used to determine the detailed research plan and the design of the prototypes and...
Article
In the crafting of commercial contracts, many participants are involved, often professionals from different countries and backgrounds. The challenge, then, is to achieve a balance between the business and legal requirements and to facilitate communication and coordination. While some contracts may need to work as evidence in court, most contracts d...
Article
Contracts are an important construct for the formation and performance of agreements. Yet, many business people view contract review as a time-consuming nuisance or an administrative burden. Furthermore, contracts contain concepts and language that non-lawyers often find overly complicated, obscure, and unappealing. We explore whether contract visu...
Article
The servitisation of the manufacturing industry involves a shift from products to services and from transactions to relationships. Companies are becoming more dependent on each other, which entails a growing importance of good business relationships and relationship management. Contracts have been widely neglected in prior service research, yet the...
Article
In recent years, legal scholars in the United States and Europe have explored aspects of legal strategy relating to competitive advantage and the role of law as a positive force within companies. In the United States, the focus has been on law as a source of competitive advantage, while in Europe an approach known as Proactive Law has emerged. This...
Article
In recent years, legal scholars in the United States and Europe have explored aspects of legal strategy relating to competitive advantage and the role of law as a positive force within companies. In the United States, the focus has been on law as a source of competitive advantage, while in Europe an approach known as Proactive Law has emerged. This...
Chapter
In business transactions, everything – task allocation, price, payments, milestones, rights, responsibilities, and remedies – revolves around the underlying contract. Contractual terms, express and implied, have a tremendous impact on the outcome of transactions and relationships. They affect profitability, increase or decrease costs and liabilitie...
Article
The visible, explicit terms of contracts are important, and one should always take the time to read them carefully. This is especially important for contracts in which goods or services cross borders. As such, confusing or ambiguous meanings in the explicit terms of a contract present obvious legal risks. To compound those risks, too often we negl...
Chapter
Legal certainty is one of the basic preconditions of successful business. Sometimes when we look at recent legislation, court cases or regulators’ investigations it seems that business people are ordered to trudge in unknown regions to find out where the safe routes run. It is too late when they hit a mine; it is not in businesses’ interest to deve...
Article
Do your purchase orders, sales documents and contracts just evolve - or do you effectively use them to add quality and value to your transactions? Do you allow gap-filling laws and implied terms write your contract for you - or do you systematically control their effects? Do you leave yourself open to claims and negative surprises - or secure solid...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Changing the ways in which contracts are currently perceived, communicated and taught. Exploring ways to transform contracts from legal instruments to useful, usable business tools. Promoting the use of simplification and visualization in commercial contracts.