Helena Barnard

Helena Barnard
University of Pretoria | UP · Gordon Institute of Business Science

About

48
Publications
15,689
Reads
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1,229
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
842 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
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Emerging markets often experience instability due to rapid changes to the institutional environment, social changes like rapid urbanization, or even unrest. We argue that emerging market multinationals (EMNEs) manage such instability by constructing and changing locational portfolios, and qualitatively analyze six cases in South Africa over a perio...
Article
Full-text available
This article responds to calls for IB researchers to study a greater diversity of international business (IB) phenomena in order to generate theoretical insights about empirical settings that are under-represented in the scholarly IB literature. While this objective is consistent with the strengths of qualitative research methods, novel empirical s...
Article
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Strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) has drawn praise for representing the "sweet spot" between communities’ needs and firms’ resources, capabilities and efforts. But what if the concept is pushed to its limits? A firm can initiate CSR projects not just to help communities, but to directly realize profit from them. In this conceptual pap...
Chapter
This chapter offers an insider’s view of the “big” questions that need to be explored by anybody interested in doing work in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In addition to our own research, we have also worked extensively with MNEs, governmental agencies, and African scholars for more than two decades. This has led to our insights and conclusions on the...
Article
We use institutional theory to understand how managers in different types of firms make sense of the dysfunction of institutionally weak environments. We interviewed ninety executives working in Botswana, Kenya, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, and found that religion was used as a normative institution when dealing with remediable institutional dysfunction,...
Article
Although it is known that returnee entrepreneurs can contribute to technological and economic upgrading in their home countries, there is also evidence of a returnee liability where returnee entrepreneurs perform worse than locals. Apart from mismatches between home and host country institutional environments, this liability is argued to stem from...
Article
Host countries' level of development affects internationalization from emerging markets. The challenges and opportunities firms face, the resources and assets they need, and ultimately how they internationalize are shaped by whether firms internationalize to developing or developed countries, and whether they operate within a single or across multi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Firms in emerging markets are becoming leading global players despite operating in challenging home country environments, but little is known about how they build their capabilities. By analyzing multiple companies operating across over a dozen emerging markets in Asia, Latin America, Africa and Europe, the authors identify the specific challenges...
Article
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This paper grew out of a keynote I delivered at the Academy of International Business Africa chapter meeting in Ghana, 2019, and was further honed in the review process. I share how emotionally challenging I sometimes find it to be a scholar of Africa, and some insights I have gained over time about meeting that challenge. Our work is strengthened...
Article
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What scholars call “writing” actually involves writing, reading, talking, thinking, and engaging. Yet how academic writing develops through this recursive, social process, is imperfectly understood. Although participating in academic gatherings like colloquia and international conferences can help researchers find a scholarly voice, not all new sch...
Article
Migrant and migration policy (MMP) issues have often influenced important international business (IB) research questions, but the last 20 years have seen the emergence of new or “renewed” MMP issues tied to changes in migrant demographics, wealth, skills, home-country provenance, host-country attitudes, and international governance. Articles in the...
Article
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A project on social enterprises in South Africa yielded two key insights for international business. First, partnering with policymakers can strengthen both the relevance and the rigor of research. Second, both the (relatively few) large, multinational social enterprises that obtain funding and operate across multiple countries (whether global or i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global online platforms match firms with service providers around the world, in services ranging from software development to copywriting and graphic design. Unlike in traditional offshore outsourcing, service providers are predominantly one-person microproviders located in emerging-economy countries not necessarily associated with offshoring and o...
Article
Global online platforms match firms with service providers around the world, in services ranging from software development to copywriting and graphic design. Unlike in traditional offshore outsourcing, service providers are predominantly one-person microproviders located in emerging-economy countries not necessarily associated with offshoring and o...
Article
When seeking to improve science in emerging economies, uncertainty exists whether PhD training in an emerging economy can yield comparable results to PhD training in the developed world. Scientific achievements may vary because of excellent training at good universities, but also because excellent students select (and are selected by) good universi...
Article
We argue that escape foreign direct investment (FDI) happens when unknown future “rules of the game” cause concern about the continued productive capacity of the economy. Adapting the stress-strain-fail model of materials failure, we argue that escape FDI is a process with three cumulative phases. Conditions for escape FDI (stress) are created by i...
Article
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Africa is an increasingly important business context, yet we still know little about it. We review the challenges and opportunities that firms in Africa face and propose that these can serve as the basis for extending current theories and models of the firm. We do so by challenging some of the implicit assumptions and stereotypes on firms in Africa...
Article
In the last decade we hae witnessed an unprecedented growth in the globalisation of innoation actiities and ore specifically of global innoation networs Is etending into iddleincoe countries oweer hitherto ost of the literature is either theoretical or based on a handful of cases e do not now what are the different fors of openness through networs...
Chapter
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The literature on global value chains and global production networks suggests limited entrepreneurial opportunities for small firms from developing countries. However, in networks power can accrue not only to central players (such as lead firms), but also to "marginal" players that can play a brokering role. Brokers get their power from connecting...
Article
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People differ in terms of the number and strength of ties that they cultivate. Previous literature has tended to focus on either strong ties or many weak ties with a largely unstated assumption that some degree of trade-off exists between the two (underlying trust and novel knowledge, respectively) and their relative contribution to innovation. Wit...
Article
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The issue of visas does not get much attention in international business, perhaps because visas mainly affect people from developing countries: Exemptions exist for most citizens of Triad countries. Yet there are extensive, opaque and country-specific regulations governing the movement of people across borders. In this essay, I speak about my perso...
Article
Less-developed countries benefit from being connected to technologically and economically advanced countries. The well-documented mechanisms for this cross-national flow of knowledge all involve interfirm connections, such as trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and alliances. We examine the potential of a different mechanism – interpersonal tie...
Article
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The diaspora is often credited with helping its homeland, especially when the country is less developed. Yet diasporans are also known to have complex feelings about the homeland. In a study of the South African diaspora, we find that positive affect about both the homeland and the migration experience is positively correlated with the willingness...
Article
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Why have relatively poor and underdeveloped countries been able to spawn so many global firms in the last two decades? Are emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) really different from successful multinationals from developed economies? This book tackles these and other fundamental theoretical questions about EMNCs. A distinguished group of research...
Article
Do world-leading researchers from developing countries contribute to upgrading locally, or do they disengage from the local context? The paper investigates the scientific collaborations of university-based science and technology researchers in the database of the South African National Research Foundation (NRF), and analyses the co-authorships of r...
Article
Two main mechanisms determine the extent to which the headquarters of multinational corporations (MNCs) from less developed countries gain useful capabilities from their subsidiaries in the developed world: learning mechanisms, and recognition by the parent. Because emerging MNCs are at an early stage of their evolution, informal learning mechanism...
Article
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The rapid move of China and India from low-cost producers to innovators has triggered an increasing interest in the globalization of innovation activities and more specifically, on the surge of global innovation networks (GINs). However, hitherto most of the literature is either theoretical or based on a handful of cases. We do not know what are th...
Article
This paper investigates how developing country firms with generally less developed capability bases than their counterparts from the developed world can benefit from their location in the technologically more advanced developed world. It documents that subsidiaries in more developed countries do act as centres of excellence for their firm, but that...
Article
The concept of “liability of foreignness” — the costs of doing business abroad — has been known and discussed since the mid-1970s. At the core of these discussions is the role that firm capabilities play in overcoming or limiting these costs. This raises the question of how firms with inappropriate, limited or constrained capabilities relative to t...
Article
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The transition from developing country technology firm to true multinational requires both an upgrading of the underlying capability base and an understanding of the purpose of IP management. Through a detailed case study of Sasol, a leading R&D firm from South Africa, this paper tracks the coevolution of IP management with technological advancemen...
Article
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More sophisticated demand is typically seen as an enabler of economic upgrading. This study questions this linearity and extends demand theory through a case analysis of the film industry in two developing countries. When unsophisticated local demand results in well-matched supply- and demand-side elements, benefits do accrue. Low exposure to techn...
Article
This paper investigates the effect of within-country and across-country inequalities on firms' FDI performance, and finds drivers of success in an advanced host economy (the USA) differ for firms from developed compared to developing countries. Returns to FDI for firms from developed countries are significantly correlated with home countries' level...
Article
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This paper uses UNCTAD data to relate the destination of FDI from developing countries to their capability development. It expands the Investment Development Path (IDP) and the flying geese model to include the destination of outward FDI. Investments from developing into developed countries are predominantly in low and medium research-intensive (of...
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses the fragmentation in the technology management field by identifying and organising the routines used by managers of technology. In a multi-method, iterative qualitative study done jointly between academics and technology managers from a number of large industrial firms, 27 technology management routines were identified. These 2...

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