Helen Lawton Smith

Helen Lawton Smith
Birkbeck, University of London · Department of Management

About

144
Publications
39,764
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3,638
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
1652 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we explore the product/service innovation process in university spin-offs (USOs) – a category of micro/small firms operating at the edge of technological frontiers. Our approach reconciles the traditional linear model with a practice-based lens, which characterises firm learning processes as underpinned by two logics of production an...
Research Proposal
This study sheds light on the importance of geography in understanding the support available in the UK for disabled and ethnically diverse entrepreneurs through formal networks which provide specialised support. These organisations play crucial roles as intermediaries by directly supporting actual and potential entrepreneurs work within other organ...
Article
he role of universities in regional development has grown significantly over the past two decades. One strand of analysis has been that of the university in regional innovation systems (RIS). However, the contribution of university students has largely been neglected. This special issue contributes to the RIS literature by unpacking the RIS concept...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The TRansforming Institutions by Gendering contents and Gaining Equality in Research (TRIGGER) was a project designed to understand the underrepresentation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths and Medicine (STEMM) subjects in academia, and the institutional changes needed. TRIGGER was an applied five-country research project funded...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the divergence in patterns of regional development in twin towns, one in France, Grenoble, and one in the UK, Oxford. Since the early 2000s, a number of changes in national policies in each country have had a direct effect on the dynamics of local technology-led economic development. Here the particular interest is in those that...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the economic and institutional factors that contribute to regions retaining university spinouts (USOs) founded within their borders as well as attracting USOs from other regions. Using UK data, we find that those regions with high USO retention rates have lower urbanization and localization economies. This suggests that locally founded U...
Article
Full-text available
The decision of someone over the age of 50 to switch from traditional employment to being an entrepreneur was found to arise from a complex mix of personal motivation, access to resources, and environmental determinants. When beginning their careers, people over 50 who became entrepreneurs only ever considered traditional employment with corporate...
Article
Research on the formal role of universities in stimulating regional economic development is relatively recent. However, the role of universities in contributing to regional technological and service variety is underresearched. In this study, we use a data set that has wide geographic coverage. The analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
This introduction to the special issue “Geography & Entrepreneurship: Managing Growth and Change” in the Journal of The Knowledge Economy includes a collection of seven papers. Through theoretical and empirical research, this special issue aims to clarify the connection between geography and entrepreneurship. In doing so, growth strategies and chan...
Chapter
This chapter reports on a comparative project comparing the evolution of the Oxfordshire high-tech economy with a newer and much smaller high-tech region, the Centro of Portugal. Previous research on Oxfordshire has been mainly qualitative. This new study using quantitative data allows insights into what makes regions distinctive, how the performan...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims at reviewing literature on mentoring in academia, with a focus on mentoring to enhance women’s careers. A significant gender imbalance in science persists, and mentoring has been recognised as an important instrument for fostering academic women’s careers and addressing such imbalance. However, often the benefits of mentoring are ta...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the interdependence between national policy, the local characteristics of the UK’s biotechnology sectoral system of innovation and the growth of Oxfordshire’s biotech sector. It considers on the one hand the county’s research capacity and on the other its innovation performance. The latter is captured by a series of indicators f...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation is an integral part of economic development in developed economies. In the post 2008 period, a key policy agenda is that of sustainable development, which calls for innovation in all aspects of value-chains. In this paper, we focus on innovation from the biotech—pharma perspective to see whether or not this will lead to a sustainable fut...
Article
Full-text available
Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science...
Research
http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/women-and-equalities-committee/women-in-executive-management/written/31315.html
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This study aims to provide a better understanding of the barriers and constraints that are faced by women entrepreneurs in starting and running a business in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on primary research conducted through face-to-face interviews with female entrepreneurs in Kenya in a wide range of sectors, eac...
Chapter
This paper addresses problems of assessing the external impact of university research in the context of a complex metropolitan region. It is a response to criticisms by Huggins (Entrep Reg Dev 20(2):185–206, 2008) of the performance of higher education institutes (HEIs) in London. Huggins argued that, in the early 2000s, the involvement of London’s...
Chapter
Discussions of academic entrepreneurship often focus on efforts to commercialize inventions appropriated within the intellectual property (IP) system. However, studies in the U.S. have shown that a substantial amount of entrepreneurship happens outside of the formal IP system. In the UK each university sets its own rules on ownership of IP. In a fe...
Article
Full-text available
Information: To change the system, it is important to have robust knowledge about where problems lie and clear evidence about the benefits that gender diversity brings to a business: understanding the points at which female drop-out occurs and why this happens is essential. Data are needed to understand where and how discrimination occurs. Transpar...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on universities’ contributions to regional development is broad and diverse. A precise understanding of how regions may draw advantages from various university activities and the role of public policy institutions in promoting such activities is still missing. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for analysing universities...
Article
This paper examines the role of universities in delivering regional/local policy and the extent to which they help formulate that policy. It explores the incentives for universities to act. Two examples are the availability of government funding designed to foster university–industry interaction and the existence of specific local agenda that are o...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how economies change through interactions with science and government as different spheres of activity requires both new conceptual tools and methodologies. In this paper, the evolution of the metaphor of a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations is elaborated into an evolutionary model, and positioned within the cont...
Article
Full-text available
- Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship among alliance motivation (AM), execution of cooperation (EC) and alliance performance of strategic alliance for commercializing technology and developing products. - Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were constructed and tested empirically through a survey of 320 strategic all...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the spin-off process from London's universities using a regional innovation systems (RIS) framework. We examine the pattern of spin-offs in the context of changes in institutional support systems, both within the universities and in the London region. The majority of the university-related spin-offs are small and medium-siz...
Article
Understanding the growth of entrepreneurial regions and the extent to which the actors in the triple helix model are dominant at particular stages in development is the theme of this article. Both Oxfordshire and the Cambridge sub-region are important high-tech economies dominated by historic universities, Oxford and Cambridge (often referred to co...
Article
This paper focuses on the characteristics of biotech firms with various levels of research and development (R&D) activity. It is done by exploring the relationship between R&D intensity, alliances and the extent of regionalization of firms' activities using evidence from a survey of US-based biotechnology firms. We profile two firm prototypes: rese...
Article
This paper focuses on how regions become entrepreneurial and the extent to which the actors in the triple helix model are dominant at particular stages in development. It uses the case studies of Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire in the UK to explore this theme. Both can now be described as ‘regional triple helix spaces’ (Etzkowitz 2008), and form two...
Article
This chapter examines how SME and entrepreneurship policies and programmes are adapted to differing needs across the states and regions of Mexico and how coherence is achieved between federal and state policies and programmes. Policy recommendations are offered on strengthening this local dimension to policy.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how economies change through the interactions with science and governance as different spheres of activity, requires either new conceptual tools or advances in existing ones. In this paper the evolution of the metaphor of a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations is positioned within the context of global economic cha...
Article
Book synopsis: A map which shows where innovation is clustered worldwide is also a map of the location of the highly skilled and talented labour. New technologies, their creative applications or synergy across different areas of scientific research or technology development always create opportunities for the employment of particularly creative lab...
Chapter
Book synopsis: A map which shows where innovation is clustered worldwide is also a map of the location of the highly skilled and talented labour. New technologies, their creative applications or synergy across different areas of scientific research or technology development always create opportunities for the employment of particularly creative lab...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing female entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on secondary data on the context to women's entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia, and on Brush et al.'s 5M framework to analyse the results of a survey of 33 Saudi women entrepreneurs in Jeddah in...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between formal networks, such as business and occupationally based professional networks, and place in determining network patterns and types in regional economic development. It distinguishes between 'network-rich' and 'network-poor' regions and considers why and how formal networks operate as a service and a r...
Article
Universities are commonly seen by policy makers as being key actors in the knowledge‐based economy. In the United States, universities, but particularly research universities, have been the focus of many studies which have sought to document and explain the commercial impact of university‐based research on regional economies. For example, studies h...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to set a framework for examining the conditions under which a research university becomes more than a latent asset [Power, D., and A. Malmberg. 2008. The contribution of universities to innovation and economic development: In what sense a regional problem? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 1, no. 2: 23...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper analyses the effects of firm-level aspects of alliance collaborations on decision-making on commercializing technology. These effects have become more important for entrepreneurs in their efforts to compete in technology-based markets. The conceptual ideas were developed through business's preferences of adoptions in cooperation with all...
Article
In a debt-ridden society that badly needs to grow economically, policies controlling the flows of economic accounts (revenues and expenditures) should be consistent with an efficient "asset and liability management". The extra money obtained from immediate sales of idle or low-productive government properties can boost economic growth if lent to in...
Article
Full-text available
Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire are two of the most high tech economies in the UK (see for example DTI, 2002 and Garnsey and Lawton Smith, 1998). They are home to world class research universities and public and private research laboratories as well as a full range of business and professional services which support the development of their clusters...
Article
This paper's focus is the dynamism of smaller centres of high technology industry such as university city-regions, with Oxford as an exemplar. They are the locus of technological change, defined as an increase in the accumulated body of technological knowledge and the number of firms (large and small) which possess and use this knowledge. The dynam...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade policies framing the enterprise agenda for UK higher education institutions (HEIs) have consistently emphasized the potential impact of successful universities on both regional and national economies. Such policies have been backed by significant public funding to ensure that the UK HEI sector is able to compete globally in the...
Article
Full-text available
ASHEIM B. T., LAWTON SMITH H. and OUGHTON C. Regional innovation systems: theory, empirics and policy, Regional Studies. Interest in regional innovation systems has grown significantly over the past three decades driven partly by advances in theoretical analysis, partly by the growing interest in innovation as a source of competitive advantage, and...
Article
Full-text available
LAWTON SMITH H. and WATERS R. Scientific labour markets, networks and regional innovation systems, Regional Studies. While quality of the labour force in a locality is the single most important component of local competitiveness, the regional innovation systems literature has relatively neglected processes of labour force development. This paper ad...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is about how entrepreneurial landscapes change over time through the survival, growth and innovative activities of high-tech firms. It explores how the Oxfordshire high-tech economy has evolved over time. It takes as its benchmark the 1980s, when the first study of Oxfordshire’s high-tech economy was undertaken (Lawton Smith 1990)....
Article
The contributions in this issue show that the role played by venture capital can be active and positive in determining and sustaining a high growth profile of the backed firms provided that agency problems are minimized and appropriate financial instruments are devised to contain the increase in the risk premium of the operations.
Article
Full-text available
This paper illustrates that distinctive patterns of regional development can be understood as resulting from the relative dominance of the three components in the triple helix model at any one time. This approach can be used to understand why high growth sectors, such as biotechnology, are concentrated at particular locations. Using the example of...
Article
Firms born to grow could find their way successfully no matter how harsh the external financial conditions seem to be.
Article
Despite the fact that the firm's economic value has a subjective nature, various procedures have been devised to measure it for objective reasons, primarily for establishing the best credentials on financial markets.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the relationship between formal networks, such as business and occupationally based professional networks, and place in determining network patterns and types in regional economic development. It distinguishes between 'network-rich' and 'network-poor' regions and considers why and how formal networks operate as a service and a r...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the transformation of the hightech cluster in Oxfordshire following industrial restructuring in the UK. The case study illustrates the importance of the entrepreneurial dynamic as a source of talent, spin-offs and critical mass. It highlights the challenges faced by the Oxfordshire cluster in networking among th...
Article
This article draws on a study of the supply of technician training in engineering and science and technology sectors in Oxfordshire in southeast England. The study conducted between January and May 2004 set out to identify the challenges facing training providers and employers in the context of an increasing age profile of technicians, while the sk...
Article
This article draws on a study of the supply of technician training in engineering and science and technology sectors in Oxfordshire in southeast England. The study conducted between January and May 2004 set out to identify the challenges facing training providers and employers in the context of an increasing age profile of technicians, while the sk...
Article
Science, institutions, and markets: developments in the Indian biotechnology sector, Regional Studies. To be competitive Indian pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies pursue both imitative and innovation-based strategies. Some undertake contractual clinical research from multinationals now that product patents have replaced process patenting. T...
Article
The creation of university spin-offs and the development of its biotechnology industry are two of the UK's and many other countries' top research-to-commercialisation priorities. Usually more is known about the numbers of spin-offs than their performance. This paper analyses the performance of 56 biomedical spin-offs from Oxfordshire's universities...
Article
This special issue brings together creativity and enterprise through the geographies of the creative industries. In recent years the focus of academic debate has privileged business and corporate economies, and so this issue seeks to contribute both empirically and theoretically to the burgeoning literature of creative industries. Economic geograph...
Article
This paper examines the changing geography of employment in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) in Britain. KIBS represent an important element of the so-called 'knowledge economy' and have been amongst the fastest growing employment sectors in advanced economies in recent years. However, during the 1990s in Britain, this employment growth...
Article
The clustering of innovative industry both demands and creates a highly skilled local labour market. The growth of this agglomeration of labour, it has been argued, benefits both individuals and firms by providing the opportunity for matching labour demand with labour supply,which is crucial to sustaining innovation. Additionally, mobility within t...
Article
Book synopsis: The role of innovations and clusters has increasingly dominated local and regional development policies in recent decades. This authoritative and accessible Handbook considers important aspects of high-tech clusters, analyses insightful cluster case studies, and provides a number of recommendations for cluster policies. The chapters...
Article
To be competitive Indian pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies pursue both imitative and innovation-based strategies. Some undertake contractual clinical research from multinationals now that product patents have replaced process patenting. The barriers for innovation are the lack of funds and regulations. Government funding bodies have to rec...
Article
Full-text available
In many countries, universities are emerging as the focal point for the formulation and delivery of policies on innovation, cluster development, human capital formation and development, entrepreneurship, and governance. The author provides a critique of arguments as to why universities have come to be seen as crucial stakeholders in the innovation...
Article
Report by the Oxfordshire Economic Observatory (OEO) for the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), Oxfordshire Branch.
Article
Full-text available
This paper's focus is on both the geography of entrepreneurship and on industry-collaborative links internationally, nationally and at the local level in the UK biotech industry, the world's second largest biotech industry. The paper reports on a pilot survey of the UK biotech industry. The survey has two goals: to understand the business goals of...
Chapter
Cities with the highest innovation levels and more skilled workforces are attractive to the private sector as being the best places in which to locate (ODPM, 2004). The scope for tertiary education to help cities compete in the global economy is illustrated by the taxonomy in Table B.1. This classification of activities falls into five main categor...
Article
The formerly sleepy, rural county of Oxfordshire is now one of Europe's leading centres of enterprise, innovation and knowledge. It is a hotspot for high-tech manufacturing and service employment. But what is behind this phenomenon, and to what extent has it been managed? This paper sets out the facts, and explores the underlying factors. It starts...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the interaction of stocks of talent, entrepreneurship, processes of institutionalization and networking in local development. The main theme is that although innovation necessarily involves social networks and collective action, it should not be overlooked that the quality of those networks is dependent on the quality or talent...
Article
Summary The case of the biotechnology industry in Oxfordshire is used to examine localism as a means of underpinning the technological trajectory of an industry (Storper 1992). Oxfordshire has a rapidly developing cluster of biotechnology firms. Its position as a focal point of technological change derives from the combination of world-class scient...
Article
This paper examines labour market behaviour of the highly skilled in high-tech local economies, taking the UK examples of Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire as case studies. It reports on data from a survey of members of three scientific institutes to compare rates of employee mobility in the two locations and considers the likely explanations and impl...
Article
This paper considers the current performance and future prospects of the UK biotech industry, particularly the biomedical sector. The central argument is that the performance of the UK biotech industry cannot be understood in isolation from the European system of regulation and, increasingly, the international regulatory environment, and from what...
Article
This paper presents a case study of one of the most intensive biotechnology clusters in Europe, Oxfordshire. Its purpose is to examine patterns of development, focusing on the interplay between the characteristics of the industry and its firms, the UK's national innovation system and the locality. It reviews what can be learnt about how this concen...
Article
The inseparability of the biotechnology industry and the state is a central theme in the analysis of the location and performance of biotechnology industry in the US and elsewhere. This paper reports on the results of a survey of US biotechnology companies looking particularly at their assessment of needs, barriers, strategies, and government progr...
Article
Quintessentially a US phenomenon, the information and knowledge economy (IKE) combines regional clusters of innovation with new and sophisticated forms of intellectual and finance capital. For those European economies struggling to adjust to global competition, the IKE is seen as the panacea. It is regarded as a proven recipe for all places and sec...
Article
Full-text available
In Europe, European Union and individual countries' knowledge institutions are expected to stimulate regional or local economic development. This paper explores the increasingly important role of universities and national laboratories (knowledge institutions) as territorial actors. It reports on a recently completed study in which surveys were cond...
Article
This paper examines the issue of the potential employability of the highly-skilled post-retirement from employment in large firms and research institutions in small high-tech firms. The thesis of the study reported here, funded by the Milton Keynes, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire (MKOB) Learning and Skills Council (L & SC), is that reemployment mi...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores a series of tensions inherent in the series of European policies that are designed to improve the competitiveness of regions in the face of globalization. Its focus is the co-existence of interventionist policies intended to overcome problems of lagging regions such as cohesion policies and those, for example competition polic...
Article
The paper discusses the processes by which local innovation systems develop. Its theme is agenda-setting discourses and the representation of high-tech firms' interests at local and national scales. Using the case study of Oxfordshire, it discusses the relationship between innovation and the development of institutional ensembles. Adopting an histo...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the spin-off process from London's universities using a regional innovation systems (RIS) framework. We examine the pattern of spin-offs in the context of changes in institutional support systems, both within the universities and in the London region. The majority of the university-related spin-offs are small and medium-siz...
Article
This report provides an up-to-date and in-depth profile of high-tech businesses and employment in Oxfordshire, drawing on a new company database developed by OEO. Detailed profiles are provided for each the county's main high-tech sectors, and for each of the five local authority districts in Oxfordshire. The report benchmarks Oxfordshire's high-te...
Article
This report traces the development of Oxfordshire's high-tech economy, outlining the key factors that help to explain its emergence and subsequent rapid growth. The report reviews the major changes in the Oxfordshire economy as a whole and records the increasing importance of high-tech businesses in the county's employment and wealth generation. Co...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-firm collaboration and other forms of inter-organisational activity are increasingly the means by which technological innovation occurs. This paper draws on evidence from two studies of the same set of firms to examine the conduct of collaborations over time across different contexts. The purpose is to examine the critical factors associated...
Article
In recent years in advanced industrialized countries, there has been a general re-assessment of the roles of national laboratories. A common trend has been to encourage exploitation of their resources by increasing the flow of technology to industry. The form that this takes varies between countries. The UK has adopted more radical policies than mo...
Article
This paper explores the interplay of factors that produce specific local patterns of interaction between firms and universities, using survey evidence from a comparative study of two e´lite locations, the Oxford and Cambridge regions. It uses these examples to examine why innovating firms have external links, why they have them with universities, w...
Article
Broadly speaking, three rival approaches to comparative research can be identified. One suggests that the study of different countries and their regions is unproblematic, and is best exemplified by scholarship in mainstream (particularly neoclassical) economics. Stress is placed on an integrated theoretical perspective emphasizing apparent similari...
Article
Regional Development Agencies have been given the fundamental aim of improving their regions' economic performance and competitiveness. Supporting innovation is a cornerstone of this policy. This paper explores the limitations of region-based strategies arguing that this neglects the importance of policy intervention at the local level, using case...
Chapter
This book sets out to explore and comment on the complexity of the regulatory processes governing the production, ownership and exploitation of science and technology. The chapters are mainly updated versions of papers presented at a seminar held in March 1996 organised by the Regulatory Policy Research Centre, Hertford College as one of the Regula...

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