Heinz Müller-Schärer

Heinz Müller-Schärer
Université de Fribourg · Department Biology

Professor

About

219
Publications
35,648
Reads
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7,619
Citations
Citations since 2016
80 Research Items
3619 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
May 1995 - present
Université de Fribourg
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (219)
Article
In Iran, farmers sow common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from mid-April to early July. We used different sowing times to mimick the changing conditions expected under climate change to assess future herbicide efficacy. Filed experiments were carried out during 2016–2018 in split plot arrangements with main plots of moisture regimes (MR) consisting...
Article
Full-text available
In weed biocontrol, the release of multiple candidates has been proposed as a way to increase herbivore load and thus impact on the target weed. However, the use of multiple herbivorous species may reduce overall herbivore load due to interspecific interactions. We assessed whether a combined application of two Pyropteron spp. (Lepidoptera: Sesiida...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species are a key driver of the global biodiversity crisis, but the drivers of invasiveness, including the role of pathogens, remain debated. We investigated the genomic basis of invasiveness in Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed), introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, by resequencing 655 ragweed genomes, including 308 herbar...
Article
Full-text available
Functional traits are frequently proposed to determine the invasiveness of alien species. However, few empirical studies have directly manipulated functional traits and tested their importance in the invasion success of alien species into native plant communities, particularly under global change. We manipulated clonal integration (a key clonal fun...
Article
A two-year field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of intercropping sweet corn with summer savory on weed growth and crop productivity. Five cropping patterns were set up: sweet corn alone (16 seeds m ⁻² : in rows, 75cm apart), summer savory alone (40 seeds m ⁻² ; broadcasted), and three intercropping ratios of 75% sweet corn, 25% sum...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change may affect plant–herbivore interactions and their associated ecosystem functions. In an experimental evolution approach, we subjected replicated populations of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia to a combination of simulated warming and herbivory by a potential biocontrol beetle. We tracked genomic and metabolomic changes across ge...
Chapter
This chapter describes the current status of IWM for grasslands. Its focus is on management practices available to influence transitions in a weed’s life cycle: from the soil seed bank to seedling establishment, from the seedling stage to the mature plant, and from the mature plant to the soil seed bank. We provide a conceptual approach to illustra...
Article
Invasive non-native plants (INNP) cause severe impacts on nature and human well-being, and these are predicted to increase. While management tools have been developed to control early-stage invasions or to clean particular sites from INNP, they are only rarely available to halt and reduce large-scale invasions. Importation biological weed control (...
Preprint
Full-text available
While invasive species are a key driver of the global biodiversity crisis, the drivers of invasiveness remain debated. To investigate the genomic basis of invasiveness in plants, we use the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia , introduced to Europe in the late 19 th century, resequencing 655 ragweed genomes, including 308 herbarium specimens coll...
Article
Full-text available
Herbivorous insects play important roles in agriculture as pests or as weed biological control agents. Predicting the timing of herbivore insect population development can thus be of paramount importance for agricultural planning and sustainable land management. Numerical simulation models driven by temperature are often used to predict insect pest...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Gentili, R.; Ambrosini, R.; Augustinus, B.A.; Caronni, S.; Cardarelli, E.; Montagnani, C.; Müller-Schärer, H.; Schaffner, U.; Citterio, S. High Phenotypic Plasticity in a Prominent Plant Invader along Altitudinal and Temperature Gradients. Plants 2021, 10, 2144.
Article
Although biological control agents (BCAs) are an effective tool for limiting the impact of invasive alien plants (IAPs), mismatch between the BCA and IAP, exacerbated by future climate change, may affect biocontrol efficacy and the likelihood of there being non-target effects. In a common-environment experiment, we measured leaf consumption, perfor...
Article
Maize is sown in Iran from mid‐April to early September. Weather, weed flora and crop growth stage all vary over this time span, which changes herbicide efficacy. To avoid any excessive or inadequate usage of herbicide, we propose an empirical model that predicts the optimum dose based on the thermal time accumulated by maize after sowing. We plant...
Article
Weeds can originate from adjacent habitats, dispersing naturally from non‐crop habitats as well as brought in from other crop fields by machinery or as contaminants of crop seeds. This constant dispersal may homogenise populations and transmit resistance genes. In this study, we examined (a) the genetic variation in quantitative traits and (b) the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent reports of the presence of Ambrosia trifida (AT) in areas infested by A. artemisiifolia (AA) in Serbia warn of the impending establishment of a more damaging crop weed. Here we test the potential competitive effects of these two weed species. We conducted a field competition study in 2016 and 2017 as a replacement series experiment arranged...
Article
Maize is sown in Iran from mid-April to early September. Weather, weed flora, and growth stage vary over this time span, which changes herbicide efficacy. To avoid any excessive or inadequate usage of herbicide, we propose an empirical model that suggests optimum dose based on the thermal time accumulated by maize after sowing. We planted maize in...
Article
Full-text available
Plant invasion science and weed science, both dealing with harmful plants, have historically developed in separation. This may also be true for how the two fields are addressing the consequences of future climate change. Here, we first conducted a literature survey to explore how researchers in these two disciplines study the effects of climate cha...
Article
Full-text available
Plant invasion science and weed science, both dealing with harmful plants, have historically developed in separation. This may also be true for how the two fields are addressing the consequences of future climate change. Here, we first conducted a literature survey to explore how researchers in these two disciplines study the effects of climate cha...
Article
Full-text available
In the new range, invasive species lack their specialist co-evolved natural enemies, which then might be used as biocontrol agents. Populations of both a plant invader in the introduced range and its potential biocontrol agents in the native range may be genetically differentiated among geographically distinct regions. This, in turn, is expected to...
Article
Endozoochory is known as an important mechanism for the spread of weeds. We carried out experiments to assess the fate of seeds of several weed species (Convolvulus arvensis, Cuscuta campestris, Rumex crispus, Hordeum spontaneum and Sorghum halepense) after passing through the gut of sheep and goat. Eighteen animals of both sheep and goat received...
Article
Integrated weed control methods are increasingly demanded to maintain high yield while alleviating negative environmental side effects of control measures. Five field experiments were conducted during 2015 to 2017 at three locations in Iran to determine the advantage of exploiting enhanced competitive ability of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) via cul...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract Since the first documentation of the occurrence of the multivoltine ragweed leaf beetle Ophraella communa in Europe near the Milano airport (Boriani et al., 2013, Bosio et al. 2014) and Southern Switzerland (Müller-Schärer et al. 2014) this species behaves invasively, expanding its distribution towards the Northeastern part of Italy (Augus...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting plant distributions under climate change is constrained by our limited understanding of potential rapid adaptive evolution. In an experimental evolution study with the invasive common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) we subjected replicated populations of the same initial genetic composition to simulated climate warming. Pooled DNA s...
Thesis
Full-text available
As a result of an increasing rate of introductions of species in novel ranges, management of invasive alien plant species will be a continuous challenge. One curative method to control invasive alien plants is classical biological control. In conventional classical biological control programmes, extensive host range testing to assess potential risk...
Article
In 2013, the North American oligophagous leaf beetle, Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was found in Europe for the first time. Recent studies in Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland record extensive defoliation by O. communa on its preferred host, ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Tribe Heliantheae), and reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid evolution of weed biological control agents (BCAs) to new biotic and abiotic conditions is poorly understood and so far, only little considered both in pre-release and post-release studies, despite potential major negative or positive implications for risks of non-targeted attacks or for colonizing yet unsuitable habitats, respectively. Provi...
Article
OPINION. La relation entre pandémie et destruction des écosystèmes est maintenant bien établie, mais elle est trop ignorée par le grand public et les instances de décision, écrivent plus de 120 scientifiques, dont deux Prix Nobel, dans une tribune collective
Article
Full-text available
Our ability to predict invasions has been hindered by the seemingly idiosyncratic context-dependency of individual invasions. However, we argue that robust and useful generalisations in invasion science can be made by considering “invasion syndromes” which we define as “a combination of pathways, alien species traits, and characteristics of the rec...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien species (IAS) can substantially affect ecosystem services and human well-being. However, quantitative assessments of their impact on human health are rare and the benefits of implementing IAS management likely to be underestimated. Here we report the effects of the allergenic plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia on public health in Europe a...
Article
Full-text available
One of the biggest challenges in classical biological control of invasive weeds is predicting the likelihood of success. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American plant species that has become invasive in Europe, causes economic losses due to health problems resulting from its huge amount of highly allergenic pollen and as a weed to agricultural cr...
Article
• High-biodiversity communities have been shown to better resist plant invasions through complementarity effects. Species richness (SR) is a widely used biodiversity metric but lacks explanatory power when there are only a few species. Communities with low SR can have a wide variety of phylogenetic diversities (PD), which might allow for a better p...
Preprint
A bstract Predicting plant distributions under climate change is constrained by our limited understanding of potential rapid adaptive evolution. In an experimental evolution study with the invasive common ragweed, we subjected replicated populations of the same initial genetic composition to simulated climate warming. Pooled DNA sequencing of paren...
Article
Classical biological control (also called importation biological control) of weeds has a remarkable track record for efficiency and safety, but further improvement is still needed, particularly to account for potential evolutionary changes after release. Here, we discuss the increasing yet limited evidence of post-introduction evolution and describ...
Article
Following its first record in Europe in 2013, the North American ragweed leaf beetle Ophraella communa, used already as a most successful biocontrol agent against common ragweed in China, is spreading rapidly, asking for a detailed analysis of the potential benefit and risk of this introduction for Europe. Here, we report twelve specific and polymo...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution models can predict the suitable climatic range of a potential biological control agent (BCA), but they provide little information on the BCA's potential impact. To predict high population build‐up, a pre‐requisite of biocontrol impact, studies are needed which assess the effect of environmental factors on vital rates of a BCA a...
Article
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a widely distributed and harmful invasive plant that is an important source of highly allergenic pollen grains and a prominent cropweed. As a result, ragweed causes huge costs to both human health and agriculture in affected areas. Efficient mitigation requires accurate mapping of ragweed densities tha...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Anticipating future challenges. The Department of Biology has changed greatly during these last years, notably in the disappearance of the former “units” to form a more flexible and hierarchically uniform structure, the reorganization of the administrative and technical staff, the establishment of platforms in bioinformatics, bioimaging, and proteo...
Article
Premise of the study: Genome duplication is associated with multiple changes at different levels, including interactions with pollinators and herbivores. Yet little is known whether polyploidy may also shape belowground interactions. Methods: To elucidate potential ploidy-specific interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), we compared...
Article
Full-text available
The North American common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which produces highly allergenic pollen, is invasive in different parts of the world, including Europe. In 2013, common ragweed in northern Italy was found attacked by another accidentally introduced species, the North American leaf beetle Ophraella communa, which is used for biological co...
Article
Full-text available
Both weed science and plant invasion science deal with noxious plants. Yet, they have historically developed as two distinct research areas in Europe, with different target species, approaches and management aims, as well as with diverging institutions and researchers involved. We argue that the strengths of these two disciplines can be highly comp...
Article
Full-text available
A little known, unculturable ascomycete, referred to as Phyllachora ambrosiae, can destroy the inflorescences of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive agricultural weed and producer of highly allergenic pollen. The fungus often remains undetectable in ragweed populations. This work was conducted to understand its origin and pathogenesis, a prerequis...
Article
Full-text available
Roadsides are an important habitat for invasive common ragweed, Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., by facilitating seed dispersal. Reducing the size of roadside populations is therefore essential for confining this highly allergenic species. Here, we aim to determine the cost-effectiveness of mowing regimes varying in frequency and timing, by analysing pop...
Article
Full-text available
To better manage invasive populations, it is vital to understand the environmental drivers underlying spatial variation in demographic performance of invasive individuals and populations. The invasive common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, has severe adverse effects on agriculture and human health, due to its vast production of seeds and allergen...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien plants (IAP) are a threat to biodiversity worldwide. Understanding and anticipating invasions allow for more efficient management. In this regard, predicting potential invasion risks by IAPs is essential to support conservation planning into areas of high conservation value (AHCV) such as sites exhibiting exceptional botanical richne...
Article
Full-text available
Experimentally applying pesticides is an important method to assess the efficacy of weed biocontrol agents, but potential direct effects of the chemicals on plant performance are controversial or unknown. We assessed how three broad-spectrum insecticides applied in combination affect the performance of the widely invasive, crop-yield reducing, alle...
Method
Full-text available
Protocol developed to obtain estimates of vital rates (establishment of plants, plant survival, plant growth, reproduction, and seed survival) of populations of the annual common ragweed.
Working Paper
Full-text available
Background: Common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, is one of the economically most important worldwide plant invaders, due to its huge production of seeds and allergenic pollen, while its range and impact are expected to increase in future. Knowledge of the population dynamics is essential to understand what factors drive spatio-temporal variatio...
Article
Full-text available
Species may become invasive after introduction to a new range because phenotypic traits pre-adapt them to spread and become dominant. In addition, adaptation to novel selection pressures in the introduced range may further increase their potential to become invasive. The diploid Leucanthemum vulgare and the tetraploid L. ircutianum are native to Eu...
Data
Locations of Leucanthemum vulgare and L. ircutianum populations sampled in Eurasia and North America. (PDF)
Data
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots based on 17 traits measured on 536 plants of 62 Leucanthemum vulgare and L. ircutianum populations from the native (Eurasia, EU) and introduced (North America, NA) range grown in a common garden. (PDF)
Data
Mean (± SE) trait values for 20 Leucanthemum vulgare and 21 L. ircutianum populations from the native range, Eurasia (EU) and 21 L. vulgare populations from the introduced range, North America (NA) grown in a common garden. (PDF)
Data
List of traits recorded for Leucanthemum vulgare and L. ircutianum grown in a common garden. (PDF)
Data
Measurements taken on scanned mid-stem leaves of Leucanthemum vulgare (left) and L. ircutianum (right). (PDF)
Data
Results of flow cytometric analyses conducted with Leucanthemum seeds purchased from twelve US and one Canadian seed company. (PDF)
Data
Eigenvectors showing correlations of traits with the first two principal components for the Principal Component Analyses (PCAs) on individual plants (see S4 Appendix) and on population means (see Fig 2). (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
The control of invasive alien plants (IAP) that jeopardize our ecosystems and economy constitutes a significant challenge for natural resource management. Classical biological control referring to the introduction of specialist antagonists from the native range has proven to be a highly cost-effective management tool against IAP. A critical issue i...