Heinrich Best

Heinrich Best
Friedrich Schiller University Jena | FSU · Department of Sociology

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115
Publications
12,528
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1,061
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
606 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100

Publications

Publications (115)
Chapter
Full-text available
The Costs and Benefits of German Reunification: Still, there is a widespread concern with the costs of the German reunification. Already before the fall of the Berlin wall economists warned against the consequences of a rapid accession of East Germany to the Federal Republic. Indeed, the hardships of this process were felt severly by the East Germa...
Book
Full-text available
Projektbericht der "Topografie des Rechtsextremismus und der gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit in THüringen", Dezember 2018
Research
Full-text available
Annual public survey on political attitudes in the East German state of Thuringia
Book
Full-text available
Thüringen-Monitor 2018: "Heimat Thüringen"
Research
Full-text available
Topografie des Rechtsextremismus und der gruppenbezogenen Menschenfeindlichkeit in Thüringen (Projektbericht 2018)
Chapter
The chapter introduces the Palgrave Handbook of Political Elites. It highlights the increasing importance of the handbook’s subject in general public and scholarly discourses, whereas since the mid-1970s, no comprehensive summary of the rapidly increasing literature on political elites had appeared. The introduction gives a definition of political...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the handbook section on differentiation and integration of elite sectors. It describes the formation of elites as a process of social differentiation. The resulting power structure separates economic and political elites. The process of functional differentiation of complex elite systems brings evolutionary advantages, but l...
Chapter
Der Thüringen-Monitor ist eine seit 2000 jährlich stattfindende, repräsentative Bevölkerungsbefragung zur politischen Kultur im Freistaat Thüringen. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Messung rechtsextremer Einstellungen, ein weiterer auf der Beobachtung von Demokratieunterstützung und Demokratiezufriedenheit. In seinem Beitrag diskutiert Heinrich Best...
Chapter
Members of parliament in representative democracies can be considered as representative elites, since they have decisive impact on policies and the institutional order of the polity and they support or overthrow governments. They are elected and entrusted with the contravening tasks of representing conflicting societal interests and of integrating...
Book
This handbook presents a comprehensive view of the current theory and research surrounding political elites, which is now a pivotal subject for academic study and public discourse. In 43 chapters by leading scholars, it displays the field’s richness and diversity. The handbook is organized in six sections, each introduced by a co-editor, focusing o...
Chapter
Seit den ersten Jahren nach der deutschen Wiedervereinigung wird der Rechtsextremismus als ein besonderes Problem Ostdeutschlands wahrgenommen. Obwohl Westdeutschland keineswegs Immunität gegenüber rechtsextremen Tendenzen für sich beanspruchen kann, gibt es doch einige empirische Evidenz für die Annahme, der Rechtsextremismus in Ostdeutschland sei...
Article
Full-text available
The following paper investigates the role of political elites in the prelude to and trajectory of German transition and re-unification since 1989 and takes it as a point of departure to identify experiences transferable to the situation on the Korean peninsula. Thereby it builds upon the German experience and contextualises it within the internatio...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Ergebnisse zeitgeschichtlicher Forschung legen nahe, dass die deutsche Wiedervereinigung nicht moglich gewesen ware ohne die (antagonistische) Kooperation der Eliten in der Bundesrepublik und in der DDR in den Jahren der Teilung. Sie schuf die Voraussetzung fur die Integration der 1990 in der DDR neu etablierten politischen Elit...
Article
Full-text available
Šiame straipsnyje, pagrįstame prielaida, kad Europos vienijimosi iniciatyva tebepriklauso nacionaliniams Europos Sąjungos šalių elitams, siekiama išsiaiškinti, kokiais pagrindais ir kokiu mastu randasi ir skleidžiasi šių elitų europietiškumas, apibrėžiamas trimis lygmenimis: emociniu, kognityviniu vertinamuoju ir projekciniu. Autoriai pateikia penk...
Chapter
Right-wing extremism, ethnocentric attitudes, individual and collective deprivation in post-communist East Germany. Results of a regional public survey.
Chapter
Full-text available
The initial configuration of elites proved crucial for the process of democratic consolidation across Eastern Europe. The significant differences between individual countries notwithstanding, these former communist satellites all experienced the collapse of their regimes and the rapid delegitimization of their old elites. New elites, however – whet...
Chapter
When the American sub-prime mortgage and bond market crisis started to affect European financial markets, governments and national parliaments faced the task of preventing a collapse of banking systems. National political elites soon found themselves entangled in the Herculean task of redesigning the superstructure of European political and financi...
Book
Full-text available
Legislators are entrusted with key parliamentary functions and are important figures in the decision-making process. Their behaviour as political elites is as much responsible for the failures and successes of the new democracies as their institutional designs and constitutional reforms. This book provides a comparative examination of representati...
Article
Full-text available
It has been widely acknowledged that the process of European integration and unification was started and is still pursued as an elite project, designed to put an end to debilitating conflicts and rivalries by consolidating a common power base and by pooling Europe's economic resources. Nevertheless elites have remained the known unknowns of the Eur...
Chapter
This chapter defines the volume's key concepts and introduces the main research questions addressed in the following chapters. Following a review of literature dealing with the challenges of European integration, it focuses on the emergence of various forms of Euroscepticism, Europhobia, and Europhilia among different sectors of the national elites...
Chapter
This chapter presents a synopsis of the main results of the 'Europe of Elites'. These strongly support the elitist character of European integration while challenging the idea of a coherent 'Eurelite': cognitive, emotive, and conative dimensions of elites' Europeanness vary between countries and few elite members are prepared to award the EU the co...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines the causes of variation in the Europeanness of European economic and political elites. It shows that attachment to Europe (emotion), the wish to strengthen European integration (cognition), and to strive for a common foreign policy (conation) are loosely coupled and vary strongly between European countries, between elites and...
Article
Full-text available
After the breakdown of Communist regimes in the East at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s unparalleled societal transitory processes have evolved and reshaped the political world map. Political and functional Elites have played a decisive role in the multi-layered process of societal transformation. Today's Central and East Europe...
Article
In John Higley's and Michael Burton's taxonomy of elite settings, 'ideocratic elites' are represented by regimes of the Soviet type. These regimes based their rule on an egalitarian ideology that legitimized inequalities as temporary abnormalities. According to Marx the abolition of private ownership of the means of production would ultimately lead...
Chapter
„Europe made the difference“, so lautete die Schlagzeile in der New York Times als nach einer erstaunlich kurzen Zeit innereuropäischen Verhandelns die europäischen Regierungschefs – angeleitet durch Nicolas Sarkozy und Angela Merkel und inspiriert durch George Brown – im Oktober 2008 einen milliardenschweren Rettungsplan für das europäische Banken...
Article
Full-text available
[Abstract This article inquires into the impact of personality factors on the selection and self-selection of parliamentary elites. I compare personality profiles of German MPs and the German population obtained through survey research, and for some comparisons I utilize elite and mass samples matched for education, gender, and age. I ask further i...
Article
Drawing on databases going back to the middle of the nineteenth century, this article examines how changes in the opportunity structures in political recruitment have influenced the socio-economic backgrounds and career patterns of British and German MPs. Extending opportunity structures enables legislatures to respond to socio-economic changes in...
Article
The vast majority of social scientists have failed to predict the breakdown of European communism in 1989 and the same mischief occurred to most of the economists with regard to the international crisis of capitalism in 2009. My contribution argues that this failure was due to "linear thinking" of the observers involved and not to an inherent unpre...
Article
The legitimacy of the rule of a socialist elite was essentially based on meeting the criteria of its own ideology, thus it is appropriate to define the congruity of the criteria of the system of conviction and the practice of its realization. Concerning power elites of the GDR this can particularly be done while looking at their involvement in the...
Article
Political careers are mainly discussed as a result of the opposing processes of professionalization and democratization This paper extends this perspective by using the principal-agent theory to reconstruct observable career structures as a result of mutual expectations, considerations and intentions of the actors involved Our findings characterize...
Chapter
In Karl Polanyi’s seminal book “The Great Transformation” from 1944, the terra stands for the entire process of the emergence of a self-regulated market economy and free market society based on the commodification of labor, land and money as well as its ckamatic faüure in the 20th Century and the double movement of market de- and re-regulation.
Article
This article explores the failures and achievements of democratic elitism in Germany. I first outline the conditions in which concepts of leader democracy and democratic elitism were set forth by Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter during the first half of the twentieth century. I then argue that democratic elitism can usefully be reformulated in terms...
Article
During the postwar decades following Joseph Schumpeter's seminal Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, democratic elitism struck many as an apt and insightful description of how representative democracy works – even though convinced democrats detected an "elitist" thrust they found disturbing. But during the last several decades political elites and...
Book
This book offers a selection of papers from the conference which was held by the Sonderforschungsbereich (Collaborative Research Center) 580 in Dornburg near Jena, Germany. International experts discuss key issues of contemporary sociological research on the late socialist societies, their power and functional elites, and their experiences of trans...
Article
This contribution explores structures and proc- esses of vertical and horizontal differentiation within the functional elite of the GDR in the 1980s. It primarily con- cerns what happens to a society, and in particular to its lead- ing stratum if economic capital is eliminated as a differenti- ator of social structure. The empirical basis for this...
Article
Wenn ich im Rahmen dieses Bandes über die handelspolitische Petitionsbewegung der Jahre 1848/49 berichte, dann sollte dies nicht ohne eine besondere Begründung geschehen, denn die Petitionen waren eine Form kollektiven politischen Handelns, die sich nicht selbstverständlich unter dem Stichwort „sozialer Protest“subsumieren läßt, selbst wenn man ein...
Chapter
Als M. bezeichnet man Betriebsstätten in vorindustriellen ↗Gewerben, die meist protoindustriellen Exportindustrien zuzurechnen sind (↗Protoindustrialisierung). Die Arbeitskräfte waren außserhalb ihrer eigenen ↗Hauswirtschaft unter Aufsicht und Koordination einer dritten Person — eines Betriebsleiters, eines Händler- Fabrikanten (engl. merchant-manu...
Article
'Der Autor stellt zwei grundlegende und miteinander verbundene Fragen in den Mittelpunkt: Lassen sich in den langfristigen Veränderungen der Strukturen parlamentarischer Rekrutierung in Europa langfristige Trends erkennen, die den Grundannahmen der Theorie politischer Entwicklung folgen? Haben sich diese Entwicklungstrends im untersuchten Zeitraum...
Article
'Der Autor bezieht sich auf Fernand Braudel, der darauf hingewiesen hat, dass politische Geschichte nicht notwendig Ereignisgeschichte ist. Es gibt eine Geschichte der langen Zeitverläufe, der longue duree, in denen sich demographische Veränderungen und der Umbau von Sozialstrukturen und Wirtschaftsformen erst nach langer Zeit manifestieren. Im Rah...
Article
'Der Autor hebt auf vormoderne Partizipationsformen ab, die im Zuge der Revolution von 1848 in neuartige Beteiligungsformen des demokratisierten politischen Massenmarktes übergehen. Eingaben und Petitionen stellten klassische Appellations- und Interventionsmöglichkeiten der ständischen Gesellschaft dar, veränderten sich in der Achtundvierziger Revo...
Article
'Der Autor gibt 1. einen Abriss des wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Zusammenhangs der Historischen Sozialforschung, beschreibt 2. die Etablierung dieser Forschungsrichtung in Köln, grenzt 3. das Konzept einer Historischen Sozialforschung ab von verwandten Forschungsrichtungen und Teildisziplinen, wie der Sozialgeschichte, der Strukturgeschichte und de...
Article
Long term changes in the recruitment patterns of European representative elites can be described as the aggregate result of selectorates' responses to a sequence of fundamental problems challenging polities since the emergence of modern representative political institutions in the 19th century. Recent data show that some long-term trends of (Wester...
Conference Paper
Although antifascism was a constitutive ideologeme of the GDR, there was no thorough cleansing of its functional elites from persons with a National Socialist pastor family background. An analysis of the Central Cadre Database of the GDR Council of Ministers shows that among higher administrative executives, managers, and other leading personnel th...
Article
The social figure of the professional politician describes a politician who makes a living from politics and is caught between democratization and professionalization. Career structure and interview data of German Members of the European Parliament, Members of the Bundestag and of selected parliaments at state level (Länder) since reunification 199...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the aims, the research design and the activities of the EurElite project, a project devoted to the comparative study of representative elites across Europe. Through investigating long-term trends in the composition of parliaments and member recruitment, the scholars involved in the EurElite activities attempt to...
Article
In East-Germany, the processes of democratic transition and market transformation took a form that was particular and distinctive from other post-communist coun-tries: Nowhere else was the transfer of institutions of market economy, the elimination of the old regime, and the inclu-sion into the frameworks of supra national markets so sud-den and so...
Chapter
Es ist ein bemerkenswerter und seinerseits deutungsbedürftiger Sachverhalt, dass auch und gerade für eine quantitative Soziologie Kölner Provinienz die „Deutung“ein legitimer Wirklichkeitszugang ist. Das abwägende „Lesen“einer Kreuztabelle, die einfühlende Exegese der Befunde exploratorischer Datenanalysen, die Durchmusterung existierender Forschun...
Chapter
In seiner berühmten Vorhersage des Untergangs der kommunistischen Staatsund Gesellschaftsordnung im Wettbewerb der Systeme begründete Talcott Parsons die Überlegenheit der repräsentativen Demokratie mit einem im Kern elitentheoretischen Argument: „Nicht die allgemeine Legitimierung von Macht und Herrschaft ist die besondere Leistung demokratischer...
Book
Elite Transformation and Modes of Representation since the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Some Theoretical Considerations The Incremental Transformation of the Danish Legislative Elite: The Party System as Prime Mover Professional and Expert Representation: Recruitment of the Parliamentary Elite in Finland since 1863 Detours to Modernity: Long Term Trends...
Chapter
Das Ende des Staatssozialismus in Europa und seine Transformation zur Konkurrenzdemokratie und marktwirtschaftlichen Ordnung hat die Sozialwissenschaften vor eine zweifache Herausforderung gestellt, die sie wohl noch für einige Zeit beschäftigen wird: zum einen die Erforschung des Übergangs zwischen grundlegend unterschiedlichen Sozialordnungen, zu...
Chapter
Wer zu geschichtsphilosophischer Betrachtung neigt, hatte während der vergangenen zehn Jahre reiche Gelegenheit, sie aus seinen Alltagserfahrungen zu speisen - auch wenn er nicht zu den Akteuren auf der Hauptbühne der Politik gehört. Das deutsche Wendejahr 1989, in dem unerwartet und unvermittelt die scheinbaren Gewißheiten fest eingewurzelter inst...
Book
"Who rules in Eastern Europe?" became a fundamental question for western researchers and other observers after communist regimes were established in the region, and it gained further importance as state socialism expanded into Central Europe after the Second World War. A political order which, according to Leninist theory of the state and to subseq...
Article
In this article Professor Best writes as a social scientist interested in how historical data can be used statistically to test hypotheses about conflict structures. The study uses the voting data from the two Constituent Assemblies of 1848 in Paris and Frankfurt to test alternative theories about the development of conflict in democratic assemblie...
Article
De paradigmes à l'électicisme: Profiles thématiques des revues en sciences sociales de langue allemande 1984-1991. La banque de données bibliographique SOLIS (Système d'information pour la littérature en sciences sociales) du Centre d'information en sciences sociales à Bonn a été utilisée comme base empirique pour une recherche sur le changement th...
Chapter
Seit mehr als zwanzig Jahren entwickelt und betreibt das IZ ein System zur Beobachtung der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung und des Publikationsgeschehens in den deutschsprachigen Ländern. In seinen Datenbanken FORIS (Forschungsinformationssystem Sozialwissenschaften) und SOLIS (Sozial-wissenschaftliches Literaturinformationssystem) sind inzwisch...
Book
Im Rahmen mehrerer Veranstaltungen hat das Informationszentrum Sozial­ wissenschaften seit 1989 die aktuelle Diskussion um Einsatz und Nutzen von 1 moderner Informationstechnologie in den Sozialwissenschaften gefördert. ) Hierbei lassen sich zwei grobe Richtungen bestimmen: Informationssysteme als Datenlieferanten für die Sozialforschung Wissensbas...
Article
Historical social research has developed with the availability of computer technology and has received increasing acceptance with the use of PCs. Methodological standards created by empirical social research are transferred to historical matters. Major contributors are: extension of the factual basis of history, correction of misjudgements, opening...
Chapter
Technische Entwicklungen haben das Fach immer dann besonders schnell und stark beeinflußt, wenn sie — und sei es auf Umwegen — die Verfügbarkeit von Informationen über die Vergangenheit beeinflußt — und das hieß meist verbessert — haben. Dies gilt bereits für jene große methodische Revolution des 18. und vor allem des 19. Jahrhunderts, die das wiss...
Chapter
Die Untersuchung, über die hier berichtet wird, führt zurück in eine nach den Maßstäben der sozialwissenschaftlichen Eliteforschung ferne Vergangenheit: die „Schwellenzeit“1 der europäischen Revolutionen von 1848/49. Doch ist nur ihr Erkenntnisgegenstand, nicht aber ihr Erkenntnisinteresse historisch. Es geht darum, aus einer spezifischen Konstella...
Article
Did the German bourgeoisie betray the 1848 revolution ? Conclusions from a serial analysisAn important trend of German historiography holds as a certainty that the 1848 revolution has been "betrayed" by the bourgeoisie, which would have sacrificed its ideals of freedom to the defence of the statu quo. To measure empirically the value of this assert...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate how signi- ficant social-demographic characteristics are if we want to explain the political behavior and orientations of actors in past societies . We approached this problem on the basis of roll- call data and biographical data of the representatives of the Frankfurt National Assembly, the Paris Assembl...
Chapter
Ziel der Untersuchung war es, durch eine Rekonstruktion der Verläufe politischer Biographien den Grad und die Weise der Ausdifferenzierung des politischen Systems im vormärzlichen Deutschland zu bestimmen. Das Ausmaß der „Karrierisierung“ des Zugangs zu politischen Positionen und der Professionalisierung politischer Rollen gilt hierfür als ein präg...
Article
The project presented here shall contribute to the inquiry into the connection between the character of the social system and the kind of power-organisation in Germany from the middle of the 19th century to the early phase of the Federal Republic of Germany . We plan to gather data on the biographical and career characteristics, parliamentary votin...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution explores problems and pros- pects concerning the use of process-produced data for an analysis of state-socialist regimes. It argues that the huge legacy of machine-readable records accumulated by state and party bureaucracies during the 1970s and 1980s is a principal source for sociological inquiry into state socialist societies a...

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Projects

Projects (9)
Project
Politische Kultur im Freistaat Thüringen https://www.komrex.uni-jena.de/thueringenmonitor-path-26,82.html https://www.landesregierung-thueringen.de/regierung/th-monitor/