Heikki Rusko

Heikki Rusko
University of Jyväskylä | JYU · Department of Biology of Physical Activity

Professor emeritus

About

215
Publications
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9,934
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Publications

Publications (215)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical inactivity, overweight, and work-related stress are major concerns today. Psychological stress causes physiological responses such as reduced heart rate variability (HRV), owing to attenuated parasympathetic and/or increased sympathetic activity in cardiac autonomic control. This study's purpose was to investigate the relation...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity enduran...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Participan...
Article
Full-text available
Work-related stress is a significant problem for both people and organizations. It may lead to mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression, resulting in increased work absences and disabilities. Scalable interventions to prevent and manage harmful stress can be delivered with the help of technology tools to support self-observations and skills...
Article
This study examined the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on neuromuscular and endurance characteristics compared to strength or endurance training alone. Previously untrained men were divided into strength (S: n=16), endurance (E: n=11) or concurrent strength and endurance (SE: n=11) training groups. S and E trained 2 times and...
Data
The present study investigated whether work engagement is related to and can explain healthy cardiac autonomic activity as indicated by decreased heart rate (HR; i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic activity) and increased high-frequency power (HFP) of heart rate variability (i.e., parasympathetic activity). A total of 30 healthy Finnish female cl...
Article
Heart rate (HR) as an estimator of oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) usually requires HR to be individually calibrated in a separate test. This study examined the validity of a new HR - and HR variability-based method (Firstbeat PRO heartbeat analysis software) in the estimation of VO(2) in real-life tasks. The method takes into account the respiration r...
Article
Full-text available
Overload principle of training states that training load (TL) must be sufficient to threaten the homeostasis of cells, tissues, organs and/or body. However, there is no “golden standard” for TL measurement. The aim of the present study was to investigate if post-exercise heart rate variability (HRV) could be used to evaluate TL of interval running...
Article
Full-text available
Acute physical exercise may affect cardiac autonomic modulation hours or even days during the recovery phase. Although sleep is an essential recovery period, the information on nocturnal autonomic modulation indicated by heart rate variability (HRV) after different exercises is mostly lacking. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of exerc...
Article
Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily load. Regular physical activity enhances overall sleep quality, but the effects of acute exercise on sleep are not well defined. In sleep hygiene recommendations, intensive exercising is not suggested within the last 3 h before bed time, but this recommendation has not been adequately teste...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in autonomic nervous system function have been related to work stress induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our purpose was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures...
Article
This study examined the relation of self-reported stress to cardiac autonomic modulation in real-life conditions. The participants for the study were healthy male (N = 59) and female (N = 40) employees (age 40 ± 10 years). A single-item question and a 14-item questionnaire on perceived stress were administered to the participants before the experim...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on nocturnal autonomic modulation. Nocturnal R-R intervals were collected after a rest day, after a moderate endurance exercise and after a marathon run in ten healthy, physically active men. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed as a continuous four-hour period starting 30 min after going t...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated. Twenty-four sedentary subjects trained over four weeks two hours per week at an average running intensity of 76+/-4% of their heart rate reserve. The R to R ECG-intervals were recorded and heart rate vari...
Article
Proceedings, ISBN 978-972-8939-16-8, 167-177 Stress and insufficient recovery from workload may lead to chronic diseases and mental health problems. Early intervention with the focus on self-management is necessary in prevention of these problems. This paper reports the results of an initial evaluation of a service concept which combines personal h...
Article
Chronic work stress and overtraining are known to influence heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and decreased nocturnal HRV is associated with cardiovascular health and disease. The purpose of this study was to examine whether anticipation of an acute highly stressful event influences HR and HRV during the night and morning. No...
Article
Full-text available
The overload principle of training states that training load (TL) must be sufficient to threaten the homeostasis of cells, tissues, organs, and/or body. However, there is no "golden standard" for TL measurement. The aim of this study was to examine if any post-exercise heart rate variability (HRV) indices could be used to evaluate TL in exercises w...
Article
Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC`09). Minneapolis, MN, 2 - 6 Sept. 2009, 312 - 315 In prevention of chronic diseases, health promotion and early interventions based on self-management should be emphasized. Mental health problems and stress cause a significant porti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chronic health problems related to mental wellbeing are rapidly growing, calling for novel solutions focusing on individual as a psychophysiological being. We describe a novel technology-based concept for empowering citizen towards holistic self-management of her wellbeing: “P4Well” (Pervasive Personal and PsychoPhysiological management of WELLness...
Article
Mechanical work, mechanical power, energy consumption and mechanical efficiency were studied in constant-speed treadmill running of 5 min at seven different exercises around aerobic (AerT) and anaerobic (AnT) thresholds. The true efficiency of concentric (positive) mechanical work and gross efficiency of the whole body in seven male subjects were c...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological problems have limited the number of studies on heart rate variability (HRV) dynamics immediately after exercise. We used the short-time Fourier transform method to study immediate (5 min) and slow (30 min) recovery of HRV after different high-intensity exercise interventions. Eight male athletes performed two interval interventions a...
Article
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This study compared the autonomic responses to an active orthostatic test and Stroop Color Word Test (Stroop) as well as cognitive performance in Stroop in twelve severely overtrained (OA, 6 men and 6 women) and twelve control athletes (CA, 6 men and 6 women). RR-intervals were recorded during the orthostatic test, the Stroop, and a relaxation peri...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of low-dose endurance training on autonomic HR control. We assessed the heart rate variability (HRV) of 11 untrained male subjects (36.8 +/- 7.2 years) at rest and during an incremental maximal aerobic exercise test prior to a 7-week preparatory period and prior to and following a 14-week endurance training period, includin...
Article
Traditionally, the estimation of oxygen consumption (VO2) at work using heart rate (HR) has required the determination of individual HR/VO2 calibration curves in a separate exercise test in a laboratory (VO2-TRAD). Recently, a new neural network-, and heart rate variability-based method has been developed (Firstbeat PRO heartbeat analysis software)...
Chapter
Overreaching and Recovery from TrainingAdjustments to Travelling Across Time ZonesHaemoglobin Tests, Erythropoietin and Doping ControlAltitude Training and Simulated Altitude TrainingNutritional Advice for Cross Country SkiersCarbohydrate Loading and Fluid ReplacementRecommended Reading
Chapter
Physiological Basis of Cross Country SkiingPerformance Characteristics of Cross Country Skiers and Skiing PerformanceRecommended Reading
Chapter
Principles of TrainingTraining for Aerobic EnduranceTraining for Neuromuscular EnduranceTraining for Improving Skiing Techniques and Economy at Race PaceTraining PlanControl of TrainingRecommended Reading
Article
This study investigated fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular and stride characteristics during and immediately after the 5-km running time trial. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed a maximal 20-m sprint test and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a leg press machine before and immediately after the 5-km running time trial...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have neglected the first recovery minutes after exercise when studying post-exercise heart rate variability (HRV). The present aim was to evaluate autonomic HR control immediately after exercise using Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and to compare the effects of low [LI, 29(6)% of maximal power] and high [HI, 61(6)% of maximal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lifestyle related health problems are increasing rapidly. Many of them could be prevented or alleviated by sufficient physical activity, enough sleep, and a balanced diet. Individual citizens have the main responsibility for their own health and wellness management in their daily lives. Motivational tools based on modern technologies can support pe...
Article
Full-text available
Since heart rate variability (HRV) during the first minutes of the recovery after exercise has barely been studied, we wanted to find out HRV dynamics immediately after five different constant-speed exercises. Thirteen sedentary women performed two low-intensity (3,500 m [3,500(LI)] and 7,000 m [7,000(LI)] at 50% of the velocity of VO(2max) [vVO(2m...
Article
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Aerobic organisms maintain O2 homeostasis by responding to changes in O2 supply and demand in both short and long time domains. In this review, we introduce several specific examples of respiratory plasticity induced by chronic changes in O2 supply (environmental hypoxia or hyperoxia) and demand (exercise-induced and temperature-induced changes in...
Article
Full-text available
To study effects of concurrent explosive strength and endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic performance and neuromuscular characteristics, 13 experimental (E) and 12 control (C) young (16 - 18 years) distance runners trained for eight weeks with the same total training volume but 19% of the endurance training in E was replaced by explosive tr...
Article
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of concurrent endurance and explosive strength training on electromyography (EMG) and force production of leg extensors, sport-specific rapid force production, aerobic capacity, and work economy in cross-country skiers. Nineteen male cross-country skiers were assigned to an experimental grou...
Article
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To develop a track version of the maximal anaerobic running test, 10 sprint runners and 12 distance runners performed the test on a treadmill and on a track. The treadmill test consisted of incremental 20-s runs with a 100-s recovery between the runs. On the track, 20-s runs were replaced by 150-m runs. To determine the blood lactate versus running...
Article
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Human lifestyle has drastically changed during the past century as the share of physical work in daily life has decreased. The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in middle-aged sedentary persons, to compare the proportion of MHC isoforms of middle-aged and young sedentary persons and to...
Article
Conventional spectral analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) have been limited to stationary signals and have not allowed the obtainment of information during transient autonomic cardiac responses. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) method to detect transient changes in vagal effects on the h...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) and light chain (MLC) isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week) in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group). Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of the neuromuscular and force–velocity characteristics in distance running performance and running economy. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed five different tests: 20 m maximal sprint, running economy at the velocity of 4.28 m s−1, 5 km time trial, maximal anaerobic running test (MART), and a...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis of autonomic imbalance in overtrained athletes during sleep and after awakening with analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and nocturnal urine stress hormones. We examined 12 athletes diagnosed to be severely overtrained (OA, 6 men and 6 women, mean age (+/-SD) 25 +/- 7 yr) and 12 control athletes...
Article
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used as a measure of vagal activation in physiological, psychological, and clinical examinations. We studied the within-subject quantitative relationship between HRV and vagal effects on the heart in different body postures during a gradually decreasing vagal blockade. Electrocardiogram and respiratory f...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle fibre type in the regulation of glucose metabolism in middle-aged obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during a 2-year exercise and dietary intervention. Muscle biopsies (musculus vastus lateralis) were taken from 22 subjects belonging to the intervention group of...
Article
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TIIVISTELMÄ Katja Linnakylä. 2004. Ortostaattinen sykevaihtelu, mieliala ja hormonipitoisuudet uimareilla eri harjoituskausilla. Liikuntafysiologian Pro-Gradu –tutkielma. Liikuntabiologian laitos. Jyväskylän yliopisto. Autonomisen hermoston sympaattinen osa hallitsee sydämen toimintaa rasituksen aikana ja parasympaattinen osa levon aikana. Liiallis...
Article
Full-text available
The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an...
Article
The benefits of living and training at high altitude (HiHi) for an improved sea-level performance have been questioned because controlled studies have shown contradictory results. HiHi increases red blood cell mass (RCM), but training in hypoxia may be either an inadequate (low-intensity) or even harmful (to heart, muscle, and brain) stimulus. Rece...
Article
This study described the effect of leucine supplementation on serum amino acid concentration during two different exercise sessions in competitive male power athletes. The subjects performed a strength exercise session (SES; n = 16; 26 +/- 4 years) or a maximal anaerobic running exercise session (MARE; n = 12; 27 +/- 5 years) until exhaustion twice...
Article
This study investigated the effects of the neu-romuscular and force–velocity characteristics in distance running performance and running economy. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed five different tests: 20 m maximal sprint, running economy at the velocity of 4.28 m s À1 , 5 km time trial, maximal anaerobic running test (MART), an...
Article
At present, there are no useful methods for monitoring fatigue accumulation during training exercises. Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) is the greater the more exhausting the exercise. PURPOSE To pre-predict the amount of EPOC measured after exercise from information recorded before and during exercise. METHODS Based on meta-analysis...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of concurrent strength and endurance training (SE) (2 plus 2 days a week) versus strength training only (S) (2 days a week) in men [SE: n=11; 38 (5) years, S: n=16; 37 (5) years] over a training period of 21 weeks. The resistance training program addressed both maximal and explosive strength comp...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the breathing of hyperoxic gas affects hemoglobin oxygen saturation (S(a)O(2)) and blood acidosis during intense intermittent exercise and recovery in sprint runners. The hypothesis was that the breathing of hyperoxic gas prevents S(a)O(2) from decreasing, delays blood acidosis during the exer...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine power-type athletes to determine changes in amino acid and hormone concentrations in circulating blood following 2 different high-intensity exercise sessions before and after the 5-week training period. Eleven competitive male sprinters and jumpers performed 2 different running exercise sessions: a short run...