Heikki Patomaki

Heikki Patomaki
University of Helsinki | HY · Department of Political and Economic Studies

Professor

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107
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Introduction
Heikki Patomaki is a professor of world politics and global political economy at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki. Heikki does research in Institutional Economics, Social Theory and International Relations. Among many other things, he is involved in a project 'Deliberating Democratic Alternatives to Capital in 21st Century'.

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
IPE is in need of critical self-reflection. A large proportion of scholars have rejected the Open Economy Politics framework, which has dominated American IPE since the late 1990s. While new, unconventional research, both in the US and especially elsewhere, often tackles crucial questions in imaginative ways, we argue that critical IPE is yet to ad...
Preprint
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Abstrakti Olisiko Ukrainan 2022 sota ollut vältettävissä? Tässä artikkelissa käymme vuoropuhelun kautta läpi keskeisiä historian solmukohtia ja pohdimme tulevaisuuden mahdollisuuksia myös laajemmasta maailmanhistoriallisesta perspektiivistä. Ensin keskustelemme kysymysten, kontrafaktuaalien ja selittämisen logiikasta. Sen jälkeen analysoimme kontra...
Article
The Paris Agreement and the subsequent IPCC Global Warming of 1.5 °C report signal a need for greater urgency in achieving carbon emissions reductions. In this paper we make a two stage argument for greater use of carbon taxes and for a global approach to this. First, we argue that current modelling tends to lead to a “facts in waiting” approach to...
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Can the rise of nationalist-authoritarian populism be explained in terms of neoliberalism and its effects? The first half of this paper is about conceptual underlabouring: in spite of significant overlap, there are relatively clear demarcation criteria for identifying neoliberalism and nationalist-authoritarian populism as distinct entities. Neolib...
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This is a concise explanation of the basics of scientific realism written for Research Methods in the Social Sciences: A A-Z of Key Concepts, edited by Jean-Frédéric Morin, Christian Olsson, and Ece Özlem Atikcan (Oxford University Press, 2021).
Article
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The question I raise is whether the basic features of mind, social categories, and society are unchanging or changing. Some understandings of ontology would seem to suggest that social ontology is a branch of metaphysics. However, as the history of concepts such as metaphysical and ontology indicate, our concepts and knowledge are historical. It is...
Preprint
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This paper, written in Finnish, is published in the local journal of futures studies, Futura, (39):2, 2020, pp.10-29. Here is the ABSTRACT in English: "My ten theses on global power in 2040 are based on a realist analysis of open systems. These theses have a context: capitalist market society, nation-states and planetary economy after the Industria...
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The theory of capitalist peace claims that contractual social relations, free trade and cross-border investments are conducive to peace. In discussing this theory, I first sketch some key paradoxes and contradictions of capitalist market economy. These paradoxes and contradictions have critical implications for the theory of liberal-capitalist peac...
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Can the rise of nationalist-authoritarian populism be explained in terms of neo­liberalism and its effects? The frst half of this paper is about conceptual under­labouring: in spite of signifcant overlap, there are relatively clear demarcation criteria for identifying neoliberalism and nationalist-authoritarian populism as distinct entities. Neolib...
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Positivists have been unsuccessful in finding laws in society and most post-positivists have little to say about causation. Critical Realism (CR) can help to overcome these kinds of aporias of social science by providing better understandings for instance about emergence, open-systemic causation and the role of critical reason in human sciences. Ho...
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Amin’s Leninist-Maoist vision is unlikely to be persuasive to twenty-first century citizens. Nonetheless, there is a rational kernel in Amin’s call for a new worldwide political organization. Some structures, mechanisms and tendencies of the capitalist world economy are relatively enduring and some patterns recurrent, although the world economy is...
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The purpose of the contemporary university has been redefined across the world in terms of success in global competition, usefulness for money-making, and efficiency, meaning application of New Public Management ideas. My aim is to sketch an alternative and future-oriented ethico-political conception of the university to serve counterhegemonic purp...
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Shared problems require shared action. The world economy and deepening global risks bind us together, but we lack the collective global agency required to address them. A sustainable global future will be impossible without a fundamental shift from the dominant national mythos to a global worldview, and the concomitant creation of institutions with...
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This chapter revisits the debate between Chris Brown, Mark Hoffmann and the author on the state-centric view and cosmopolitanism that took place quarter of a century ago. It first explores whether similar deconstructions would anymore be possible. Second, it discusses Brown’s ideas about global civil society, democracy and justice, particularly in...
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From a post-Deutschian perspective, common institutions may aggravate the problem of conflicts and violence, but they can also be part of its solution. Contradictions and conflicts arise from shared processes and especially those of global political economy. Contradictions can be overcome through learning and building common institutions. Social co...
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In this brief polemic we argue that Trump’s words, actions and inactions are potentially deeply damaging to the legitimacy of the office he holds and to the continuity of the institutions defining that position. This, writ large, is an issue for organization theory. We use Searle’s concept of status functions to argue that Trump invokes problems of...
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When the social reality is changing, we need to know also the following: What exactly is changing and why? To what extent is reflexivity involved in changes that take part in making the future uncertain and open? For instance, an announced policy change can become a self-altering prediction (or involve such a prediction), which is subject to contra...
Conference Paper
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Greater temporal reflexivity means that we recognize consciousness, society and history as mythopoetically constituted. Mythopoetic imagination can also be a means of critique of the prevailing myths. In complex pluralist societies, there are hegemonic struggles over constitutive myths, shaping both our explanatory stories about the past and scenar...
Book
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Brexit means Brexit and other meaningless mantras have simply confirmed that confusion and uncertainty have dominated the early stages of this era defining event. Though there has been a lack of coherent and substantive policy goals from the UK government, this does not prevent analysis of the various causes of Brexit and the likely constraints on...
Book
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Whether we talk about human learning and unlearning, securitization, or political economy, the forces and mechanisms generating both globalization and disintegration are causally efficacious across the world. Thus, the processes that led to the victory of the ‘Leave’ campaign in the June 2016 referendum on UK European Union membership are not simpl...
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In this article we place Tony Lawson’s account of contrast explanation in context. Lawson’s development of it is given meaning both by the roots of the approach in his work on social ontology and the state of economics that provides the grounds for the critique contained in that social ontology.This is important because such an approach to explanat...
Book
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ProtoSociology is an interdisciplinary journal which crosses the borders of philosophy, social sciences, and their corresponding disciplines for more than two decades. Each issue concentrates on a specific topic taken from the current discussion to which scientists from different fields contribute the results of their research. ProtoSociology is f...
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Is it true that either the EU will be democratised or it will disintegrate? I concur that the current policies, principles, and institutions of the EU both generate counterproductive politico-economic effects and suffer from problems of legitimation. These effects and problems, which are not confined to Europe, give rise to tendencies towards disin...
Article
Both positivists and post-positivists have misunderstood causation. By explaining why there are no stable and uncontested empirical invariances in IR, critical realism (CR) has pushed theoreticians and practitioners to reflect critically upon the conception of causation they have so far taken for granted. However, the original CR claim about radica...
Chapter
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We measure time and coordinate our activities in terms of mechanical movements of clocks (seconds and minutes and fractions of these) and in terms of the rotation of the Earth (days) or its orbit around the sun (a year). However, these constant and repetitious movements do not constitute time. They are just particular rhythmics amongst numerous ong...
Book
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Contributors: Dean Baker, Víctor A. Beker, David Colander, Edward Fullbrook, James Galbraith, Jayati Ghosh, Claude Hillinger, Merijn Knibbe, Richard Parker, Heikki Patomäki, Ann Pettifor, Alicia Puyana, Lars Pålsson Syll, Geoff Tily, Yannis Varoufakis, Robert Wade
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Following decades of economic globalisation and market-oriented reforms across the world, Karl Polanyi's double movement has been invoked not only to explain what is happening but also to give reasons for being hopeful about a different future. Some have suggested a pendulum model of history: a swing from markets to society leading, in the next pha...
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One of the great appeals of securitization theory, and a major reason for its success, has been its usefulness as a tool for empirical research: an analytic framework capable of practical application. However, the development of securitization has raised several criticisms, the most important of which concern the nature of securitization theory. In...
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There are good security and political economy reasons for furthering integration towards a world political community (WPC), possibly assuming the form of a world state. However, would these reasons provide a legitimate and sustainable basis for the WPC? It is argued in this article that, while the standard security-military and functionalist politi...
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In some contrast to the traditional and ongoing normative discussions about the desirability of a world state, new and more explicitly geo-historical questions about world political integration are being posed, especially (i) whether elements of world statehood are in existence already, (ii) whether a world state is in some sense inevitable, and (i...
Chapter
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We measure time and coordinate our activities in terms of mechanical movements of clocks (seconds and minutes and fractions of these) and in terms of the rotation of the Earth (days) or its orbit around the sun (a year). However, these constant and repetitious movements do not constitute time. They are just particular rhythmics amongst numerous ong...
Article
Orthodox economic theory has functioned as a justification for financial deregulation and the growth of the global financial markets. However, in the absence of a proper analysis of the real world, there can be no adequate regard of the reality of imposing the orthodox ideal of “free markets”. 1 In
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Human beings are temporal and spatial beings. We cannot go back in time; whatever we do is an intervention in irreversible, on-going causal processes; physically, we cannot be in two places simultaneously; and the specific area of space we fill in cannot be occupied by anybody else simultaneously. While the nature of time has been theorised in phil...
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While the transnational public sphere has existed in the Arendtian sense at least since the mid-19th century, a new kind of reflexively political global civil society emerged in the late 20th century. However, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), advocacy groups, and networks have limited agendas and legitimacy and, without the support of at leas...
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A sustainable global future depends on a fundamental shift from the currently dominant national imaginary to a global imaginary. Most of human reasoning is based on prototypes, framings and metaphors that are seldom explicit; although they can be forged, usually they are merely presupposed in everyday reasoning and debates. The background social im...
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Critical cosmopolitan orientation has usually been embedded in a non-geocentric physical (NGP) cosmology that locates the human drama on the surface of planet Earth within wide scales of time and space. Although neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for critical cosmopolitanism, NGP cosmology provides a contrast to the underpinnings of cen...
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In response to Hostettler, I clarify the intended meanings of ‘After Critical Realism?’ My point is not to abandon critical realism but to develop it further and make it more self-reflexively critical. Bhaskar's journey through different stories about our place in the cosmos is a dialectical learning process from Althusserian scientist existentiali...
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While recent scientific discoveries and theories can be taken to provide additional evidence for some of the central critical realist claims, overall critical realism seems to be in need of reassessment, revisions and further developments. First, I argue that here has been an inclination among critical realists to prefer the language and model of p...
Article
In order to build scenarios of possible futures and grasp the structural liabilities and tendencies of global financial markets, we do not need just historical analogies to past crises and collapses but also a conceptual-theoretical model that explains the characteristic mechanisms of financial markets. Firstly, I summarise the neoclassical underst...
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The current era of neo-liberal globalisation is in some important ways similar to the era of new imperialism from the early 1870s to 1914. In The Political Economy of Global Security (Patomäki, 2008), I suggest that we can learn from the study of the causes of the late nineteenth-century neoimperial competition that led to the Great War — an outcom...
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First I make a case for the possibility of defining neoliberalism in a sufficiently evident and coherent way as a programme of resolving problems of, and developing, human society by means of competitive markets. Second, I argue that the more narrow, technical and short-term one's definition of Keynesianism is, the more plausible the claim about a...
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Benjamin J. Cohen's story of the transatlantic divide in IPE follows a simple plot, creating expectations concerning the outcome and culmination of this process. The conclusion is not predictable – there is no story unless our attention is being held in suspense by contingencies – but it must be acceptable. In Cohen's story, the expectation created...
Article
Richard Ned Lebow has written a monumental and unique book. Few IR scholars can claim such multi-expertise in the ancient world, medieval Europe, modern Europe before 1789, the era of new imperialism, World War I, World War II, the Cold War and the contemporary era. The bibliography runs to nearly 170 pages. A Cultural Theory of International Relat...
Chapter
What are the conditions of, and possibilities for, global security in the 21st century? Have we learnt anything from the late 20th century peace and security studies? In the aftermath of the end of the Cold War, two main lessons suggest themselves.2 The first lesson is liberal democracies do not fight each other (Doyle 1986; Russett 1993a; MacMilla...
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What are the possibilities for and conditions of global security in the 21st century? This book provides an innovative study of future wars, crises and transformations of the global political economy. It brings together economic theory, political economy, peace and conflict research, philosophy and historical analogy to explore alternatives for the...
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International theory remains Eurocentric. The implicit assumption is that all relevant modern concepts, practices, technologies and capacities are essentially European. Modernity — including the Industrial Revolution — originates exclusively in Europe, and with it, the modern international problematic. In this paper I argue that it is possible to t...
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In her otherwise first-rate review of my After International Relations, Branwen Gruffydd Jones maintains that 'Patomaki refuses to contemplate the necessity of radical social transformation (in the sense of socialist transformation) in the struggle for human emancipation'. 1Nothing could be further from the truth.
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Global justice refers to world politics and worldwide actions, relations, practices and institutions. Are they just? This question presupposes that we know the meaning of justice. Although the abstract concept of justice is universal, its substance and direction are not. Like almost all ethical concepts, the notion of justice is constructed metapho...
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All social phenomena, all social interaction, anything that exists in society, is temporal. Anticipation of futures is a necessary part of all social actions, and particularly so in the world of modern organisations. If social sciences are to be relevant they should also be able to say something about possible and likely futures. My paper articulat...
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Globalization as a political project rests on claims that liberalization and economic interdependence are conducive to peace and prosperity. Yet more ‘globalization’ seems to mean less economic growth and more inequalities. I portray first the downward phase that started in the 1970s and discuss the so-called Kondratieff cycles, arguing that they a...
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Sony Kapoor's (2004) draft report "The Currency Transaction Tax. Enhancing Financial Stability and Financing Development" is a well-written piece of advocacy, and in parts quite informative. The report also adds to the literature on the CTT at least in the sense that it emphasizes the significance of releasing central bank reserves for more useful...
Chapter
Criticism of global governance leads to the search for alternatives. Would it be possible to make systems of global governance more responsive to the most salient problems of humanity, such as poverty and oppression, ecological threats and disasters, and the enormous destructive powers of modern weapons systems? How could the systems of governance...
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David Held's model of cosmopolitan democracy is thus far the most articulate response to the quest to democratize global governance. After criticizing the territoriality, Eurocentrism and linearity of proposed cosmopolitan democracy, I argue that a necessary condition for a global democratization is the development of a global, and pluralist, secur...
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This article argues that the current self-understanding of IR theory is misconceived and that it is time to move beyond the stagnant positivism/postpositivism debate. We argue that the attempt to occupy a middle ground compromise position between positivism and postpositivism is untenable because these two positions share much in common. In this se...
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Globalization as a coming-together of humanity requires an open-ended dialogue about philosophical and religious fundamentals. Have the Western philosophers who have turned to the East worked out any useful conceptual resources? I assess Roy Bhaskar's Eastern turn in the light of earlier attempts by Friedrich Nietzsche, Jacques Derrida and Johan Ga...
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Thus far, the most articulate political theoretical response to the process of globalization is the theory of cosmopolitan democracy: given our democratic ideals and aspirations, globalization requires us to rethink the political community within which these ideals and aspirations can be realized. The problem of many models of cosmopolitan democrac...
Article
Con el desarrollo y propuesta de una metodología crítica realista para las relaciones internacionales, la búsqueda de la paz y una políticas económicas globales, este libro trata de resolver algunas de las lagunas teóricas en las relaciones internacionales contemporáneas. Explica en detalle la manera que deben ser conducidas las relaciones en siste...
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Although peace research as a professional institution has lost some of its earlier appeal, the end of the Cold War did not cause any particular identity crisis within the field. Quite the contrary, peace research co-contributed to the end of the Cold War via Gorbachev's `new thinking'. In a world plagued by unnecessary violence, both actual and pot...
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Politics in the 1990s was characterized by the state versus globalization dichotomy, but there are also other possible futures. Concrete initiatives such as the Tobin tax seem to promise a new phase in the politics of globalization. The idea of a low rate tax on financial transactions questions both the laissez-faire capitalism justified by mainstr...
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Ole Wæver's 1992 article, `Nordic Nostalgia: Northern Europe after the Cold War', seemed to articulate the widespread feeling of the end of Norden. However, this argument is flawed and mistaken. Logically and conceptually it is confusing and tendential, and the evidence to back the empirical claims is casual. An explanation in terms of political ec...
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Since the early 1970's, the variability and volatility of the global financial markets have grown. There have been real world counter-tendencies, however, including a rapid increase of monetary reserves, regional monetary unification, homogenisation of economic policies, and also attempts at re-regulation. The causal explanation of financial crises...
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This paper argues that despite the state-centrism of the Russian debates, it is possible to partially overcome the usual dichotomies of universalism/particularism and inside/outside also in this context. Consequently, it is also possible to make an argument, from the "outside" (i.e. by non-citizens of Russia), to the effect of overcoming the tradit...
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As a reaction to Østerud's attack on `postmodernism', it is argued that post-structuralism, Critical Theory and critical realism should be seen as important responses to the crisis of positivism and modernity. Even the few `postmodernists' who would be willing to defend the idea that it is only thought and discourses that matter or that `anything g...
Chapter
EMU has many faces. It can appear as a Brussels-based integration project, the economic and other benefits of which presumably outweigh its costs. It can be seen also as yet another attempt to restrict democracy in the world ruled by monetarist ideas, liberalised world markets and big, transnational corporations. But only by slightly turning its fa...
Chapter
The history of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) can be traced back to the Spaak Report in 1956. What is now called the first phase of EMU started, in a sense, already in 1959 with the first measures for the common market, although the acute and concrete need — as well as the more concrete plans — for EMU did not emerge before the currency instabil...
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The Maastricht Treaty was not only a step towards a more integrated Western Europe. It also revealed some of the legitimation problems that the European integration process has. In 1997, it is widely acknowledged that there is both a lot of resistance towards deepening the Union and ‘a democratic deficit’ within the very structure of the Union inst...
Book
If the plans concerning EMU will be realised, by 2002 national currencies will be replaced by the Euro and national central banks will be partially replaced by the European Central Bank. The Politics of Economic and Monetary Union starts with the argument that EMU is more a political than an economic project. It develops this theme by addressing fi...
Article
In contrast to mainstream International Relations and Peace Research, it is argued that the growing body of `critical theoretical' literature can be better grasped in terms of a return to particular, local and timely matters and to practical philosophy than as utterly relativist/nihilist meta-theorizing. In this review of recent books of Toulmin, W...
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How could we overcome the opposition between (i) the American "normal science" in International Political Economy (IPE) that has borrowed many concepts and ideas from economics and (ii) the "British" alternative rooted in the historical-interpretative approaches of Robert Cox and Susan Strange? 1 For good reasons, the American mainstream has taken...
Article
First draft 4 June 2008 Hayward Alker accepted the partial validity of both pluralistic and evolutionary-progressive accounts of world history and politics. From this angle, he commented also on "the dialectics of civilizations". Alker (1994) placed Samuel Huntington's (1993) widely debated post-Cold War "clash of civilizations" thesis against the...

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Projects (2)
Project
The project investigates progressive alternatives to capital in 21st century which have been developed in in the form of theory, model, practice, policy, and project. It investigates the capacities of these alternatives for cross-ideological interactions and integration. It particularly focuses on four major democratic modes of livelihood and sociality which have influenced transformative social movements in the global field of post-capitalist transitions. Project website: http://thecommonalts.com