Heikki Lyytinen

Heikki Lyytinen
Niilo Mäki Institute

PhD (Psychology)

About

312
Publications
75,708
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
14,031
Citations
Introduction
I concentrate today mainly on operations associated with validation of different language versions of our digital learning environment (see grapholearn.info) supporting the acquisition of the basic reading skill. This is the goal of my Unesco Chair position labelled UNESCOchair/Inclusive Literacy Learning to All -2021 A secondary area of my research today concentrates on building support for fulfilling such needs of elderly people which are most efficiently open to be made via digital services.

Publications

Publications (312)
Preprint
Full-text available
The use of spoken and written language is a capacity that is unique to humans. Individual differences in reading- and language-related skills are influenced by genetic variation, with twin-based heritability estimates of 30-80%, depending on the trait. The relevant genetic architecture is complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial, and yet to be in...
Article
Full-text available
The use of spoken and written language is a capacity that is unique to humans. Individual differences in reading- and language-related skills are influenced by genetic variation, with twin-based heritability estimates of 30-80%, depending on the trait. The relevant genetic architecture is complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial, and yet to be in...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to read, with a heritability of 40-60%. A notable part of this heritability remains unexplained, and large genetic studies are warranted to identify new susceptibility genes and clarify the genetic bases of dyslexia. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 227...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia is a specific learning disorder with impairments in reading and spelling acquisition. Apart from literacy problems, dyslexics show inefficient speech encoding and deficient novel word learning, with underlying problems in phonological processing and learning. These problems have been suggested to be related to deficient speci...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Hiragana reading training on accuracy and fluency in 126 kindergarten children who had not learned Hiragana reading/writing in the classroom. The children were divided into two matched groups: training and control. Furthermore, each group was subdivided into three levels of attainment: good, mo...
Article
This study investigates the effectiveness of a digital game—GraphoLearn (GL)—in supporting second-grade students who have persistent difficulties with acquiring accurate and fluent reading skills. The participants (N = 37) were randomly assigned either to a 6-week intervention including sessions with GL, in addition to school-provided support, or a...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is one of the most prevalent learning disorders, with high impact on school and psychosocial development and high comorbidity with conditions like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety. DD is characterized by deficits in different cognitive skills, including word reading, spelling, rapi...
Article
Full-text available
Reading is an essential skill in modern societies, yet not all learners necessarily become proficient readers. Theoretical concepts (e.g., the orthographic depth hypothesis; the grain size theory) as well as empirical evidence suggest that certain orthographies are easier to learn than others. The present paper reviews the literature on orthographi...
Poster
Full-text available
Objective: To determine whether GraphoLearn, a computer-assisted reading tool, could be used to support the English reading skills of struggling readers in India.
Article
Full-text available
India, a country with a population of more than 1.3 billion individuals, houses the world’s second largest educational system. Despite this, 100 of millions of individuals in India are still illiterate. As English medium education sweeps the country, many are forced to learn in a language which is foreign to them. Those living in poverty further st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is one of the most prevalent learning disorders among children and is characterized by deficits in different cognitive skills, including reading, spelling, short term memory and others. To help unravel the genetic basis of these skills, we conducted a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS), including nine cohorts of readin...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the comparative efficacy of a phonics-based reading program and a language experience approach based literacy program to develop reading skills among Zambian early childhood school learners. The learners (n = 1 986; Grade 2 level; females = 50.1%) took either the phonics-based reading program (n = 1 593) or the alternative l...
Chapter
A four-year research and development program at CAPOLSA (the Centre for the Promotion of Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa) was inspired by widespread dissatisfaction with poor literacy outcomes of mass basic schooling in Zambia and sought to test the generalizability of a scientifically grounded, computer-mediated instructional resource developed in...
Article
Full-text available
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolesc...
Article
Full-text available
This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. However, the development of reliable metrics to measure...
Article
Full-text available
The systematic teaching of spelling-to-sound relations (decoding) is necessary for learning to read. Digital tools such as GraphoGame, a Finnish audio-visual reading game, can facilitate the initiation and automatization of the decoding process. This article presents a French adaptation of GraphoGame for smartphones and tablets. This adaptation imp...
Article
Full-text available
Un enseignement systématique des relations grapho-phonologiques (le décodage) est nécessaire pour apprendre à lire. Des outils numériques, tel que GraphoGame, un logiciel audio-visuel finlandais, peuvent faciliter la mise en place, et l’automatisation du décodage. L’article présente une adaptation en français de GraphoGame sur tablette qui tient co...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the approaches for supporting reading development in Finnish that have been developed on the basis of current knowledge on reading development and reading disabilities in Finnish. We discuss also the challenges that the features of Finnish language and orthography pose for the reader at various points of development. We also d...
Article
Full-text available
Over two decades of Finnish research, monitoring children born with risk for dyslexia has been carried out in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD). Two hundred children, half at risk, have been assessed from birth to puberty on hundreds of measures. The aims were to identify measures of prediction of later reading difficulty and to in...
Article
This study investigated how the use of an online reading game differs in home and school environments. First and second graders (N = 194) participated in an 8-week training during which they used the reading program GraphoGame either at home or at school under the supervision of parents or teachers. Child participants were recommended by parents an...
Article
Full-text available
GraphoGame (GG) is originally a technology-based intervention method for supporting children with reading difficulties. It is now known that children who face problems in reading acquisition have difficulties in learning to differentiate and manipulate speech sounds and consequently, in connecting these sounds to corresponding letters. GG was devel...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduce a new group-level analysis approach for event-related potentials (ERPs). This approach is based on the multi- domain feature of the ERP extracted by nonnegative tensor factorization (NTF) from a high-order ERP tensor of the time-frequency representations (TFRs).
Chapter
In the previous chapters in this book, the event-related potential (ERP) data are the object for data processing. The ERPs are elicited by controlled stimuli, which hardly occur in real-world experiences. In this chapter, we show how to analyze the ongoing electroencephalography (EEG) elicited by a naturalistic music stimulus.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this appendix, we introduce the history of mismatch negativity (MMN), the paradigm to elicit MMN, the corresponding knowledge of MMN and its temporal, spectral, time-frequency, and spatial properties. Most of the contents are based on Fengyu Cong’s dissertation in Finland (Cong, 2010).
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we introduce our motivation for writing this book, review conventional event-related potential (ERP) data processing methods, state the existing problems, and briefly present solutions to these problems.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we introduce the classic independent component analysis (ICA) theory, the special ICA theory in event-related potential (ERP) data processing, and the systematic ICAapproach to extract the ERP components from the ERP data of only one subject under one condition. We call this ICA application in this book as individual ICA. Here, ERP...
Book
Full-text available
This book is devoted to the application of advanced signal processing on event-related potentials (ERPs) in the context of electroencephalography (EEG) for the cognitive neuroscience. ERPs are usually produced through averaging single-trials of preprocessed EEG, and then, the interpretation of underlying brain activities is based on the ordinarily...
Chapter
Reading acquisition is under the influence of the structure and function of the language itself, the individual’s capacity to learn and the differential methods of instruction. Alphabetic languages vary from the bidirectionally consistent phoneme–grapheme–phoneme units of Finnish, to English as the most inconsistent for small units, but the latter...
Conference Paper
GraphoGame Teacher Training Service is a mobile-based solution for providing teachers with scientifically validated pedagogical training in literacy instruction. In many African countries teachers currently have insufficient knowledge to teach literacy in local languages and learning materials are scarce, especially for children with learning diffi...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic studies of complex traits have become increasingly successful as progress is made in next-generation sequencing. We aimed at discovering single nucleotide variation present in known and new candidate genes for developmental dyslexia: CYP19A1, DCDC2, DIP2A, DYX1C1, GCFC2 (also known as C2orf3), KIAA0319, MRPL19, PCNT, PRMT2, ROBO1 and S100B....
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the stability of dyslexia status from Grade 2 to Grade 8 in four groups: (a) no dyslexia in either grade (no-dyslexia, n = 127); (b) no dyslexia in Grade 2 but dyslexia in Grade 8 (late-emerging, n = 18); (c) dyslexia in Grade 2 but not in Grade 8 (resolving, n = 15); and (d) dyslexia in both grades (persistent-dyslexia, n = 2...
Article
Associative learning has been identified as one of several non-linguistic processes involved in reading acquisition. However, it has not been established whether it is an independent process that contributes to reading performance on its own or whether it is a process that is embedded in other linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness or phon...
Article
Full-text available
This intervention study was conducted to document conditions under which a computer based literacy game (GraphoGame TM) could enhance literacy skills of first grade students in an African city. The participants were first grade students from Government schools (N = 573). These students were randomly sampled into control (N = 314) and various interv...
Article
Full-text available
This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared two groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia, with or without dyslexia in Grade 2 (Dys_FR, n = 35 and NoDys_FR, n = 66) to a group of children without familial risk and dyslexia (C...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the GraphoGame method. Both theoretical and methodological aspects related to the method are presented. The method’s guiding principles are based on the prevailing theories and experimental research findings on learning and teaching basic reading skills in alphabetic languages, especially from the point of view of...
Chapter
Full-text available
The majority of Finnish children are in the fortunate position of learning the basic scholastic skills, such as reading, soon after entering school. This provides an important starting point for the acquisition of knowledge through written language which, in turn, facilitates wider opportunities to create success in one’s future life. Worldwide, mo...
Article
Identifying children at risk for reading problems or dyslexia at kindergarten age could improve support for beginning readers. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured for temporally complex pseudowords and corresponding non-speech stimuli from 6.5-year-old children who participated in behavioral literacy tests again at 9 years in the se...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity to print is characterized by a left occipito-temporal negativity to words in the event-related potential N1. This sensitivity is modulated by reading skills and may thus represent a neural marker of reading competence. Here we studied the development of the N1 in regular and poor readers from preschool age to school age to test whether...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this longitudinal study was to build a model of the predictive values (poor phonological awareness, low letter knowledge, and slow naming speed) of spelling in 3 contrasting reading groups: a regular and a computer-assisted remedial intervention and mainstream instruction. The participants were 7-year-old Finnish school beginners (N = 16...
Article
Full-text available
Dyslexia is one of the most common childhood disorders with a prevalence of around 5-10% in school-age children. Although an important genetic component is known to have a role in the aetiology of dyslexia, we are far from understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to the disorder. Several candidate genes have been implicated in dyslexia, inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Computer-assisted training of Finnish phonemic length was conducted with 7-year-old Russian-speaking second-language learners of Finnish. Phonemic length plays a different role in these two languages. The training included game activities with two- and three-syllable word and pseudo-word minimal pairs with prototypical vowel durations. The lowest a...
Article
Purpose: The authors investigated the importance of phonemic length discrimination ability on reading and spelling skills among children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and among children with typical reading skills, as well as the role of prereading skills in reading and spelling development in children with reading disab...
Article
This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We...