Heidi Resnick

Heidi Resnick
Medical University of South Carolina | MUSC · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

About

263
Publications
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Publications

Publications (263)
Article
Although recent studies have linked discrimination frequency among Black and Latinx individuals to PTSD symptom severity, to our knowledge, these associations have yet to be examined among a diverse sample of recent rape survivors. The current secondary analysis of existing data examined the role of discrimination experiences in post-traumatic stre...
Article
Although rape has been linked to risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, there are scant data on the efficacy of brief interventions to reduce suicidality among recent rape victims. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigated whether a video intervention delivered in the emergency department (ED), cortisol measured at the...
Article
Objective: We investigate if posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the effects of disaster severity or prior trauma on binge drinking following disaster exposure and test if support from caregiver moderates the relation between disaster severity and PTSD symptoms as well as prior trauma and PTSD symptoms. Method: A population-bas...
Article
The current study assessed the efficacy of a brief video intervention (Prevention of Post-Rape Stress [PPRS]) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims. PPRS was compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Instruction [PIRI]). Primary outcomes were posttraum...
Article
Background and objectives: Prescription opioid (PO) misuse is increasing and is associated with overdose. Individuals who experienced a recent sexual assault are at risk for increased substance use, yet limited interventions target PO misuse after sexual assault. The current study examined the efficacy of video interventions on PO misuse after sex...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent, debilitating disorder found to develop after exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Individuals with PTSD often report sleep disturbances, specifically nightmares and insomnia, which are listed within the criteria for PTSD. This research examined prevalence of insomnia and nightm...
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Objective: The current study examined variables, including prior traumatic events, disaster exposure, and current mental health symptomatology, associated with suicidal ideation following experience of a natural disaster. Method: Utilizing a sample of 2,000 adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornadoes in the areas surrounding Tuscaloosa, Ala...
Article
Trauma care has traditionally focused on prehospital and hospital settings, yet many injured patients report emotional distress in the postacute care setting, which is known to impair recovery. The objective of this study was to assess postdischarge emotional recovery and communication preferences. An observational cohort of 100 adult patients from...
Article
Background: This study examined whether a brief video intervention (Prevention of Postrape Stress; PPRS) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims reduced alcohol and marijuana use at three points over the course of a six-month follow-up compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasan...
Article
The purpose of the current report was to examine prior history of exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), as compared with prior accident or prior disaster exposure, experiences during and after a disaster, and demographic variables as predictors of past month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity among adolescents exposed...
Article
Mental health symptoms differ among women with forcible rape (FR) compared to drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) histories, but differences in suicidal ideation are unknown. The differences in suicidal ideation based on FR and DAFR/IR history were examined in national samples of college (n = 2,000) and household-residing (n =...
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Table of contents Introduction to the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration: advancing efficient methodologies through team science and community partnerships Cara Lewis, Doyanne Darnell, Suzanne Kerns, Maria Monroe-DeVita, Sara J. Landes, Aaron R. Lyon, Cameo Stanick, Shannon Dorsey, Jill Locke, Brigid Ma...
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Study objectives: Limited data exist on the association between trauma and sleep across developmental stages, particularly trauma experienced in childhood and sleep in adulthood. We assessed sleep quality across the developmental spectrum among avalanche survivors 16 years after exposure as compared to a matched comparison cohort. Methods: Parti...
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Home-based telemedicine (HBT) is a validated method of evidence-based treatment delivery for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and justification for its use has centered on closing gaps related to provider availability and distance to treatment centers. However, another potential use of HBT may be to overcome barriers to care that are inherent...
Article
Few natural disaster studies have assessed factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) beyond a decade after trauma. Using North's disaster model as a framework, the aim of this study was to identify factors associated with clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (CS-PTSDS) in avalanche survivors (n = 399) 16 years aft...
Article
Objective: To assess the efficacy of Bounce Back Now (BBN), a modular, Web-based intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents. Method: A population-based randomized controlled trial used address-based sampling to enroll 2,000 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Joplin, MO, and several areas in Al...
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The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone several significant changes corresponding with the recent implementation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Many of these changes reflect a growing recognition that PTSD is characterized by a wide range of negative affective e...
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Technology-based self-help interventions have the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental healthcare, especially for families affected by natural disasters. However, development of these interventions is a complex process and poses unique challenges. Usability testing, which assesses the ability of individuals to use an application su...
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Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR...
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To date, no study has investigated the effects of avalanches on survivor's health beyond the first years. The aim of this study was to examine long-term health status 16 years after exposure to avalanches using a matched cohort design. Mental health, sleep quality and somatic symptoms among avalanche survivors (n=286) and non-exposed controls (n=35...
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Disasters have far-reaching and potentially long-lasting effects on youth and families. Research has consistently shown a clear increase in the prevalence of several mental health disorders after disasters, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Widely accessible evidence-based interventions are needed to address this unmet need fo...
Article
The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD–11) is under development, and current proposals include major changes to trauma-related psychiatric diagnoses, including a heavily restricted definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the addition of complex PTSD (CPTSD). We aimed to test the postulates of CPTSD in s...
Article
Disclosure of rape to informal support sources is relatively common, but not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of disclosure recipients’ experience by examining associations between their sociodemographic and life experiences with receipt of a rape disclosure and encouragement of the victim to formally report her assault. Ov...
Article
Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
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The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) modified the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including expanding the scope of dysfunctional, posttrauma changes in belief (symptoms D2-persistent negative beliefs and expectations about o...
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Our study explores the role of victims' consultation with others about whether or not to report their rape to police. Three groups were observed within this sample of 435 rape victims from a national telephone household probability sample of women: those who did not consult with anyone about reporting (n = 364), those who consulted with someone and...
Article
Disasters can have wide-ranging effects on individuals and their communities. Loss of specific resources (e.g., household contents, job) following a disaster has not been well studied, despite the implications for preparedness efforts and postdisaster interventions. To provide information about the effects of loss on postdisaster distress, the pres...
Article
Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the generalizability of...
Article
Sexual revictimization (experiencing 2 or more rapes) is prevalent and associated with increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. However, no national epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence or relative odds of a range of types of substance use as a function of sexual victimization history and PTSD stat...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between multiple measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) and depressive symptoms amongst internally displaced (IDP) Haitian women living in post-earthquake camps. STUDY POPULATION/DATA: Using a cross-sectional design, female heads of households (N=541) were selected from a stratified random sample of 1...
Article
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) is currently undergoing revisions in advance of the next edition, DSM-5. The DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder workgroup has proposed numerous changes to the PTSD diagnosis. These include the addition of new symptoms, revision of existing ones, and a new four-cluster organization (Fri...
Article
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and f...
Article
When child sexual abuse is suspected, a child sexual abuse-related medical examination is recommended to ensure the child's well-being. While the extant research has sought to identify factors influencing child distress during this examination, only recently have studies began examining variables that may be directly associated with the child or wi...
Article
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, typically reflected by alterations in cortisol responsivity, has been associated with exposure to traumatic events and the development of stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Serum cortisol was measured at the time of a post sexual assault med...
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Full-text available
Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a...
Article
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault...
Article
Objective: To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method: Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or onl...
Article
Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample....
Article
It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care-seeking are poorly understood. The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape...
Article
The current study reports results from a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and efficacy of Risk Reduction through Family Therapy (RRFT) for reducing substance use risk and trauma-related mental health problems among sexually assaulted adolescents. Thirty adolescents (aged 13-17 years; M = 14.80; SD = 1.51) who had experie...
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Full-text available
Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (ie, experiencing 2 or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to our knowledge, no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatr...
Article
Children who disclose child sexual abuse are often referred for a comprehensive medical exam to ensure physical well-being and gather evidence. This study examined a brief, developmentally appropriate, psychoeducational video designed to instruct children and caregivers about the exam procedures and coping strategies to be used during the exam. Six...
Article
Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with u...
Article
Objective: To examine the mental health effects of Hurricane Ike, the third costliest hurricane in US history, which devastated the upper Texas coast in September 2008. Method: Structured telephone interviews assessing immediate effects of Hurricane Ike (damage, loss, displacement) and mental health diagnoses were administered via random digit-dial...
Article
Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with a range of subsequent negative outcomes; however, research has yet to test whether IPV operates as a specific risk factor for separate psychopathology outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, or binge drinking. To address this, cumulative e...
Article
Disasters occur with high frequency throughout the world and increase risk for development of mental health problems in affected populations. Research focused on the development and evaluation of secondary prevention interventions addressing post-disaster mental health has high potential public-health impact. Toward this end, internet-based interve...
Article
Many studies have documented associations among sexual victimization (SV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use; however, few have examined these associations longitudinally among adolescents. The present study evaluated the effect of SV on the longitudinal trajectory of PTSD symptoms and binge drinking (BD) among adolesce...
Article
The current study sought to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) chronicity over a 2-year time period in a national sample of adult women selected via random-digit dialing. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD (n = 190) at the initial assessment were interviewed and certain baseline predictors of chroni...
Article
Research demonstrates substantial comorbidity between PTSD and alcohol use disorders. Evidence for functional relationships between PTSD and problematic alcohol use has not always been consistent, and there have been few investigations with adolescent samples. Further, research has not consistently controlled for cumulative potentially traumatic ev...
Article
Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally represe...
Article
Exposure to interpersonal victimization during childhood and adolescence is prevalent and has been found to be associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The present study examined the relations between childhood violence exposure and mental health on subsequent exposure to new physical assault in young adults using longitudinal...
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Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to reporting ra...
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The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview between January and June 2...
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Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUP...
Article
Using a nationally representative sample of 3614 adolescents, age 12 to 17 years, this study examines longitudinal associations among interpersonal victimization (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and/or assault, and witnessed community and domestic violence) and high risk behavior (i.e., alcohol use, drug use, and delinquent behavior). A bidirect...
Article
The development and clinical trial of a 5-session behavioral intervention for complicated bereavement (CB) is presented. We conceptualized CB in terms of Major Depression (MDD) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and consequently applied treatment components of Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure (BA-TE). In order to assure standar...
Article
Research demonstrates robust associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), exposure to assaultive violence (i.e., sexual assault, physical assault, and witnessed violence), and cigarette smoking among adults and adolescents. Whether exposure to assaultive violence confers risk for cigarette smoking over and above the effects of PTSD and...
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Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the...
Article
The current report examines data for 872 female adolescents obtained during the initial and follow-up interviews of the National Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative sample. Lifetime prevalence of violence exposure reported was 12% and 13% for sexual assault, 19% and 10% for physical assault/punishment, and 33% and 26% for witnessing...
Article
Overall health status is associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Existing research on the correlates of mental health effects of rape suggests that rape victims are at higher risk for poor overall health status. Little is known, however, about how different rape tactics may relate to health status in rape victims. Our aim was to...
Article
Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)...
Article
This chapter describes the prevalence of rape and the risk of associated mental health problems, including definition of key terms such as rape. The particular focus of the chapter is on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a primary mental health problem associated with rape. Major methodological approaches to the study of rape, related risk,...
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Full-text available
Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a co...
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This study examines prevalence and correlates of help seeking for emotional problems among undergraduate female rape victims. A national college sample of women endorsing a lifetime history of rape (N=228) were interviewed in 2006 to assess demographic characteristics, rape history, rape characteristics, psychopathology, and substance abuse. Partic...
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent in perinatal than general samples of women (6-8% vs. 4-5%). To explore potential causes, we examined the symptom profiles of women belonging to two separate samples: a perinatal clinic sample (n = 1581) and a subsample of women in a similar age range from the U. S. National Women's Study (NWS)...