Heidi O'Neill

Heidi O'Neill
Cardno ChemRisk Boulder CO · Science and Environment

PhD, Toxicology
Risk assessment of flavorings in e-cigarettes, cannabis, and foods; trichloroethylene; synthetic vitreous fibers

About

28
Publications
5,664
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740
Citations
Introduction
Heidi O'Neill is a Supervising Health Scientist with Cardno ChemRisk in Boulder, CO.
Additional affiliations
July 2010 - April 2019
University of Colorado Boulder
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (28)
Article
Full-text available
Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy constitutes developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) and is associated with nicotine dependence and neurodevelopmental disorders in both children and grandchildren as well as animal models thereof. Genetic variants such as the CHRNA5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16969968, which leads to an aspartic a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Maternal smoking of traditional or electronic cigarettes during pregnancy, which constitutes developmental nicotine exposure (DNE), heightens the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia in children. Modeling the intergenerationally transmissible impacts of smoking during pregnancy, we previously d...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is far more prevalent in smokers than non-smokers, but the underlying mechanisms of vulnerability are unknown. Here we show that the diabetes-associated gene Tcf7l2 is densely expressed in the medial habenula (mHb) region of the rodent brain, where it regulates the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Inhibition of TCF7L2 signall...
Article
Maternal smoking of conventional or vapor cigarettes during pregnancy, a form of developmental nicotine exposure (DNE), enhances the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia in children. Modeling the multigenerational effects of smoking during pregnancy and nursing in the first- (F1) and second- (F2) generation a...
Article
Maternal smoking during pregnancy, a form of developmental nicotine exposure (DNE), is associated with increased nicotine use and neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD in children. Here, we characterize the behavioral, rhythmometric, neuropharmacological, and epigenetic consequences of DNE in the F1 (first) and F2 (second) generation adolescent...
Article
Full-text available
The CHRNA5 gene encodes a neurotransmitter receptor subunit involved in multiple processes, including cholinergic autonomic nerve activity and inflammation. Common variants in CHRNA5 have been linked with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Association of variation in CHRNA5 and specific haplotypes with cardiovascular outcomes has not been desc...
Article
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CHRNA5 (rs16969968, change from an aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N) at position 398 of the human α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit) has been associated with increased risk for nicotine dependence. Consequently, carriers of the risk variant may be at elevated risk for in utero nicotine exposure....
Article
Full-text available
The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is an attractive drug target for treating nicotine addiction because it is present at limited sites in the brain including the reward pathway. Lynx1 modulates several nAChR subtypes; lynx1-nAChR interaction sites could possibly provide drug targets. We found that dopaminergic cells from the su...
Article
Full-text available
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlies higher cognitive processes that are modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation by cholinergic inputs. PFC spontaneous default activity is altered in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-a disorder that can be accompanied by heavy smoking. Recently, genome-wide association st...
Article
Chronic treatment with nicotine is known to increase the α4β2-nAChR sites in brain, to decrease α6β2-nAChR sites and to have minimal effect on α3β4- and α7-nAChR populations. Varenicline is now used as a smoking cessation treatment, with and without continued smoking or nicotine replacement therapy. Varenicline, like nicotine, upregulates the α4β2-...
Chapter
Full-text available
A comprehensive overview of nicotinic receptors that addresses their history from crystal structure to behavior as well as their implications in disease and potential as therapeutic targets. It includes background information on all subtypes of nicotinic receptors, the most recent information on the distribution throughout the nervous system and di...
Chapter
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. Much of the function of these central nAChRs appears to be modulatory mediating the release of several neurotransmitters and perhaps neuropeptides. Synaptosomal preparations have been widely used to investigate nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter rel...
Article
Several mutations in α4 or β2 nicotinic receptor subunits are linked to autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). One such missense mutation in the gene encoding the β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit (CHRNB2) is a valine-to-leucine substitution in the second transmembrane domain at position 287 (β2VL)....
Article
Full-text available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing α6 subunits are expressed in only a few brain areas, including midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, noradrenergic neurons of the locus ceruleus, and retinal ganglion cells. To better understand the regional and subcellular expression pattern of α6-containing nAChRs, we created and studied transgenic...
Article
Full-text available
The smoking cessation aid, varenicline, has higher affinity for the alpha4beta2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2*-nAChR) than for other subtypes of nAChRs by in vitro assays. The mechanism of action of acute varenicline was studied in vivo to determine (a) subtype activation associated with physiological effects and (b) dose re...
Article
Full-text available
The inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM) causes substantial deposition in the nasal region. However, specific injury has not been characterized. 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) is an SM analogue used to model injury and screen potential therapeutics. After the inhalation of CEES, damage to the olfactory epithelium (OE) was extensive. Terminal deoxy...
Article
Full-text available
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a frequently used chemical warfare agent, even in modern history. SM inhalation causes significant respiratory tract injury, with early complications due to airway obstructive bronchial casts, akin to those seen after smoke inhalation and in single-ventricle physiology. This process with SM is poorly understood because animal...
Article
Sulfur mustard (bis-2-(chloroethyl) sulfide; SM) is a highly reactive vesicating and alkylating chemical warfare agent. A SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), has been utilized to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity and as a screen for therapeutics. Previous studies with SM and CEES have demonstrated a role for oxidative stress as well as de...
Article
Lipoic acid is a disulfhydryl-containing compound used in clinical medicine and in experimental models as an antioxidant. We developed a stable isotope dilution capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry assay for lipoic acid. We assayed a panel of the metabolites of transmethylation and transsulfuration 30 min after injecting 100 mg/kg lipoic...
Article
Full-text available
Lipoic acid (LA) and its reduced product dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are potent antioxidants with capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and recycle endogenous antioxidants. LA may increase cellular glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant lacking in the lung's epithelial lining fluid in lung disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)...
Article
Full-text available
Neutrophils are the primary inflammatory cell in smokers' lungs, but little is known about the ability of cigarette smoke to modulate neutrophil function. Neutrophils undergo caspase-3-dependent spontaneous, as well as phagocytosis-induced, apoptosis. This study investigated the ability of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to alter neutrophil caspase-3...
Article
Thioredoxin (Trx) decreases viscosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum. In this study reduced Trx increased the solubility and decreased the size of MUC5B glycoprotein while reducing disulfide bonds in sputum. Because Trx used as a mucolytic would enter airways, this study determined the effects of intratracheal instillation of reduced recombinant hu...
Article
Full-text available
Schizophrenics commonly demonstrate abnormalities in central filtering capability following repetitive sensory stimuli. Such sensory inhibition deficits can be mirrored in rodents following administration of psycho-stimulatory drugs. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with brain surface electrodes to record auditory evoke...
Article
There are similarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, especially during the psychotic phase. Auditory gating deficits are common in both schizophrenia (does not remit postpsychotic event) and bipolar disorder (only during the manic phase). Lithium has been used to treat psychosis acutely in both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. An a...
Article
Impaired auditory gating is common in schizophrenic patients. Evidence suggests that this deficit is related to a reduced number of alpha(7) nicotinic receptors and therefore treatment with alpha(7) nicotinic agonists may improve this condition. 3-(2,4)-Dimethoxybenzylidine anabaseine (DMXB; also known as GTS-21) is such an agonist and has shown ef...
Poster
ICV injections of antisense oligonucleotides for the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor reduce auditory gating in Sprague-Dawley rats

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