Heidi Brown

Heidi Brown
The University of Arizona | UA · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

PhD, MPH

About

91
Publications
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2,043
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Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
Green stormwater infrastructure provides environmental, economic, and health benefits as a strategy for building resilience against climate change impacts. However, it may inadvertently increase vulnerability due to improper design and construction or lack of maintenance. We engaged city stakeholders and a diverse student group to investigate possi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Arizona Helicobacter pylori prevalence of infection among Navajo adults is about 62% and gastric cancer incidence rate is 3-4 times higher than that of the non-Hispanic White population. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of specific H. pylori virulence factors (cagA and vacA) among Navajo patients undergoin...
Preprint
Background: In Arizona Helicobacter pylori prevalence of infection among Navajo adults is about 62% and gastric cancer incidence rate is 3-4 times higher than that of the non-Hispanic White population. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of specific H. pylori virulence factors (cagA and vacA) among Navajo patients undergoing a...
Article
Full-text available
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial stomach infections and is implicated in a majority of non-cardia gastric cancer. While gastric cancer has decreased in the United States (US), the incidence in the Navajo Nation is nearly four times higher than surrounding Non-Hispanic White populations. Little is known about H. py...
Article
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Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but lethal mosquito-borne zoonotic disease. Recent years have seen incursion into new areas of the USA, and in 2019 the highest number of human cases in decades. Due to the low detection rate of EEE, previous studies were unable to quantify large-scale and recent EEE ecological dynamics. We used Bayesian...
Article
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Objectives To understand how health departments implemented the response to the dual hazards of Heat Related Illness (HRI) and COVID-19 in Summer 2020. Methods We interviewed five health jurisdictions with a Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) Framework HRI project to understand impacts to organizational roles and preparedness acti...
Article
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Background Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) requires spatial proximity between infectious cases and susceptible persons. We assess activity space overlap among MDRTB cases and community controls to identify potential areas of transmission. Methods We enrolled 35 MDRTB cases and 64 TB-free community controls in Lima, Peru. C...
Article
Mosquito surveillance data can be used for predicting mosquito distribution and dynamics as they relate to human disease. Often these data are collected by independent agencies and aggregated to state and national level portals to characterize broad spatial and temporal dynamics. These larger repositories may also share the data for use in mosquito...
Article
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Background: Injury-causing events are not randomly distributed across a landscape, but how they are associated with the features and characteristics of the places where they occur in Arizona (AZ) remains understudied. Clustering of trauma events and associations with areal sociodemographic characteristics in the greater Phoenix (PHX), AZ region ca...
Conference Paper
p>Background. Helicobacter pylori, one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Chronic infections are associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. While H. pylori infections and gastric cancer are going down in the US, certain populations continue to experience high H. pylori prevalence of infection and a significant burd...
Article
Epidemiology is a core component of the undergraduate public health curriculum and a critical component for a healthy community and a comprehensive education. Evidence-based, collaborative instructional practices improve student success, reach diverse student populations, and improve learning outcomes. We describe the pedagogical approach of an ins...
Article
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Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, with incidence rates rising in many countries around the world. Geographic variation in pancreatic cancer incidence has not been studied extensively, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of pancreatic cancer...
Article
We added a vector control component to our existing abundance model to simulate intensive vector control in Puerto Rico. Removing 20–30% of gravid females in the model matches observed 60–80% reductions. The model’s capacity to reproduce vector control increases its utility for planning and evaluation strategies.
Article
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Stakeholder participation at the intersection of climate and health is essential to assess and plan for the human health impacts of current and projected climate-sensitive hazards. Using the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) Coalition on Climate Change and Public Health workgroup and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMA...
Article
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The risk of a zoonotic pandemic disease threatens hundreds of millions of people. Emerging infectious diseases also threaten livestock and wildlife populations around the world and can lead to devastating economic damages. China and the USA—due to their unparalleled resources, widespread engagement in activities driving emerging infectious diseases...
Article
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The classical gravity model assumes the knowledge of origin-destination (OD) flows between places. While this is reasonable for some modes of transportation such as air travel, it presents challenges to many other applications such as road travel where the observed flow on road segments, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), may involve traf...
Article
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Background: Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the strongest risk factor for distal gastric cancer. Although gastric cancer incidence has decreased, variation by race and ethnicity is observed. This study describes gastric cancer presentation and screening services among Medicare patients by race/ethnicity, place of birth, a...
Article
Worldwide, infectious agents currently contribute to an estimated 15% of new cancer cases. Most of these (92%, or 2 million new cancer cases) are attributable to 4 infectious agents: Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B and C viruses. A better understanding of how infectious agents relate to the US cancer burden may assist new...
Article
Full-text available
Author summary Mosquito-borne pathogens infect millions of people worldwide, and the rise in insecticide resistance is exacerbating this problem. A new generation of environmentally safe insecticides will be essential to control insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. One potential route to such novel insecticide targets is the identification of proteins...
Data
Reproductive phenotypes associated with EOF1 gene silencing by RNAi in A. albopictus. (A) Representative eggs are shown from mosquitoes injected with dsRNA-Fluc and dsRNA-EOF1. Mosquitoes were injected with dsRNA at 1 day after adult eclosion. (B) The effect of RNAi-Fluc control or RNAi-EOF1 control on A. albopictus fecundity was examined by counti...
Data
A confocal microscopic image of an ovariole isolated from A. aegypti mosquito. The representative image shows a developing primary follicle, a resting secondary follicle, and a germarium at 36 h PBM. Fixed follicles were stained for actin (phalloidin, green) and cell nuclei (DAPI, purple), and images were obtained by Nikon C1si confocal laser scann...
Data
EOF1 protein is necessary for complete eggshell formation and embryonic development in A. aegypti mosquitoes. A bleach test was performed to determine viability of 4-day-old eggs from RNAi studies. Light microscopic images were taken from RNAi-Fluc and RNAi-EOF1 females immediately prior to the addition of bleach (0 min). We frequently observed tha...
Data
Programmed shedding of follicular epithelial cells, secondary follicles, and germarium from the primary follicle occurs during late oocyte development in A. aegypti. Confocal microscopy images of representative individual follicles during mid- to late oogenesis, showing follicle development and shedding of the follicular epithelial cell layer. Ovar...
Data
mRNA distribution of EOF1 in A. aegypti mosquito primary follicles using whole-mount FISH. (A) EOF1 mRNA transcript distributions in primary follicles were visualized by hybridizing digoxygenin-labeled RNA probes. Primary follicles isolated from ovaries of untreated female mosquitoes at 36 h PBM were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and hybridized wi...
Data
Gene-specific primers used to amplify DNA templates for dsRNA synthesis. dsRNA, double-stranded RNA. (XLSX)
Data
Reproductive phenotypes associated with EOF1 gene silencing by RNAi in A. aegypti mosquitoes. (A) Mosquitoes injected with dsRNA-EOF1 at one day after adult eclosion produced inviable eggs. (B) Mosquitoes were injected with dsRNA-EOF1 immediately after blood feeding. These females laid eggs that show no difference in fecundity and viability compare...
Data
Eggshell enrichment and SDS-PAGE protein analysis. Representative ovaries from mosquitoes injected with dsRNA-Fluc (A) and dsRNA-EOF1 (A′). Mosquitoes were injected with dsRNA targeting EOF1 or Fluc control, and the ovaries were dissected from the injected mosquitoes at 96 h PBM. Ovaries were photographed immediately after dissection in 1× PBS. As...
Data
Gene-specific primers used to synthesize in situ hybridization probes. (XLSX)
Data
Numerical data used in the figures. (XLSX)
Data
RNAi-mediated knockdown of EOF1 expression in A. aegypti ovaries. (A) Single-mosquito qPCR analysis was performed to measure the relative RNAi knockdown level of EOF1 transcript in ovaries. Mosquitoes were microinjected with 2.0 μg of dsRNA-Fluc or dsRNA-EOF1 three days prior to blood feeding, and a pair of ovaries was dissected from 13 individual...
Data
Gene-specific primers for RNAi and qPCR. qPCR, quantitative real-time PCR; RNAi, RNA interference. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Research on the drivers of vaccine acceptance has expanded but most interventions fall short of coverage targets. We explored whether vaccine uptake is driven directly or indirectly by disgust with attitudes towards vaccines acting as a possible mediator. An online cross-sectional study of 1007 adults of the USA via Amazon's Mechanical Turk was con...
Article
Background: The majority of tuberculosis transmission occurs in community settings. The primary aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to community venues and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) disease. The secondary aim was to describe the social networks of MDR-TB cases and controls. Methods: This case-control...
Article
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Background: Emerging pathogens such as Zika, chikungunya, Ebola, and dengue viruses are serious threats to national and global health security. Accurate forecasts of emerging epidemics and their severity are critical to minimizing subsequent mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. The recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika virus to the Ameri...
Article
Describe differences in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) screening among a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare elderly population by ethnicity, place of birth, and gastric cancer (GC)-related conditions, as chronic infection with H. pylori is the strongest risk factor for distal GC. Methods: We used the National Cancer Institu...
Article
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em>Background . Valley fever is a fungal infection occurring in desert regions of the U.S. and Central and South America. Environmental risk mapping for this disease is hampered by challenges with detection, case reporting, and diagnostics as well as challenges common to spatial data handling. Design and Methods. Using 12,349 individual cases in A...
Article
Background: Seasonal influenza, though mostly self-limited in the healthy adult, may lead to severe disease and/or complications in subpopulations. Annual influenza vaccination is available in many countries with coverage goals rarely being met. We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine uptake and explored socio-demographic, econom...
Article
Full-text available
Background Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Current clinical recommendations are that H. pylori test-and-treat should be individualized based on comorbidities and patient preferences among populations at increased risk for certain morbidities. However, k...
Article
Understanding the dispersal of Aedes (aegypti (L.) Diptera: Culicidae) after consuming a potentially infectious bloodmeal is an important part of controlling the spread of the arboviruses it transmits. Because of the impact on abundance, removal of oviposition sites is a key component of vector control. However, source reduction around a case may e...
Article
We propose an improved Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance model that takes into account the effect of relative humidity (RH) on adult survival, as well as rainfall-triggered egg hatching. The model uses temperature-dependent development rates described in the literature as well as documented estimates for mosquito survival in environments with high RH, a...
Article
Background and aims: We sought to determine current knowledge and practices among gastroenterology physicians and assess adherence to current guidelines for H. pylori management. Methods: Online surveys were distributed in 2014 to practicing gastroenterology physicians for information related to the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection...
Article
Dynamic simulation models provide vector abundance estimates using only meteorological data. However, model outcomes may heavily depend on the assumptions used to parameterize them. We conducted a sensitivity analysis for a model of Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance using weather data from two locations where this vector is established, La Margarita, Pu...
Article
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Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US) to inform U...
Article
Little is currently known about the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics in arid areas. This study assesses dengue outbreaks that occurred in two arid cities of Mexico, Hermosillo and Navojoa, located in northern state of Sonora. Laboratory confirmed dengue cases from Hermosillo (N=2,730) and Navojoa (N=493) were geocoded by residence and...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes aegypti (L.) is one of the most important arboviral vectors worldwide. Vector control is targeted at immature and adult stages; however, eggs are resistant to desiccation and may repopulate treated areas long after treatment ceases. We investigated the effect of age on Ae. aegypti egg hatching rates using newly colonized populations (F2) from...
Article
From 1900 through 1996, mortality from infectious diseases declined in the United States, except for a 1918 spike due to the Spanish flu pandemic.¹ Since 1996, major changes in infectious diseases have occurred, such as the introduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and West Nile virus into the United States, advances in HIV/AIDS treat...
Article
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Recent events have thrown the spotlight on infectious disease outbreak response. We developed a data-driven method, EpiGro, which can be applied to cumulative case reports to estimate the order of magnitude of the duration, peak and ultimate size of an ongoing outbreak. It is based on a surprisingly simple mathematical property of many epidemiologi...
Article
As the range of dengue virus (DENV) transmission expands, an understanding of community uptake of prevention and control strategies is needed both in geographic areas where the virus has recently been circulating and in areas with the potential for DENV introduction. Personal protective behaviors such as the use of mosquito repellent to limit human...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Chagas disease, a disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, disproportionately affects poor people throughout Latin America. In Mexico, assessments of officially reported burden have not been previously reported. To evaluate discontinuity between surveillance data and data from other sources, we used data from the Mexican Ministry of Health...
Article
Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from th...
Article
While estimates of the impact of climate change on health are necessary for health care planners and climate change policy makers, models to produce quantitative estimates remain scarce. This study describes a freely available dynamic simulation model parameterized for three West Nile virus vectors, which provides an effective tool for studying vec...
Article
Bluetongue is a Culicoides-borne viral disease of livestock. In 2006, northern Europe experienced a major outbreak of this disease with devastating effects on the livestock industry. The outbreak quickly spread over the region, primarily affecting cattle and sheep. A previous analysis of the role of vector flight and wind in the spread of this viru...
Article
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Author Summary Chikungunya is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Currently, there is an epidemic of chikungunya in several islands and countries in the Americas. Despite efforts at understanding and predicting spread, there have been no studies assessing the spatio-temporal spread of chikungunya in any of the Caribbean islands, mainly due to a la...
Article
Rabies is arguably the most important viral zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 55,000 human deaths each year. Globally, dogs are the primary animals affected. In the United States, especially on the East Coast, raccoons and bats are the primary reservoir. However, in the southwestern United States, skunk and bat rabies play a large role....
Article
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Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. Th...
Chapter
Summer season average temperatures in the Southwest United States are projected to be up to 9°F (approximately 5°C) higher than the present by the end of the twenty-first century (see Chapters 6 and 7 for details on climate change predictions in the Southwest). Global climate models also forecast changes in precipitation patterns, drought, flooding...
Article
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An examination of the Companion Animal Parasite Council's (CAPC) canine heartworm data to clarify the spatial prevalence of heartworm in the United States. Factors thought to influence the spatial risk of disease, as identified in a recent CAPC workshop, are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter describes various approaches for extending environmental observations into actionable public health decisions.
Article
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The 2006 bluetongue (BT) outbreak in northwestern Europe had devastating effects on cattle and sheep in that intensively farmed area. The role of wind in disease spread, through its effect on Culicoides dispersal, is still uncertain, and remains unquantified. We examine here the relationship between farm-level infection dates and wind speed and dir...
Article
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Quantifying the abundance of host-seeking fleas is critical for assessing risk of human exposure to flea-borne disease agents, including Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Yet, reliable measures of the efficacy of existing host-seeking flea collection methods are lacking. In this study, we compare the efficacy of passive and active m...
Article
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Although several health departments collect coyote blood samples for plague surveillance, the association between reported human cases and coyote seroprevalence rates remains anecdotal. Using data from an endemic region of the United States, we sought to quantify this association. From 1974 to 1998, about 2,276 coyote blood samples from four Arizon...