Heather Massey

Heather Massey
Extreme Environments Laboratory, University of Portsmouth · Department of Sport and Exercise Science

BSc, MSc, PhD

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68
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Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics have been well studied during land‐based exercise. However, less is known about V̇O2 kinetics during swimming exercise and comparisons between strokes is non‐existent. We aimed to characterize and compare the V̇O2 kinetics, ventilatory,e and metabolic response to constant velocity moderate‐intensity...
Preprint
Background Frontline healthcare staff working in the National Health Service (NHS) have been, and continue to be, under a significant level of work related stress as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Long hours and greater clinical need have impacted negatively on work-life balance. The results of our preliminary studies indicate that outdoor swim...
Article
Introduction The volume, nature, and risks of paragliding are poorly quantified. More comprehensive understanding, including incident rates allowing comparison to similar disciplines, will help direct and appraise safety interventions. Methods Paraglider pilots were surveyed regarding experience, incidents, recordkeeping, and risk perception. The...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Detection of early changes in vital signs (VS) enables timely intervention; however, measurement of VS requires hands-on technical expertise and is often time-consuming. Contactless measurement of VS is beneficial to prevent infection, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lifelight® is a novel software being developed to measure VS by r...
Article
It has long been claimed that non-wetsuit cold water swimming (CWS) benefits health (1), and anecdotally cold-water swimmers claimed to suffer fewer and milder infections, though this was not directly measured. A boost to immunity is biologically plausible: stress hormones are released during cold-water immersion (2), and short-term stress may read...
Article
INTRODUCTION: The paragliding reserve parachute system is safety-critical but underused, unstandardized, and known to fail. This study aimed to characterize reserve parachute deployment under radial acceleration to make recommendations for system design and paraglider pilot training. METHODS: There were 88 licensed amateur paraglider pilots who wer...
Article
We investigated whether an 11-day heat acclimation programme (HA) enhanced endurance performance in a temperate environment, and the mechanisms underpinning any ergogenic effect. Twenty-four males (V̇O2max: 56.7±7.5 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed either: i) HA consisting of 11 consecutive daily exercise sessions (60-90 minutes·day⁻¹; n=16) in a hot envir...
Article
Full-text available
Background Anecdotal evidence suggests that outdoor swimming can improve mood. This feasibility study examined the mood and well‐being in participants attending an outdoor swimming course. Methods Profile of Mood States and Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well‐being Scale questionnaires were completed by participants on a 10‐week introductory outdo...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Outdoor swimming has grown in popularity in many countries including the UK. Many anecdotal accounts indicate an improvement in medical conditions which are considered a consequence of outdoor swimming. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to better understand outdoor swimmers’ perceptions of their health and the extent to which participation imp...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Outdoor swimming in lakes, lidos (outdoor pools), rivers, and the sea has grown in popularity in many countries, including the United Kingdom. Many anecdotal accounts indicate improvements in medical conditions, which are considered a consequence of outdoor swimming. Objective: The aim of this study is to better understand outdoor sw...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? Does recreational cold exposure result in cold sensitivity and is this associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired sensory thermal thresholds? What is the main finding and its importance? Previous cold exposure was correlated with foot cold sensitivity which may indicate the develo...
Article
Full-text available
A s the popularity of open water swimming continues to grow, so do the number of people 'pushing the boundaries' at the extremes of distance and temperature. We spoke to some leading experts on cold water swimming and gained some advice about the effects it has on the body, how to look out for signs of hypothermia and a few general pointers if you'...
Article
Full-text available
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare genetic disorder occurring as a consequence of gene mutations that code for the ectoderm of the developing embryo and results in numerous disorders of varying severity. The lack of functioning sweat glands in those affected with ED leads to high infant mortality and frequent complaints of hyperthermia. Temperatur...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Paragliding is an emerging discipline of aviation, with recreational pilots flying distances over 100 km. It remains risky. Accidents typically relate to pilot error rather than equipment failure. We measured cognition and physiological responses during simulated flight, to investigate whether errors might be due to pilot impairment,...
Article
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterised by recurrent transient peripheral vasospasm and lower nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in the cold. We investigated the effect of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation on i) NO-mediated vasodilation, ii) cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and skin temperature (T sk ) following local cooling a...
Article
Objectives To provide a rationale for minimum water temperature rules for elite and subelite marathon swim racing and highlight factors that make individuals vulnerable to excessive cooling during open water swimming. Methods 12 lean competitive swimmers swam for up to 2 hours, three times in different water temperatures between 14°C and 20°C, wea...
Article
A 24-year-old woman with symptoms of major depressive disorder and anxiety had been treated for the condition since the age of 17. Symptoms were resistant to fluoxetine and then citalopram. Following the birth of her daughter, she wanted to be medication-free and symptom-free. A programme of weekly open (cold) water swimming was trialled. This led...
Article
Lomax, M, Mayger, B, Saynor, ZL, Vine, C, and Massey, HC. Practical considerations for assessing pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation during flume swimming using the MetaSwim metabolic cart. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1941-1953, 2019-The MetaSwim (MS) metabolic cart can assess pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation in aquatic environments. The ai...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To provide a scientific rationale for lower water temperature and wetsuit rules for elite and subelite triathletes. Methods 11 lean, competitive triathletes completed a 20 min flume swim, technical transition including bike control and psychomotor testing and a cycle across five different wetsuit and water temperature conditions: with w...
Article
Introduction. Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. In cold-water, sudden skin cooling triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR). The CSR comprises tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, hypertension, inspiratory gasp, and hyperventilation with the hyperventilatory component inducing hypocapnia and increasing risk of as...
Article
Aim To investigate inter-individual variance in adaptive responses to heat acclimation (HA). Methods 17 males (VO2max=58.8(8.4) mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) undertook 10-days (exercise + heat-stress [40 °C, 50%RH]) HA. Adaptation was assessed by heat stress tests (HST; 60–minutes cycling, 35% peak power output) pre- and post-HA. Results Inter-individual variab...
Article
This study examined the acute and chronic effects of euhydrated and hypohydrated heat exposure, on biomarkers of stress and inflammation. Eight trained males [mean (SD) age: 21 (3) y; mass: 77.30 (4.88) kg; V̇O2max: 56.9 (7.2) mL kg-1 min-1] undertook two heat acclimation programmes (balanced cross-over design), once drinking to maintain euhydratio...
Article
Introduction: This study investigated skin vasomotor responses in the fingers and toes during cooling and rewarming with and without normobaric hypoxia. Methods: Fourteen volunteers (8 males and 6 females) were exposed to gradual air cooling (mean±SD: -0.4±0.1oC·min-1) followed by rewarming (+0.5±0.1oC·min-1) while breathing normoxic air (FIO2 0...
Article
Wilkes, Matt, Martin J. MacInnis, Lucy A. Hawkes, Heather Massey, Clare Eglin, and Michael J. Tipton. The physiology of paragliding flight at moderate and extreme altitudes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Paragliding is a form of free flight, with extreme-altitude paragliding being an emerging discipline. We aimed to describe the physiological...
Article
In most countries, immersion represents the second most common cause of accidental death in children and the third in adults. Between 2010 and 2013, 561 deaths worldwide involving recreational divers were recorded by the Divers Alert Network. Consequently, there is no room for complacency when diving. Being lost at sea is a diver's worst nightmare....
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypothe...
Article
New findings: What is the topic of this review? This is the first review to look across the broad field of 'cold water immersion' and to determine the threats and benefits associated with it as both a hazard and a treatment. What advances does it highlight? The level of evidence supporting each of the areas reviewed is assessed. Like other environ...
Article
Adaptations to heat and hypoxia are typically studied in isolation, but are often encountered in combination. Whether the adaptive response to multiple stressors affords the same response as when examined in isolation is unclear. We examined: i) the influence of overnight moderate normobaric hypoxia on the time course and magnitude of adaption to d...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxic environments increase the physiological demands of exercise. Inspiratory muscle training can reduce the demands of exhaustive exercise in this environment. This study examined the impact of inspiratory muscle training on moderate intensity hypoxic cycling exercise. METHODS: There were 17 healthy adult men who undertook 4 wk o...
Article
Introduction: Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR) which is a precursor to sudden death on immersion. One practical means of reducing the CSR is to induce an habituation by undergoing repeated short CWIs. Habituation of the CSR is known to be partially reversed by the concomitant experience...
Conference Paper
Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is caused by prolonged exposure to cold and often wet conditions with the feet and hands being most susceptible. The long-term symptoms of NFCI include cold sensitivity (CS), pain, numbness and hyperhidrosis. CS is reported by most patients with NFCI and is characterized by low foot/hand skin temperature, even in a w...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: i) the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction It has been suggested that adaptation to heat might be ergogenic [1] and that dehydration might represent an additional stimulus for plasma volume expansion and adaptation [2]. This study examined the effect of dehydration on the time-course of Heat Acclimation (HA) and temperate exercise performance. Methods A within-participant (n=8...
Article
We examined the effect of short-term heat acclimation with permissive dehydration (STHADe) on heat acclimation (HA) and cycling performance in a temperate environment. Ten trained male cyclists [mean (SD) maximal oxygen uptake: 63.3(4.0) mL/kg/min; peak power output (PPO): 385(40) W; training: 10 (3) h/week] underwent a STHADe program consisting of...
Article
Full-text available
Habituation of the cold shock response and adaptation in deep body cooling with prolonged cold water immersion is well documented in adults. This study aimed to determine whether children exhibit similar adaptive responses. Eight children aged 10–11 years underwent a 5 min static immersion in 15 °C (59 °F) water, five then swam for up to 40 min, be...
Article
Introduction: Accidental immersion in cold water is an occupational risk. Work suits and life jackets (LJ) should work effectively in combination to keep the airway clear of the water (freeboard) and enable self-righting. We hypothesized that inherent buoyancy, in the suit or LJ, would be beneficial for enabling freeboard, but its distribution may...
Article
Purpose This study investigated possible sex-related and intra-menstrual differences in local vascular and skin temperature responses when conductive cooling was applied to the soles of the feet. Method Twelve females and twelve males exposed the soles of their feet to a cooling plate (which cooled from 35 to 15 °C) on two occasions 12–15 days a...
Article
Chronic exposure to a stressor elicits adaptations enhancing the tolerance to that stressor. These adaptive responses might also improve tolerance under less stressful conditions. For example, historically there has been much interest in the adaptive responses to high-altitude, or hypoxia, and their ergogenic potential under sealevel, or normoxic,...
Article
Full-text available
Wearing a lifejacket when immersed in water should support the wearer, maintaining their airway clear of the water. It is proposed that a retention system would improve airway protection by improving retention of the lifejacket around the torso. Study one (n = 10) quantified the performance of lifejackets immediately following a step into water fro...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have published methodologies that can be used to analyze simultaneous gaze behaviors and recurrent fixations while multiple observers are viewing dynamic scenes and moving their heads. In this study, we aimed to develop a methodological framework to assess simultaneous gaze behaviors and recurrent fixations in predetermined areas of int...
Article
Full-text available
The third Global Open Water Swimming Conference was for the first time held in Europe. Researchers, swim pioneers and leading marathon swimmers came together to present research related to the water environment, pioneer swims, young and old marathon swimmers and human physiology.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined the impact of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on low intensity exercise in a hypoxic environment (14.6% oxygen) simulating an altitude of 3000m. Nine healthy male participants (mean(SD) age: 29.6(9.4)years; mass: 83.7(15.3)kg; height: 174.6(8.2)cm) completed four fixed intensity (100W of external work) and fixed duration (10 m...
Article
Full-text available
To provide an accurate estimate of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) for British Royal Navy Personnel aged between 18 and 39, comparing a gold standard treadmill based maximal exercise test with a submaximal one-mile walk test. Two hundred military personnel consented to perform a treadmill-based VO2 peak test and two one-mile walk tests round an athle...
Article
Cooling vests (CV) are often used to reduce heat strain. CVs have traditionally used ice as the coolant, although other phase-change materials (PCM) that melt at warmer temperatures have been used in an attempt to enhance cooling by avoiding vasoconstriction, which supposedly occurs when ice CVs are used. This study assessed the effectiveness of fo...
Article
Aim: To investigate the effect of different water immersion (WI) treatments on recovery from intermittent shuttle running exercise in comparison to an ecologically relevant control.Methods: Forty males performed 90 minutes intermittent shuttle running, following which they were assigned to either: (1) 12-min standing WI at 12°C; (2) 12-min standing...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect different cycling cadences have on heart rate variability (HRV) when exercising at constant power outputs. Sixteen males had ECG and respiratory measurements recorded at rest and during 8, 10 min periods of cycling at four different cadences (40, 60, 80 and 100 revs min(-1)) and two power outputs...
Article
Introduction Drowning is the third leading cause of accidental death worldwide. Many deaths from immersion in cold water are wrongly attributed to hypothermia. Humans can survive numerous hours in cold water, as seen in open water swimmers who complete endurance swims for many hours at low water temperatures. Previous studies performed on cold-wate...
Article
Adaptation to an environmental stressor is usually studied in isolation, yet these stressors are often encountered in combination in the field, an example being cold and hypoxia at altitude. There has been a paucity of research in this area, although work with rodents indicates that habituation to repeated short cold exposures has a cross-adaptive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Many studies that have investigated autonomic activity whilst exercising in different environmental conditions have used cycling as the mode of exercise. However, if the work rate and cadence of the cycling exercise is not controlled, the study may incorrectly conclude that the manipulation of environmental conditions may have altered...
Article
Full-text available
Military training represents a significant physical challenge. Low fitness levels are strongly associated with an increased risk of injury and training attrition. To increase pass rates for Royal Navy (RN) Phase I training, a pre-joining fitness test (PJFT) was introduced (2.4 km treadmill best effort run). The PJFT was designed to identify candida...
Article
Full-text available
Nine personnel simulating the work of an NBC cleansing station (CS) in conditions expected in Middle Eastern waters had a limited work duration due to incapacitating heat strain. When the subjects were allowed five minutes rest periods after every 10 minutes of work, the endurance of seven of the subjects was limited to between 75-105 minutes due t...

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