Heather Bush

Heather Bush
University of Kentucky | UKY · Department of Statistics

About

152
Publications
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3,412
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Publications

Publications (152)
Article
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Youth who witness parental intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk of teen dating violence (DV). This analysis of secondary data investigated whether a bystander intervention program, Green Dot, was effective at reducing physical and psychological DV victimization and perpetration among youth who had and had not previously witnessed p...
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K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student inv...
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Purpose Cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) are popular in school-based research designs where schools are randomized to different trial arms. To help guide future study planning, we provide information on anticipated effect sizes and intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs), as well as school sizes, for dating violence (DV) and inter...
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Bystander interventions are recognized as “promising” programming to reduce sexual violence. Gaps in current evaluations include limited follow-up post-training (beyond 24 months) and knowledge of additional bystander training during follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), three cohorts of...
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Engaged bystander interventions are recognized as "promising" programming to reduce sexual violence (SV), yet little is known of the long-term (>12-month) impact of programming on SV and related forms of gender-based violence. Funded by NIH as a prospective cohort study, Life's Snapshot recruited and followed three waves of high school seniors who...
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Data from a campus climate/violence survey (CCS) include psychometric information for survey items/scales plus findings from a large state university to promote its usefulness for assessment of interpersonal violence/harassment. This CCS can thus be evaluated for its measurement and documented findings, allowing for benchmarking purposes. An innova...
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This paper offers lessons learned in evaluating the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act (2013) requirement that colleges receiving Title IX funds provide bystander programming to reduce sexual violence. To conduct this evaluation a national college consortium was created [multi college bystander efficacy evaluation (mcBEE)]. Through t...
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To investigate sex differences in associations between sexual violence victimization (SVV), sexual violence perpetration (SVP), and binge drinking and/or alcohol problems among high school students. While SVV has been linked to problem alcohol use among young women, little research has addressed the unique associations of SVV and SVP on alcohol use...
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As mandated by the 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act, bystander programs to reduce sexual and intimate partner violence are being adopted in college communities throughout the United States. However, little is currently known about how bystander programs are selected, implemented and experienced by staff and students. In the Multi-College...
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding (U01 CE002668) to evaluate bystander program efficacy to reduce gender-based violence on college campuses (Aim 1) and to create a mentoring network (Aim 2) for young campus-based researchers interested in violence intervention or prevention (VIP). While an evaluation of this mentoring...
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This methods paper describes the fractional factorial design within the context of an evaluation of campus bystander programming. Prior evaluations include relative program comparisons, but do not reflect campus implementation of specific aspects of prevention programming. Campuses use combinations of programs, delivered across modalities, audience...
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We report the prevalence and number of violent events of sexual violence, sexual harassment, stalking, and bullying experienced among sexual minority girls, sexual minority boys, heterosexual girls, and heterosexual boys. We conducted covariate-adjusted analyses of variance on 16,243 high school youth from 13 schools in Kentucky. Sexual minority bo...
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Personality traits, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school seniors prior to attending or not attending institutions of higher education were explored. Because of this age-group’s risk level, variables assessed included historical social/cultural factors, internal/contextual factors, and lifestyle factors potentially associated with vio...
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Many bystander programs to prevent violence have been developed and evaluated in college populations. An exception is the randomized controlled trial of Green Dot, found effective in reducing violence rates and violence acceptance in 26 high-schools (2010–2014). In ‘Life’s Snapshot’, 10,727 seniors were recruited from these same schools with the go...
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Bystander interventions have been highlighted as promising strategies to reduce sexual violence and sexual harassment, yet their effectiveness for sexual minority youth remains largely unexamined in high schools’ populations. This rigorous cluster randomized control trial addresses this gap by evaluating intervention effectiveness among sexual majo...
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Background: The circadian system entrains behavioral and physiological rhythms to environmental cycles and modern lifestyles disrupt this entrainment. We investigated a timed exercise intervention to phase shift the internal circadian rhythm. Methods: In fifty-two young, sedentary adults, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured before and...
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The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate factors influencing the adoption of an effective bystander-based sexual violence prevention intervention. High schools participating in a cluster-randomized controlled trial that found significant declines in sexual violence over time and with full implementation were invited to adopt this pr...
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This study extends prior analyses from a 5-year multisite cluster-randomized controlled trial to examine how the previously reported effects of the Green Dot bystander-based prevention program worked to reduce violence perpetration. Bystander-based interventions are hypothesized to prevent violence by reducing violence acceptance and increasing tra...
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Introduction: Few studies have examined the association of geography and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients, particularly differences between Appalachian and non-Appalachian Kentucky women, which is important given the cancer and socioeconomic disparities present in Appalachia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine...
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Purpose of Review This review discusses design and methodological challenges specific to measuring bystander actions in the evaluation of bystander-based violence prevention programming. “Bystanders” are defined as people who are present immediately before, during, and/or after a violent event, but are not a perpetrator nor the intended victim. Bys...
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Bystander-based violence prevention interventions have shown efficacy to reduce dating violence and sexual violence acceptance at the individual level yet no large randomized controlled trial (RCT) has evaluated this effect at the high-school level and over time. This rigorous cluster-randomized controlled trial addresses this gap by evaluating int...
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Background: Interpersonal violence continues to affect health long after violence has ended. This analysis investigated stress, support, and health behaviors as mediators potentially explaining persistent health impacts of violence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional analysis of 12,594 women "Wellness, Health & You" (WHY) participants, authors measu...
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Purpose: The purpose was to determine whether Appalachian residence alone or in combination with violence was linked to poorer quality of life (QOL). Methods: Women recently diagnosed and included in either the Kentucky or North Carolina Cancer Registries were interviewed by phone between 2009 and 2015 (n = 3320; mean age = 56.74). Response rate...
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There is a growing body of literature that childhood or adult trauma exposure can have lifelong mental and physical health impacts. In this large cross-sectional analysis, authors investigated combinations of trauma types and pain resulting in functional limitations among women recruited into a statewide health registry. Combinations of traumas suc...
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Purpose: The main purposes were to describe individualized outcomes of students receiving school-based physical therapy and determine if goal attainment differed by gross motor ability and age. Methods: One hundred nine physical therapists and 296 students participated. At the beginning of the school year, therapists translated students' Individ...
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Background: Assessment of health-related status has been shown to vary between patients and physicians, although the degree of patient-physician discordance in the assessment of the change in status is unknown. Methods: Ninety-nine patients with shoulder dysfunction underwent a standardized physician examination and completed several self-report...
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Objective: Because partners are an important and unpaid resource in cancer care, understanding how destructive, controlling or interfering partner behaviors influence women's cancer care may be particularly relevant for health care providers seeking to provide cancer care and enhance recovery. Using a new measure of partner interfering behaviors i...
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Purpose: To describe the use of practice-based evidence research methodology in a prospective, multisite observational study to investigate changes in students' participation in school activity, self-care, posture/mobility, recreation/fitness, and academic outcomes, and the relationships of these changes to characteristics of school-based physical...
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Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most frequently injured knee ligaments. Despite reconstruction, many individuals report difficulty returning to high level activities that require greater dynamic stability. Since few methods have been tested to assess dynamic stability post ACL reconstruction (ACLR), the purpose of this stud...
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Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the comorbidity burden in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA); and (2) characterize the complexity of these concurrent comorbidities. Methods: A retrospective chart review was completed of 303 children with ASD who received...
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Rural cancer survivors report more distress than non-rural survivors. Little research has examined whether rural residence might also be linked to positive psychological outcomes. Rural (n = 117) and non-rural (n = 76) lung cancer survivors completed measures of posttraumatic growth, benefit-finding, and distress. Rural survivors reported more post...
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Background: Emergency departments (EDs) serve a wide range of patients who present at risk of impending suicide and homicide. Aims: Two statewide surveillance systems were probabilistically linked to understand who utilizes EDs and then dies violently within 6 weeks. Method: Each identified case was matched with four randomly selected controls...
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Introduction: The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing...
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Objectives: Chronic patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common orthopedic condition for which little is understood of the alterations in pain processing such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, and the relationship of altered knee mechanics to hyperalgesia. We assessed pain, pressure pain thresholds (PPT), detection to light touch, and the relationship of p...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of complementary and novel measures of partner interfering and partner supportive behaviors in cancer care (PIB-C and PSB-C). Methods: Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 378 women (aged 18-79) in partnered relationships and recruited from the Kentucky Can...
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BACKGROUND PURPOSE: Scapular muscle performance is potentially influenced by arm dominance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of arm dominance on clinical measures of scapulohumeral muscle strength and endurance. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy individuals between the ages of 30 and 65 years were recruited to participate. Scapular...
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Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department...
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We examined public and personal stigma among a community sample of 1,000 women living in primarily rural counties of Western Kentucky. Data on demographics, depression, stigma, health information sources, and availability of health services were collected via a random digit dial survey. The prevalence of depression was 15.7%. The majority of respon...
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Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) w...
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Little research has examined how lung cancer survivors whose cancer experience met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) traumatic stressor criterion differ with regard to posttreatment mental health status from survivors whose cancer experience did not. No research of which we are aware has examined the impact of the revi...
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Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health l...
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The Measure of Psychologically Abusive Behaviors (MPAB) was developed recently to improve on prior scales. Two nationally solicited samples of women were utilized to further validate the MPAB through the use of a criterion group, factor analysis, and designation of a threshold for accurate classification. MPAB scores were twice as high in the crite...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking and stress with non-persistent and persistent back pain. Subjects included 3703 women who participated in the Kentucky Women's Health Registry in 2008 and 2011. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine whether smoking status and stress levels were predicti...
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There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH). The KDPH serv...
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Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and sever...
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Study design: Descriptive, laboratory-based, cross-sectional study. Objectives: To describe scapular musculature strength, endurance, and change in thickness in individuals with unilateral lateral epicondylalgia (LE) compared to the uninvolved limb and the corresponding limb of a matched comparison group. Background: Reported poor long-term ou...
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The goals of this study were to assess the predictive value of chart-abstracted American College of Rheumatology functional status (ACR-FS) with patient-reported ACR-FS and to relate it with measures of muscle function in a single-institution cohort of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). Demographic and clinical data of 102 pat...
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Purpose Adequate levels of physical activity are essential for health, but participation in sports and recreational physical activities is associated with an increased risk of injury. The present study quantifies the impact of sports- and recreation-related injuries (SRIs) for middle and high school–aged Kentucky children. Methods The study descri...
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This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Qu...
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Purpose: To investigate the relationship between antenatal/intrapartum factors and Medicaid use. Methods: Three databases were used: (1) birth records; (2) Medicaid files; and (3) Medicaid dental claims. Results: Children of Caucasian mothers were 34 percent more likely to have more than one restorative claim versus children of African America...
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The objective of this study was to report the frequency of perpetration and victimization of unwanted sexual activities (threatened to end relationship or other pressures to engage in sexual activities, threatened or actual physical force, and facilitated by drugs or alcohol) in a large, statewide sample of high school males and females. Among 18,0...
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This school-based sample provides the largest estimate of physical and psychological dating violence (DV) victimization and the only report of DV perpetration among high school students. Among 14,190 students in relationships, 33.4% disclosed DV by a partner (victimization) and 20.2% used these same behaviors against a partner (perpetration) in the...
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Objectives: To present the rationale and arguments behind the proposition that the field of intimate partner violence (IPV) would greatly benefit from developing gold standard instrumentation that would be expected to advance this field of scientific inquiry and to propose a phased model for accomplishing the development of such instrumentation. Me...
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Increasing attention has recently been paid to the development of prevention programs designed to actively engage bystanders in prevention efforts to reduce the risk of sexual and dating violence; yet, few evaluations have been conducted. Our proposed plan to rigorously evaluate a randomized intervention trial of the Green Dot bystander program as...
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Evidence suggests that interventions to engage bystanders in violence prevention increase bystander intentions and efficacy to intervene, yet the impact of such programs on violence remains unknown. This study compared rates of violence by type among undergraduate students attending a college campus with the Green Dot bystander intervention (n = 2,...
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify characteristics of pediatric patients who failed to keep the majority of their scheduled dental appointments in a pediatric dental clinic staffed by pediatric dental residents and faculty members. Methods: The electronic records of all patients appointed over a continuous 54 month period were...
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Objective To identify sources of general and mental health information for rural women to inform the development of public health nursing interventions that consider preferences for obtaining information.Design and SampleOne thousand women (mean age = 57 years; 96.9% White) living in primarily nonmetropolitan areas of Western Kentucky participated...
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Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1187-1194, 2014-Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain sy...
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Healthy People 2020 identifies elimination of health disparities as a key aim. Rural residence is associated with disparities in cancer screening, physical morbidity, and survival. The present study aimed to identify potential disparities in mental health (MH) outcomes (e.g., anxiety and depression symptoms, distress) in lung cancer (LC) survivors...
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The incorporation of the multiple mini-interview (MMI) into the postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency program selection process was evaluated. Four MMI stations evaluating the highest-rated nonacademic attributes of prospective residents (critical thinking, teamwork, ethical reasoning and integrity, and communication and interpersonal skill...
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Context: Whereas guidelines about return-to-play (RTP) after concussion have been published, actual prognoses remain elusive. Objective: To develop probability estimates for time until RTP after sport-related concussion. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: High school. Patients or other participants: Injured high school varsit...
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Azithromycin treatment improves clinical parameters in patients with CF, and alters macrophage activation from a pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype to a pro-fibrotic, alternatively activated (M2) phenotype. The transcriptional profile of cells from patients receiving azithromycin is unknown. Gene expression in association with macrophage polarization,...
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Objectives: Although ankle sprains have the highest recurrence rate of any musculoskeletal injury, objective estimates of when an athlete is likely to return-to-play (RTP) are unknown. The purpose was to compare time to return-to-play probability timelines for new and recurrent ankle sprains in interscholastic athletes. Design: Observational. M...
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The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine compliance in requesting parents to remain silent (noncommunicative) when accompanying their child into the dental operatory for restorative care; and (2) determine if any difference in parental compliance existed when combined written and verbal instructions were given to a parent vs written instru...