Håvard Lorås

Håvard Lorås
Norwegian University of Science and Technology | NTNU · Department of Teacher Education

Doctor of Psychology

About

69
Publications
20,643
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1,059
Citations
Citations since 2016
46 Research Items
875 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
The developmental pathways of athletes with a physical disability into world-class paras-port are much less researched and understood compared to able-bodied athletes’ participationhistories. The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental pathways of para-athletestoward elite performance. Data from eight athletes with physical disab...
Article
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Both the indoor and the outdoor environments and their organization exert pronounced influence upon physical activity behavior and motor development of preschool children. The aim of this study was to explore whether partly structured activity or free play in a specific playground had different impacts on motor competence development in 4–6-year-ol...
Article
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It is important to examine changes in driving performance and driver behavior with increasing age to improve road safety. The main purpose of this study was to explore if there were any differences in a group of young drivers (n=36, Mage=32) and a group of elderly drivers (n =40, Mage=72) on driving performance and driving skills on a number of dri...
Article
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The relative age effect (RAE) is a statistical bias observed across sport contexts and consists of a systematic skewness in birth date distribution within an annual-age cohort. In soccer, January 1 st is the common cut-off date when categorizing players in competitions according to their chronological age, which potentially disadvantages those with...
Article
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Individual differences in tempo and timing of biological maturity, especially in adolescents, has been argued as a potential underlying cause of relative age effects observed in Physical education (PE). Indeed, differences in maturation could influence pupils`achievement in PE where motor behavior and physical activity are central tenets. However,...
Article
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Different characteristics of sports disciplines potentially lead to skewness in birth month distribution (relative age effect, RAE). These characteristics can be considered from a constraint-based approach with interacting environmental, task, and individual constraints as a theoretical framework with which to examine variations in RAE. The main ai...
Article
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In physical education (PE), both assessment practices and choice of teaching content indicate that pupil-related factors such as motor competence and physical fitness potentially influence pupils' academic achievement in PE. However, neither of these factors are explicitly expressed as assessment criteria in the Norwegian PE-curriculum. Hence, the...
Article
Purpose: Physical education (PE) teachers’ assessments are often based on continuous observations of pupils. As certain psychological factors may mediate pupils’ learning behaviors relevant to the PE context, they may also influence academic achievement in PE. Thus, this study’s aim was to explore the association between pupil-related psychological...
Article
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Performance of bimanual motor actions requires coordinated and integrated bilateral communication, but in some bimanual tasks, neural interactions and crosstalk might cause bilateral interference. The level of interference probably depends on the proportions of bilateral interneurons connecting homologous areas of the motor cortex in the two hemisp...
Article
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Individual soccer performance is notoriously difficult to measure due to the many contributing sub-variables and the variety of contexts within which skills must be utilised. Furthermore, performance differs across rather specialised playing positions. In research, soccer performance is often measured using combinations of, or even single, sub-vari...
Article
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Bimanual performance depends on effective and modular bilateral communication between the two bodysides. Bilateral neural interactions between the bodysides could cause bimanual interference, and the neuromuscular system for proximal and distal muscles is differently organized, where proximal muscles have more bilateral interneurons at both cortica...
Article
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Appropriate levels of motor competence are an integrated part of individuals’ health-related fitness, and physical education is proposed as an important context for developing a broad range of motor skills. The aim of the current study was to apply meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of curriculum-based physical education on the development o...
Article
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While research on the effects of ‘birth month’ is usually referred to as relative age effects, the study of the effects of ‘birth year’ is described as the constituent year effect (CYE). In the present study we examined the impact of the CYE on participation in the Junior World Championship in alpine skiing. Based on previous research, we expected...
Article
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A well-known hypothesis amongst educators and the general public is that matching instructional method with an individual’s modality-specific learning style improves learning. Several critical reports in the past decade, however, have shown that the psychometric properties of the inventories applied to establish modality-specific learning styles ha...
Article
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It is often argued within sports circles that the age span of around 6–12 years is a golden age for motor skill learning, and this period is often described as sensitive, or even critical, for learning such skills. Consequently, skill development programmes target this age span for teaching technical and coordinative skills. In the scientific liter...
Article
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Acute exercise influences human cognition, and evidence suggests that learning can be improved. According to the cognitive–energetic approach towards exercise cognition, exercise represents a stressor that elevates physiological arousal, which, in turn, increases the availability of mental resources. However, the degree of arousal is hypothesized t...
Article
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Background: To improve the goal-directedness of strength exercises for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), physical rehabilitation specialists need to know which muscle-groups are most substantially weakened across the kinetic chain of both lower extremities. The purpose was to improve the knowledge base for strength exercise therapy. The obj...
Article
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Background: To raise the effectiveness of interventions, clinicians should evaluate important biopsychosocial aspects of the patient's situation. There is limited knowledge of which factors according to the International Classification of Function, Disability, and Health (ICF) are most deviant between patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and he...
Conference Paper
Introduction Dual-task interference is the relative change between single-task performance and a dual-task performance (Plummer & Eskes, 1988). A interpretation of the dual-task interference is the degree of distraction between two tasks performed simultaneously, and it is suggested that the interference increases with increased level of similarity...
Article
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Entrainment is a ubiquitous property not only of interacting non-linear dynamical systems but also of human movements. In the study reported here, two premises of entrainment theory were investigated in a tapping task conducted in both interpersonal (i.e. between individuals) and intrapersonal (i.e. between effectors) conditions. Hypothesis 1 was t...
Article
A variety of training methods have been described in the literature to improve speed and agility. Step frequency, which is the rate at which steps can be reproduced, is one of the traditional step kinematic measure used to describe running technique. Previous research has illustrated the importance for faster acceleration (Murphy, Lockie, Coutts, 2...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the physical (locomotor activities) and physiological (Banister’s training impulse) in-season training load between starters and substitutes in a well-trained junior soccer team. Physical performance variables from the Polar Team Pro system were collected and analyzed from a sample of junior s...
Article
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Acute exercise has an influence on human cognition, and both theoretical approaches and previous investigations suggest that the learning process can be facilitated. A distinction has been made however, between the predominately positive effects on task speed compared to both the negative and null effects on aspects of task accuracy. The aim of thi...
Article
Full-text available
A well-known hypothesis in education and amongst the general public is that matching instructional method with an individual’s modality-specific learning style improves learning and cognitive performance. Several critical reviews in the past decade, however, have shown that the hypothesis has not been properly evaluated with appropriate methodology...
Article
The aim of the current study was 1) to investigate whether the number of accelerations is a more precise estimate of performance decline in soccer compared to distances with high-speed running (HSR) and 2) to compare changes in the number of accelerations and HSR distances across playing positions in order to examine whether the match profiles of t...
Article
Previous studies have argued that a person’s ability to write legibly with the non-dominant hand after a limited amount of practice suggests that manual skill can be easily transferred. The present study investigated the degree to which handedness can be altered by short-term practice on the highly complex manual activity of handwriting. Nine stron...
Article
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Many medical, psychiatric and neurological conditions have been characterized by a high prevalence of left-handedness or mixed-handedness. Several studies have indicated an elevated frequency of left-handedness in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). However, there have been few studies explicitly exploring this relationship. Th...
Article
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The impact on learning outcome of tailoring instruction and teaching toward modality-specific learning style preferences has been researched and debated for decades. Several topical reviews have concluded that there is no evidence to support the meshing hypothesis and that it represents a persistent neuromyth in education. The concept, however, is...
Article
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The present study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy, flow, positive- and negative affect, worry and ski jumping performance, as well as the degree of influence these psychological factors have on ski jumping performance in specific competitions and overall World Cup ranking. World Cup ski jumpers (N = 40) responded to four questio...
Article
Acute exercise has an influence on human cognition, and evidence suggests that immediate learning can be facilitated. The purpose of this study was to explore the acute effect of high-intensity exercise conducted with different exercise modes on immediate learning outcome, and whether the effect was moderated by self-reported arousal. To this end,...
Article
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As many similar symptoms are reported in fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), underlying defcits may potentially also be similar. Postural disequilibrium reported in both conditions may thus be explained by similar deviations in postural control strategies. 75 females (25/group FM, CFS and control, age 19-49 years) performed 60 s o...
Data
Processed data for quiet standing on amplitude (AMP) and frequency (MF) for the slow (RM) and fast (TR) components in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions for the three conditions: with vision (QO), without vision (QCL), and with vision standing on a compliant surface (QP) for the three groups: control (0), chronic fatigue synd...
Article
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Previous studies have shown faster tapping speed and better tapping symmetry in drummers, compared with nondrummers. The present study investigated the effect on tapping frequency of mechanically constraining the joints of the arm on unimanual and bimanual drumming speed across drummers and nondrummers. Skilled drummers were compared with nondrumme...
Article
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The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the adva...
Article
Background: Neck pain is a common and often disabling musculoskeletal condition. Two therapies frequently prescribed for its management are manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy (ET), and combining these treatment approaches are common. Objective: To assess whether or not combined treatment consisting of MT and ET is more effective than eithe...
Article
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Perspectives on developmental milestones suggest that an infant's ability to stand without support occurs at the age of 9–16 months. The two exploratory tasks were part of a baby swimming routine, conducted over a period of 12 weeks (24 sessions), and the aim was to examine whether young infants (mean age 97 days) improved their performance in stan...
Article
Full-text available
Tests or test batteries used for assessing motor skills, either in research studies or in clinical settings, apply a variety of procedures for scoring performances, including everything from one to ten attempts, of which the best is scored or an average is computed. The rationale behind scoring procedures is rarely stated, and it seems that the num...
Article
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The coach-created motivational climate within youth sports teams has been shown to be of great importance for the quality of youths’ sports experiences as well as their motivation for continuing or discontinuing sport participation. While the player’s perspective on motivational climates has been studied extensively, the coach’s perspective has rec...
Article
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This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens c...
Data
S1 Table shows raw data used for the statistical analysis shown in Tables 1 and 2. (XLS)
Article
Full-text available
The term relative age effect (RAE) refers to age differences between athletes within the same cohort, and is frequently found within a plethora of sports. Less clear than the actual occurrence of the effect has been the strength of the effect across, and within, different sports, and also variations across sex, age, and skill level. In this study,...
Article
Objectives: A substantial proportion of survivors after brain injuries originating from trauma, tumour, or stroke may experience reduced ability to work due to a number of challenges. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight factors that have been perceived and reported as important in order to return to work after an acquired brai...
Article
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In this article, the psychometric properties of a new test battery aimed at quantifying motor competence across the life span are explored. The battery was designed to be quantitative, simple to administer, applicable for large-group testing, and reliably to monitor life span motor development. A total of 638 participants between 5 and 83 years of...
Article
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Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in n...
Article
-Despite the many benefits of involvement in youth sports, participation in them declines throughout childhood and adolescence. The present study performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting dropout rates in youth soccer, involving a total of 724,036 youths ages 10-18 years from five countries. The mixed effects meta-regr...
Article
Laser beams have been applied in many human motion research contexts to project movements in specific motor tasks. Currently, there are no objective analysis methods for laser projection recordings. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of quantifying motion by applying frame differencing and image analysis methods to v...
Article
The most effective treatment approach to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is not known. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of treadmill training and progressive strength training on walking in people with MS. A single blinded randomized parallel group trial was carried out. Eligible participants were adults with...
Article
The purpose of this narrative review is to present an overview and theoretical rationale of medical exercise therapy (MET) as a physiotherapeutic rehabilitation treatment for musculoskeletal pain conditions. Results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on MET are also presented. Computerized searches for any RCTs were conducted on the...
Article
-Soccer is a multidimensional sport that requires skills in many different domains. Reports from competitions at the highest levels around the world suggest that a particularly decisive performance factor is a team's technical execution. Testing of technical skills in soccer has been infrequent compared with testing of physiological variables, and...
Conference Paper
Introduction Levels of motor competence influence amount, intensity and level of physical activity performed by children. In turn, motor competence is built up on acquisition of both gross and fine motor skills. With this study we investigated in 110 five years old children the effects on motor skills of 10 sessions of outdoor motor activities play...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired postural control has been associated with poor reading skills, as well as with lower performance on measures of attention and motor control variables that frequently co-occur with reading difficulties. Measures of balance and motor control have been incorporated into several screening batteries for developmental dyslexia, but it is unclear...
Article
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Individual differences in mathematical skills are typically explained by an innate capability to solve mathematical tasks. At the behavioural level this implies a consistent level of mathematical achievement that can be captured by strong relationships between tasks, as well as by a single statistical dimension that underlies performance on all mat...
Article
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The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100) performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measure...
Article
ABSTRACT Differences in postural control and performance between psychotic patients and healthy subjects were investigated using a dual task paradigm. Center of pressure (CoP) data and whole-body kinematics of the center of mass (CoM) were recorded during quiet standing with and without a backward counting task. Dual task response was similar in bo...
Article
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This study investigated aspects of individual differences in timing of continuous and discontinuous movements to different pacing signals (auditory or visual), pacing intervals (500, 650, 800, 950 ms), and across effectors (dominant versus non-dominant hand). Correlation and principal component analysis demonstrated that a single statistical dimens...
Article
There is evidence that patients with psychotic conditions display greater center of pressure (CoP) displacement during quite standing than healthy subjects, but the underlying impairments in the control mechanisms are uncertain. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of possible impairments in the control of posture by modulation of visua...
Article
Full-text available
Background Muscle activity and pain development of fibromyalgia (FM) patients in response to mental stress show inconsistent results, when compared to healthy controls (HCs). A possible reason for the inconsistent results is the large variation in stress exposures in different studies. This study compares muscle responses of FM patients and HCs for...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in fibromyalgia (FM) patients and healthy controls (HCs) during different sleep stages, and to examine the association of HRV with pain and sleep quality. Method: Polysomnography was recorded from 23 female FM patients and 22 age- and sex-matched HCs. HRV was recorded from bedtime until awa...
Article
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Motor skills are typically considered to be highly specific, although some researchers have attempted to identify evidence for general motor aptitude. The present study tested these contentions by assessing the extent of relationship between fine motor tasks, using correlations between selected performance measures for three fine motor skills. Univ...
Article
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Sensorimotor synchronization is hypothesized to arise through two different processes, associated with continuous or discontinuous rhythmic movements. This study investigated synchronization of continuous and discontinuous movements to different pacing signals (auditory or visual), pacing interval (500, 650, 800, 950 ms) and across effectors (non-d...
Article
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We focus on the effect of cadence and work rate on energy expenditure and efficiency in cycling, and present arguments to support the contention that gross efficiency can be considered to be the most relevant expression of efficiency. A linear relationship between work rate and energy expenditure appears to be a rather consistent outcome among the...
Article
Changes in pedaling rate during cycling have been found to alter the pedal forces. Especially, the force effectiveness is reduced when pedaling rate is elevated. However, previous findings related to the muscular force component indicate strong preferences for certain force directions. Furthermore, inertial forces (due to limb inertia) generated at...