Harvey S Levin

Harvey S Levin
Baylor College of Medicine | BCM

About

248
Publications
32,785
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13,043
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
4221 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600

Publications

Publications (248)
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military populations can cause disruptions in brain structure and function, along with cognitive and psychological dysfunction. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) can detect alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure, but few studies have examined brain asymmetry. Examining asymmetry in large samples ma...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adult patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) exhibit distinct phenotypes of emotional and cognitive functioning identified by latent profile analysis of clinical neuropsychological assessments. When discerned early after injury, these latent clinical profiles have been found to improve prediction of long-term outcomes from mTBI...
Article
Objective: To investigate the factors predictive of novel psychiatric disorders in the interval 0-6 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Children ages 5-14 years consecutively hospitalized for mild to severe TBI at five hospitals were recruited. Participants were evaluated at baseline (soon after injury) for pre-injury charact...
Article
Background and objectives: Recent team-based models of care use symptom subtypes to guide treatments for individuals with chronic effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, these subtypes, or phenotypes, may be too broad, particularly for balance (e.g., 'vestibular subtype'). To gain insight into mTBI-related imbalance we 1) explored...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a significant concern in military populations, is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, cognition, as well as physical and psychological dysfunction. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is particularly sensitive to changes in brain structure following TBI, as alterations in white matter (...
Article
Objective: The investigators examined the factors predictive of novel oppositional defiant disorder in the 6-12 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Children ages 5-14 years old who experienced a TBI were recruited from consecutive admissions to five hospitals. Participants were evaluated soon after injury (baseline) for prein...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recognized sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the long-term outcomes associated with PTE independent of injury severity are not precisely known. Objective To determine the incidence, risk factors, and association with functional outcomes and self-reported somatic, cognitive, and psychological...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with considerable mortality and morbidity in adolescents, but positive outcomes are possible. Resilience is the concept that some individuals flourish despite significant adversity. Objective: To determine if there is a relationship between resilience-promoting factors that are known to prom...
Article
Thorough identification of risk factors for delayed decline in cognitive performance following combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is important for guiding comprehensive post-deployment rehabilitation. In a sample of veterans who reported at least one deployment-related mTBI, preliminary results indicate that factors including a histo...
Article
Objective: The investigators aimed to assess predictive factors of novel oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) among children and adolescents in the first 6 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Children ages 5-14 years who experienced a TBI were recruited from consecutive admissions to five hospitals. Testing of a biopsychosocia...
Article
Problems with social functioning are common following combat deployment, and these may be greater among individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present investigation examined the impact of mild TBI (mTBI), deployment-related characteristics, and resilience on perceived participation limitations among combat Veterans. This wa...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: A head computed tomography (CT) with positive results for acute intracranial hemorrhage is the gold-standard diagnostic biomarker for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). In moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] scores 3-12), some CT features have been shown to be associated with outcomes. In mild TBI (mTBI; GCS scores 13-15)...
Article
Importance: Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the US and worldwide. Few studies have enabled prospective, longitudinal outcome data collection from the acute to chronic phases of recovery after msTBI. Objective: To prospectively assess outcomes in major areas of life function at 2 weeks...
Article
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common, comorbid, and often disabling for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identifying transdiagnostic symptom dimensions post-TBI may help overcome limitations of traditional psychiatric diagnoses and advance treatment development. We characterized the dimensional structure of neuropsychiatric symptoms at 2...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Our study addressed aims: (1) test the hypothesis that moderate-severe TBI in pediatric patients is associated with widespread white matter (WM) disruption; (2) test the hypothesis that age and sex impact WM organization after injury; and (3) examine associations between WM organization and neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods Data from ten...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Knowledge of differences in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recovery by sex and age may inform individualized treatment of these patients. Objective To identify sex-related differences in symptom recovery from mTBI; secondarily, to explore age differences within women, who demonstrate poorer outcomes after TBI. Design, Setting, and...
Article
Full-text available
Sport-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Around the globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenous samples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in children in both developed and developing nations. Children and adolescents suffer from TBI at a higher rate than the general population, and specific developmental issues require a unique context since findings from adult research do not necessarily directly translate to chil...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common among military personnel and the civilian population and is often followed by a heterogeneous array of clinical, cognitive, behavioral, mood, and neuroimaging changes. Unlike many neurological disorders that have a characteristic abnormal central neurologic area(s) of abnormality pathognomonic to the disorder,...
Article
Full-text available
Automated neuroimaging methods like FreeSurfer (https://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/) have revolutionized quantitative neuroimaging analyses. Such analyses provide a variety of metrics used for image quantification, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetrics. With the release of FreeSurfer version 6.0, it is important to assess its compa...
Article
Full-text available
Mediation analysis was used to investigate the role of white matter integrity in the relationship between injury severity and verbal memory performance in participants with chronic pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). DTI tractography was used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA) within the corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum bundles, perforant p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Annually, approximately 3 million children around the world experience traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), of which up to 20% are characterized as moderate to severe (msTBI) and/or have abnormal imaging findings. Affected children are vulnerable to long-term cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, as injury can disrupt or alter ongoing brain maturation....
Preprint
Full-text available
Sports-related brain injury is very common, and the potential long-term effects include a widerange of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and potentially neurodegeneration. Aroundthe globe, researchers are conducting neuroimaging studies on primarily homogenoussamples of athletes. However, neuroimaging studies are expensive and time consuming,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common among military personnel and is often followed by a heterogeneous array of clinical, cognitive, behavioral, mood, and neuroimaging changes. This inconsistent presentation makes it difficult to establish or validate biological and imaging markers that could help improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in thi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The global burden of mortality and morbidity caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant and the heterogeneity of TBI patients and the relatively small sample sizes of most current neuroimaging studies is a major challenge for scientific advances and clinical translation. The ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis)...
Preprint
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in children in both developed and developing nations. Children and adolescents suffer from TBI at a higher rate than the general population; however, research in this population lags behind research in adults. This may be due, in part, to the smaller number of investigators engag...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to contribute to deficits in executive functioning (EF). Executive functioning abilities are disrupted in adolescents with either conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, collectively known as disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). There is little research on the relationship between executive dysfunct...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained by military personnel, including its prevalence, the chronic effects in veterans, and subacute injury in service members. The distribution of acute severity TBI and the contribution of blast and non-blast mechanisms are discussed. A separate section desc...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has demonstrated its utility in detecting microscopic post-concussion cerebral white matter structural changes, which are not routinely evident on conventional neuroimaging modalities. In this study, we compared 10 adolescents with sports concussion (SC) to 12 orthopedically-injured (OI) individuals within 96 h and th...
Article
Objectives: Investigate the relation of chronic pain interference to functional connectivity (FC) of brain regions and to cortical thickness in post-911 Veterans and Service Members (SMs) who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: This is an observational study with cross-sectional analyses. A sample of 65 enrollees completing ini...
Article
Primary objectives: To describe the association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and pain intensity and pain interference outcomes while accounting for potential confounders and mediators including environmental factors and comorbidities in a cohort of US Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Research design:Cross-sectional snapshot...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Compare characteristics and outcomes of combat-exposed military personnel with positive versus negative mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) histories. Setting: Recruitment was from registration lists and ambulatory clinics at four veterans administration hospitals. Participants: Consented veterans and service members completing initial e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity in military Veterans and Service Members. While most individuals recover fully from mild injuries within weeks, some continue to experience symptoms including headaches, disrupted sleep, and other cognitive, behavioral or physical symptoms. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)...
Article
Background: An important component of the multicentre Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium (CENC) project is the development of improved quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, including volumetric analysis. Although many studies routinely employ quality assurance (QA) procedures including MR and human phantoms to promote accura...
Article
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter (WM) tracts [i.e. perforant pathway zone (PPZ); uncinate fasciculus (UF); fornix (Fx)] using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS...
Article
Chronic Effects of Blast-Related TBI on Subcortical Functional Connectivity in Veterans – Erratum - Volume 22 Issue 7 - Mary R. Newsome, Andrew R. Mayer, Xiaodi Lin, Maya Troyanskaya, George R. Jackson, Randall S. Scheibel, Annette Walder, Ajithraj Sathiyaraj, Elisabeth A. Wilde, Shalini Mukhi, Brian A. Taylor, Harvey S. Levin
Article
Full-text available
Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connecti...
Article
Introduction: Research addressing deployment-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is fairly complex due to a high prevalence of comorbid conditions, multiple exposures, and the lack of acute medical records. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined, matching comparison group. This study compared deployment-related characteristics, everyday fu...
Article
Objectives: Blast explosions are the most frequent mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in recent wars, but little is known about their long-term effects. Methods: Functional connectivity (FC) was measured in 17 veterans an average of 5.46 years after their most serious blast related TBI, and in 15 demographically similar veterans without TBI...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired at ∼24 h and ∼3 months post-injury on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; n = 75) and orthopedic injury (n = 60) cohorts. The mTBI subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group with atorvastatin or a non-treatment mTBI group. The treatment group was further divided into drug and placebo subgroups....
Article
To study the relation of loss of consciousness (LOC) to white matter integrity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), we acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 tesla in 79 participants with mTBI and normal computed tomography(age 18 to 50 years) whom we imaged after a mean post-injury interval of 25.9 hours (SD= 12.3), and at 3 months. For...
Article
Purpose: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is thought to be a network disease and structural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown. However, lateralized differences in the structural integrity of TLE, as well as changes in structural integrity with longer disease duration, have not been well defined. Methods: We examined the fr...
Article
Full-text available
We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the effects of boxing on brain structure and cognition in 10 boxers (8 retired, 2 active) (mean age=45.7 years, SD=9.71) and nine participants (mean age=43.44, SD=9.11) in non-combative sports. Evans Index (maximum width of the anterior horns of the lateral vent...
Article
Full-text available
Personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. This study aimed to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included 177 children 5-14 years old with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled from consecutive admissions t...
Article
We examined sleep-related problems in adolescents and young adults after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or orthopedic injury. We extended the analysis of data from a study of early emotional and neuropsychological sequelae in these populations (McCauley et al. 2014. J Neurotrauma. 31:914). We gave the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to 77 part...
Article
Full-text available
Although most mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) patients recover within three months, a subgroup of patients experience persistent symptoms. Yet, the prevalence and predictors of persistent dysfunction in mTBI patients remain poorly understood. In a longitudinal study, we evaluated predictors of symptomatic and cognitive dysfunction in adolescents...
Article
Full-text available
Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes). Little is also known about th...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research using cognitive paradigms has found task-related activation that includes prefrontal brain structures and that is attenuated in association with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present investigation used a cognitive control paradigm, the Arrows Task, to study subjects who had not sustained a traumatic brain injury during...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequently documented among the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) veterans. This study will investigate both combat exposure and PTSD as factors that may influence objective cognitive outcomes following blast-related mild TBI...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6-16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n=177) and evaluated wi...
Article
Objective: To examine the relationship between clinical characteristics and cognitive performance in service members and veterans with histories of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Design: This study consisted of 40 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) service members and veterans; 20 participants reporte...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the life-long implications of social and communication dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, there is a poor understanding of these deficits in terms of their developmental trajectory and underlying mechanisms. In a well-characterized murine model of pediatric brain injury, we recently demonstrated that pronounced deficits in...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-inj...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic...
Article
Cognitive dysfunction is the leading cause of disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article provides a review of the cognitive sequelae of TBI, with a focus on deficits of executive functioning and everyday thinking skills. The pathophysiology, assessment, and treatment of TBI-related cognitive problems are also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is now recognized as a major health issue, there have been relatively few studies of its acute effects. Previous studies of mTBI assessed at one week or less postinjury have produced inconsistent results, spanning reports of no ill effects to findings of robust dysfunction. These gross disparities reflect...
Article
Full-text available
Primary objective: Brain structures and their white matter connections that may contribute to emotion processing and may be vulnerable to disruption by a traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring in childhood have not been thoroughly explored. Research design and methods: The current investigation examines the relationship between diffusion tensor...
Article
Full-text available
Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is not typically associated with abnormalities on computed tomography (CT), it nevertheless causes persistent cognitive dysfunction for many patients. Consequently, new prognostic methods for mTBI are needed to identify at risk cases, especially at an early and potentially treatable stage....
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to understand how novel psychiatric disorders (NPD) in children with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are related to pre-injury variables, injury-related variables, and concurrent neurocognitive outcome. A group of 79 children, ages 5 to 14 years, who had experienced MTBI, were studied from consecutive hospital adm...
Article
Full-text available
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has recently gained appreciation as a significant public health problem, which has highlighted just how little is known about its proximal and long-term effects. A major challenge in the study of mTBI is the heterogeneity of the condition. Research on mTBI has historically separated sport and nonsport etiologies,...
Article
Full-text available
Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has been associated with amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and...
Article
Objective: Low birth weight (LBW; below 2500 grams) is a general risk factor for a variety of neurodevelopmental difficulties. However, these children may remain more vulnerable to neurologic and environmental insults occurring years later. This prospective case series reports on children who sustained a mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain i...
Article
Full-text available
The objective was to assess the nature, rate, predictive factors, and neurocognitive correlates of novel psychiatric disorders (NPD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Children age 5–14 years with MTBI (N=87) from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers were enrolled and studied with semistructured psychiatric interviews soon after inj...
Article
Full-text available
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) show deficient response inhibition. ADHD itself is a common consequence of TBI, known as secondary ADHD (S-ADHD). Similarity in inhibitory control in children with TBI, S-ADHD, and ADHD would implicate impaired frontal-striatal systems; however, it is fir...
Article
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For this pilot study, we compared performance of 15 adolescents with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to that of 13 typically developing (TD) adolescents in predicting social actions and consequences for avatars in a virtual microworld environment faced with dilemmas involving legal or moral infractions. Performance was analyzed in rela...