Harvey Burd

Harvey Burd
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Engineering Science

BA, D.Phil, MICE

About

152
Publications
96,001
Reads
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3,001
Citations
Citations since 2016
60 Research Items
1880 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 1987 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Shallow tunnel construction inevitably causes local ground movements to occur. In an urban environment, these ground movements may cause damage to existing buildings on the ground surface. This paper describes a new, simplified, one-dimensional (1D) soil-foundation interaction model for use in damage assessment analyses of buildings that are at ris...
Article
Full-text available
Failure envelope formulations are typically employed to assess the ultimate capacity of foundations under combined loading and for incorporation in macro-element models. However, the complex interaction between each load component, especially for six degree of freedom (6DoF) loading, means that determining satisfactory formulations is often a compl...
Chapter
Deformations and damage induced in masonry buildings due to nearby tunnel construction activities are influenced by various factors relating to the ground conditions and the structural characteristics of the building and its foundations. The current paper draws on recently completed work at Oxford University, UK on three-dimensional (3D) finite ele...
Chapter
Underground construction activities, such as tunnelling, cause local ground movements to occur. Nearby surface structures interact with the moving ground, potentially leading to building damage. Although it is understood that the severity of building damage is influenced by the façade opening ratio (OpR) and the stiffness of the floors, experimenta...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Human cortical opacities are most commonly accompanied by changes in lens fiber structure in the equatorial region at the lens nucleus-cortex interface. Cortex and nucleus have different elastic properties which change with age. We therefore subjected lenses ex vivo to simulated accommodation and studied the internal deformations to bette...
Conference Paper
Analysis models for the design of offshore piles and suction buckets in sandy seabed soils typically assume fully drained soil behaviour for all loading rates. However, for wind turbine support applications, the dimensions of installed foundations are tending to increase as larger generating plants are deployed. For relatively large foundations of...
Conference Paper
New geotechnical design methodologies are being utilised to develop site-specific soil reaction curves for the analysis of large diameter monopile foundations. Although there are numerous recent publications outlining new geotechnical design approaches for monopiles, there are few case studies outlining the practical application of such approaches...
Article
Full-text available
Suction caisson foundations provide options for new foundation systems for offshore structures, particularly for wind turbine applications. During the foundation design process, it is necessary to make reliable predictions of the stiffness of the foundation, since this has an important influence on the dynamic performance of the overall support str...
Conference Paper
Robust design of offshore wind turbine foundations requires that the ultimate capacity is acceptable. In addition the accumulated deformations over 25 years of operational life, typically 10 8 cycles, must also be limited. This paper outlines a numerical method for modelling the response of monopiles to monotonic and cyclic lateral loading to very...
Article
The PISA design model is a procedure for the analysis of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine applications. This design model has been previously calibrated for homogeneous soils; this paper extends the modelling approach to the analysis of monopiles installed at sites where the soil profile is layered. The paper describes a computational...
Article
Scour erosion processes can occur at seabed level around offshore wind turbine monopile foundations. These scour processes are often especially severe at sites where mobile sediments, such as sands, are present in the superficial seabed soils. Loss of local soil support to the monopile, caused by scour erosion, can lead to significant changes in th...
Article
This paper presents a new constitutive model for clay, for undrained monotonic and cyclic loading, that has been developed specifically for geotechnical design applications. The model employs a parallel Iwan approach, consisting of multiple elastic-perfectly-plastic micro models. Degradation of stiffness and strength during cyclic loading is incorp...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a one-dimensional (1D) computational model for the analysis and design of laterally loaded monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine applications. The model represents the monopile as an embedded beam and specially formulated functions, referred to as soil reaction curves, are employed to represent the various components o...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore wind turbines in shallow coastal waters are typically supported on monopile foundations. Although three-dimensional (3D) finite-element methods are available for the design of monopiles in this context, much of the routine design work is currently conducted using simplified one-dimensional (1D) models based on the p–y method. The p–y metho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes an automated approach for determining the optimal dimensions (length and diameter) of a suction caisson foundation subject to lateral loads, to minimise the foundation weight, whilst satisfying installation requirements, serviceability and ultimate limit states. The design problem was cast as a constrained optimisation problem....
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents the development of a three-dimensional finite-element model for pile tests in dense Dunkirk sand, conducted as part of the PISA project. The project was aimed at developing improved design methods for laterally loaded piles, as used in offshore wind turbine foundations. The importance of the consistent and integrated interpretati...
Article
Full-text available
The PISA project was a combined field testing/numerical modelling study with the aim of developing improved design procedures for large-diameter piles subjected to lateral loading. This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional finite-element model for the medium-scale pile tests that were conducted in Cowden till as part of the PISA w...
Article
Full-text available
The results obtained from a field testing campaign on laterally loaded monopiles, conducted at a dense sand site in Dunkirk, northern France are described. These tests formed part of the PISA project on the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. Results obtained from monotonic loading tests on pi...
Article
The PISA Joint Industry Research Project was concerned with the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations in offshore wind applications. PISA involved large-scale pile tests in overconsolidated glacial till at Cowden, north-east England, and in dense, normally consolidated marine sand at Dunkirk, northern France. This paper de...
Article
This paper describes the results obtained from a field testing campaign on laterally loaded monopiles conducted at Cowden, UK, where the soil consists principally of a heavily overconsolidated glacial till. These tests formed part of the PISA project on the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines....
Article
This paper is the first of a set of linked publications on the PISA Joint Industry Research Project, which was concerned with the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations in offshore wind applications. PISA involved large-scale pile tests in overconsolidated glacial till at Cowden, north-east England, and in dense, normally c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes an implementation of the methodology, developed in Phase 2 the recent PISA (PIle Soil Analysis) joint industry research project, for the design of laterally-loaded monopiles in layered soils. The software PLAXIS MoDeTo and PLAXIS 3D are employed to obtain the soil reaction curves that are required for the method, following the...
Conference Paper
This paper provides an overview of the PISA design model recently developed for laterally loaded offshore wind turbine monopiles through a major European joint-industry academic research project, the PISA Project. The focus was on large diameter, relatively rigid piles, with low length to diameter (L/D) ratios, embedded in clay soils of different s...
Article
Full-text available
The failure envelope approach is widely used to assess the ultimate capacity of shallow foundations for combined loading, and to develop foundation macro-element models. Failure envelopes are typically determined by fitting appropriate functions to a set of discrete failure load data, determined either experimentally or numerically. However, curren...
Article
Full-text available
The failure envelope approach is commonly used to assess the capacity of shallow foundations under combined loading, but there is limited published work that compares the performance of various numerical procedures for determining failure envelopes. This paper addresses this issue by carrying out a detailed numerical study to evaluate the accuracy,...
Chapter
This paper provides a brief overview of the Pile Soil Analysis (PISA) project, recently completed in the UK. The research was aimed at developing new design methods for laterally loaded monopile foundations, such as those supporting offshore wind turbine structures. The paper first describes the background to the project and briefly outlines the ke...
Article
This paper provides a summary of the PIle Soil Analysis (PISA) project, completed in the UK during the period 2013 to 2018. The research led to the development of a new, computationally efficient, one dimensional design model for laterally loaded monopile foundations, particularly for offshore wind turbine support structures. The current form of th...
Poster
Full-text available
The recently-completed PISA (PIle Soil Analysis) research project aimed to improve the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines (OWT), focusing on laterally-loaded monopiles with length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios between 2 and 6. The project resulted in a novel one-dimensional (1D) design model which overcomes certain limitations in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recently-completed PISA (PIle Soil Analysis) research project aimed to improve the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines (OWT), focusing on laterally-loaded monopiles with length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios between 2 and 6. The project resulted in a novel one-dimensional (1D) design model which overcomes certain limitations in...
Chapter
Local and global scour around offshore wind turbine monopile foundations can lead to a reduction in system stiffness, and a consequential drop in the natural frequency of the combined monopiletower- nacelle structure. If unchecked this could lead to operational problems such as accelerated fatigue damage and de-rating or decommissioning of the turb...
Conference Paper
For a material or structural model, which satisfies the extended Masing rules under cyclic loading, a unique parallel or series Iwan-model exists which characterises the stress-strain response. Both the parallel and series version of the model result in the same stress-strain response when loaded in one dimension. In numerical implementation, the s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most existing Winkler models use non-linear elastic soil reactions to capture the non-linear be-haviour of foundations. These models cannot easily capture phenomena such as permanent displacement, hys-teresis and the influence of combined loading on the failure states. To resolve these shortcomings, an elasto-plastic Winkler model for suction caiss...
Conference Paper
In the offshore industry, open-ended steel piles are primarily designed using one of three pile design methods: the API (2011), the ICP (2005) and the UWA (2005). The soil plug, inside the pile, is considered differently in each of the methods, producing different pile lengths due to the varying assumptions adopted. A one-dimensional finite element...
Article
Full-text available
Deep excavations are widely used for the development of underground space. The structural performance of any deep excavation is influenced by details of the soil behaviour, the form of the retaining and support structures that are employed and also the sequence of construction. Finite element analysis is potentially an effective tool for considerin...
Article
Experimental protocols have been developed to measure the spatial variation of the mechanical strains induced in the lens capsule during ex vivo lens stretching. The paper describes the application of these protocols to porcine lenses. The deformations and mechanical strains developed in the anterior capsule during each experiment were determined u...
Article
Excavations for deep basements in urban areas present complex design questions, e.g. related to the selection of retaining systems and the specification of construction processes. Consideration must be given to the design of structural systems to support the excavation and the mitigation of any impact that the construction might have on any nearby...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the outcome of a recently-completed research project – known as PISA – on the development of a new process for the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine support structures. The PISA research was concerned with the use of field testing and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis to develop and calibrate...
Poster
Full-text available
In the PISA project, over 28 pile test are performed to investigate the behaviour of monopile foundations. These test piles are instrumented with inclinometers and displacement transducers above ground; a subset of the piles are instrumented below ground with inclinometers, extensometers and strain gauges. To analyse the data, processing tools are...
Conference Paper
Current design standards for offshore open-ended piles vary in their consideration of the soil plug’s contribution to the pile’s axial capacity and, indirectly, to its stiffness. API RP2 GEO (2011) and UWA-05 (Lehane et al., 2005) consider the contribution of the plug, but ICP-05 (Jardine et al., 2005) combines the plug capacity with the end bearin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improved design of laterally loaded monopiles is central to the development of current and future generation offshore wind farms. Previously established design methods have demonstrable shortcomings requiring new ideas and approaches to be developed, specific for the offshore wind turbine sector. The Pile Soil Analysis (PISA) Project, established i...
Article
The likely severity and extent of cracking damage in existing masonry buildings caused by shallow tunnelling in urban areas is typically assessed in practice using a phased sequence of calculations of increasing complexity. If initial assessments (e.g. with the building modelled as an elastic beam) suggest that damage could be significant, or for b...
Conference Paper
When developing 3D finite element models to assess the likely extent of structural damage caused to surface buildings by the construction of nearby shallow tunnels, care is needed to ensure that the building is represented with an appropriate level of detail. The current paper is concerned with procedures to model a shallow footing in finite elemen...
Article
Equatorial wrinkles, or crenations, have been previously observed around the equator in coronal images of the human ocular lens. However, wrinkles are typically not apparent when the lens is viewed from saggital directions. In the current paper, the existence and geometry of these wrinkles is shown to be consistent with a mechanical model of the is...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The use of a femtosecond laser to form planes of cavitation bubbles within the ocular lens has been proposed as a potential treatment for presbyopia. The intended purpose of these planes of cavitation bubbles (referred to in this paper as 'cutting planes') is to increase the compliance of the lens, with a consequential increase in the amp...
Article
The pig lens has been used as a model for presbyopia as pigs lack accommodative ability. Previous studies using microindentation have indicated that the shear modulus distribution is qualitatively similar to that of the aged human lens and that the lens does not alter its refractive power due to equatorial stretching. A lens spinning test was used...
Article
The design of deep excavations requires careful consideration of the influence of various soil/structure interaction mechanisms and detailed issues relating to the construction processes and the mechanics of the soil. Finite-element analysis provides a useful design tool for deep excavations, but care needs to be taken to ensure that an appropriate...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have emerged as a relatively new strain sensing technology for civil engineering applications. This paper presents a field trial to assess the feasibility of using FBG sensor arrays to measure strain in driven steel piles. Two FBG arrays were installed in grooves within the wall of an open-ended st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Offshore wind turbines are typically founded on single large diameter piles, termed monopiles. Pile diameters of between 5m and 6m are routinely used, with diameters of up to 10m, or more, being considered for future designs. There are concerns that current design approaches, such as the p-y method, which were developed for piles with a relatively...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is currently a significant focus on developing offshore wind power in the UK and Europe. The most common foundation type for wind turbines is a single large diameter pile, termed a monopile, on which the turbine is located. As the diameter of such piles is envisaged to increase in future installations, there are concerns that current design m...
Article
An axisymmetric finite element implementation of a previously described structural constitutive model for the human lens capsule (Burd in Biomech Model Mechanobiol 8(3):217-231, 2009) is presented. This constitutive model is based on a hyperelastic approach in which the network of collagen IV within the capsule is represented by an irregular hexago...
Article
To explore alternative experimental protocols to investigate the biomechanical behavior of the crystalline lens and zonules using ex vivo stretching. Radial stretching tests were conducted on the anterior segment (consisting of lens, zonules, ciliary body, and sclera) of four pairs of presbyopic human donor eyes. A simple mechanical model is used t...
Article
The human lens consists of a relatively stiff capsule surrounding a soft lens substance. It is generally understood that an intralenticular pressure exists within the lens. A simple mechanical model, in which the capsule is represented as a fluid-filled membrane, suggests that any intralenticular pressure will cause bi-axial tensile stresses to occ...
Patent
Full-text available
A resonant assembly for identification of a buried asset comprising first and second resonant members each configured to resonate at a respective different resonant frequency when excited by an electromagnetic field. The resonant assembly is arranged to cause a near-field coupling of transmit and receive antenna of a detector at the first and secon...
Article
The construction of the North Square Shopping Center of the Shanghai South Railway Station is a large scale complex top-down deep excavation project. The excavation is adjacent to several current and newly planned Metro lines, and influenced by a neighboring Exchange Station excavation. The highly irregular geometry of this excavation greatly incre...
Article
Purpose For the study of the biomechanical properties of lens and zonules in a stretching device, we wanted to investigate the effect of keeping the ciliary body intact or cutting it radially. Methods We studied the anterior eye segment of 3 pairs of presbyopic human donor eyes (ages 51-85). These segments, comprising of lens, zonules, ciliary body...
Patent
Full-text available
A resonant radar reflector assembly comprising first and second reflector members (110A, 110B), the first and second and reflector members each being configured to resonate at their respective resonant frequency when irradiated by radio frequency (RF) radiation of a corresponding frequency, wherein the first member has a portion (114A) responsive t...
Conference Paper
The construction of the North Square Shopping Center of the Shanghai South Railway Station is a large scale complex top-down deep excavation project. The excavation is adjacent to several current and newly planned Metro lines, and influenced by a neighboring Exchange Station excavation. The highly irregular geometry of this excavation greatly incre...
Article
Full-text available
The paper describes a program of mechanical testing on donated human eye bank lenses. The principal purpose of the tests was to obtain experimental data on the shear modulus of the lens for use in future computational models of the accommodation process. Testing was conducted using a procedure in which deformations are induced in the lens by spinni...