Harry J. Shafer

Harry J. Shafer
Witte Museum

M.A., PhD

About

71
Publications
5,034
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1,299
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
273 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (71)
Preprint
This analysis of Gahagan biface morphology enlists the three largest samples of Gahagan bifaces, to include that of the type site (Gahagan Mound) as well as the Mounds Plantation and George C. Davis sites. Results indicate a significant difference in Gahagan biface morphology at the Mounds Plantation site when compared with Gahagan bifaces from the...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis of Gahagan biface morphology enlists the three largest samples of Gahagan bifaces, to include that of the type site (Gahagan Mound) as well as the Mounds Plantation and George C. Davis sites. Results indicate a significant difference in Gahagan biface morphology at the Mounds Plantation site when compared with Gahagan bifaces from the...
Article
Full-text available
Perttula (2016) had analyzed ceramic sherds and other material culture remains curated at the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin (TARL) from four sites in the Brazos River basin in the Central Texas prairie that had been identified as Prairie Caddo sites by Shafer; one of the sites was the Urbankte site (41...
Article
Most Mimbres villages had a great kiva that opened onto and was accessed through a plaza area during the Three Circle phase. In the few cases where these plazas have been excavated, secondary cremations and related artifact caches were present in some quantity. Use of plazas for interment of cremated individuals continued into the Mimbres Classic p...
Article
This volume is a compilation of essays on various aspects of the archaeology of the Caddo Indians of East Texas, northeast Louisiana, eastern Oklahoma and southwest Arkansas. The purpose of the book is to bring attention to new approaches and themes that provide broader understanding specific areas of study. In his introduction chapter to the book...
Article
Previous aDNA research in the Southwest provides a framework to understand the Mimbres population which maintains a unique identity in the archeology of the desert Southwest of North America. Both the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and haplotypes of a sample of 46 Mimbres individuals were identified from skeletal remains and compared to thos...
Chapter
Full-text available
The First Maya Lithics Conference was organized 1976 by Norman Hammond and Thomas Hester and held in Orange Walk, Belize. The conference was held to highlight the unique site of Colha, rediscovered by the Corazal Project of the British Museum. Interest stimulated by the conference resulted in 16 field seasons of investigations at the site directed...
Article
This paper reports recent findings at the NAN Ranch Ruin in the Mimbres River Valley in southwestern New Mexico that provide insight on the structure of family unit dwellings in a Classic Mimbres pueblo. A model of Mimbres households consisting of room clusters built during one construction episode and connected by interior doorways is described. D...
Article
Time-space systematics for the end of the Classic Mimbres period and subsequent developments in southwest New Mexico are outlined, and the variable spatial scale of these processes is emphasized. The regional unity of the Late Pithouse and Classic periods began to break down around a.d. 1130, a time when disparate developments characterize differen...
Article
The distribution patterns of Classic Mimbres black-on-white bowls and jars were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis to identify vessel movement between geographically defined regions and between villages within individual regions of southwestern New Mexico. The data set produced and utilized by the various multivariate statistica...
Article
Between September of 1970 and February of 1971, the Texas Highway Department, now the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), carried out extensive hand and mechanical excavations at 41TV163, the Millican Bench site. The highway maintenance crew was ably directed by Frank Weir. Millican Bench represented the first archeological site excavated b...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Royal Coachman site, 41CM111, is bisected by FM 306 near the highway’s eastern crossing of the Guadalupe River. Archeologists from the Texas Department of Transportation conducted extensive excavations at the site in 1980 and the Center for Archaeological Research carried out fieldwork related to geomorphic assessment of the deposits in 2002. T...
Article
Time-space systematics for the end of the Classic Mimbres period and subsequent developments in southwest New Mexico are outlined, and the variable spatial scale of these processes is emphasized. The regional unity of the Late Pithouse and Classic periods began to break down around A.D. 1130, a time when disparate developments characterize differen...
Article
Information on extramural features, facilities, and space use is one of the largest current “data gaps” in Classic Mimbres archaeology. This paper fills in some of those gaps by providing descriptive information on adobe-lined pits associated with Classic Mimbres domestic courtyards and public plazas at the NAN Ruin, Grant County, New Mexico. Some...
Article
Hegmon and Trevathan's (1996) contention that Mimbres figurative pottery was probably painted by men ignorant about birthing, as evidenced by a virtually impossible birthing scene, is unsubstantiated. This claim was due to a lack of familiarity with the birthing motif they described, as well as selective and unrepresentative use of relevant ethnogr...
Article
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to perform compositional analysis on more than 200 potsherds from prehistoric ceramic pottery collected in or near the Mimbres Valley in New Mexico. Statistical evaluation of the data was used to identify samples of similar origin. Results indicate that at least two sites within the Mimbres heartlan...
Article
Data from the NAN Ruin in the Mimbres Valleysw New Mexico, are used to trace architectural changes from pithouse to pueblo. These changes co-occur with changes in hearth type, storage practices, mortuary custom and cera1nic style. The architectural changes are traced from extended-entrance pithouses, a transition of modified pithouses beginning in...
Article
Microstylistic changes in Mimbres Black-on-white Styles II and III bowls are evident in the seriation of ceramic vessels from the NAN Ruin in the middle Mimbres River Valley, Grant County, New Mexico. This paper describes these microstylistic variations and presents their temporal range. Some microstyle motifs are recognizable in sherds; these are...
Article
Full-text available
The consumer aspect of stone-tool manufacture is an important factor for lithic studies concerned with craft specialization and exchange systems. The dynamic nature of stone-tool production/exchange/use systems can be understood through a technological analysis of producer site assemblages and a functional and technological examination of consumer...
Article
[English] Moholy-Nagy (1990) has argued that concentrations of chipped-stone debitage from mesoamerican sites, including Colhá, Belize, represent dumps and not workshops as we have suggested (Shafer and Hester 1983, 1986). She emphasizes microdebitage as the most reliable indicator of workshop location. Her argument is supported by the use of ethno...
Article
We have developed a new statically operated oxygen plasma method that allows direct14C dates to be obtained from ancient rock paintings. The method is applicable even to paintings on limestone (CaCO3) walls. A sample of a pictograph which had naturally spalled offa shelter wall in the Lower Pecos region of Texas was subjected to a low temperature (...
Article
More than a decade of research has been conducted at the Maya site of Colha in northern Belize. These investigations have demonstrated that lithic craft specialization flourished there for perhaps two millennia. Archaeological evidence reveals that both utilitarian and non‐utilitarian tools were exported in large numbers to regional Maya consumers.
Article
DATING of prehistoric rock paintings (pictographs) has traditionally relied on indirect evidence. This includes inferences based on the archaeological context, such as superpositions of pictorial styles1 and the depiction of images that constrain their ages1,2, as well as dating of deposits that either cover the art in situ 3,4 or contain separated...
Article
The skeletal remains of an adult male associated with desiccated tissue and a coprolite were recovered from an open-air midden deposit at the NAN Ranch Ruin (LA15049), a large Mimbres site in Grant County, New Mexico. The find dates to about A.C. 1000–1100. Identifiable macroscopic elements in the coprolite consist of finely fragmented corn and tin...
Article
In Andrews and Adovasio's (1986) reply to Glenna Williams-Dean's (1986) review of Perishable Industries from Hinds Cave, Val Verde County, Texas, they make a number of misleading statements regarding the excavation strategies and provenience of the collection. The purpose of this article is to correct these inaccuracies and to provide a view of the...
Article
Five seasons of archaeological excavations have been completed at the NAN Ranch ruin (LA 15049), a pithouse-period and surface pueblo site in SW New Mexico. This research has yielded new information on Mimbres Mogollon architectural and ceramic style change from ca. 800 A.C. to ca. 1150 A.C. The focus of the excavations has been on exploring the ea...
Article
The definition and existence of specialized chert tool workshops and workshop deposits at Colha, Belize are addressed in this reply. Density estimates are provided for workshop deposits along with revised production estimates for the Late Preclassic Period. A pattern is beginning to emerge in the Maya lowlands with regards to communities of craft s...
Article
The region of the Maya Lowlands that is now northern Belize has two major lithic resources that were utilized by prehistoric populations. The major resource is chert, restricted to a 500‐square kilometre zone. To the west and north, geologic faults have exposed outcroppings of chalcedony, a much poorer quality material, in this instance, for stone...
Article
The tranchet technique is one of several specialized lithic production techniques recognized in the chert tool workshops at Colha and other ancient Maya lithic tool production sites in northern Belize. The technique involves the formation of a sharp cutting edge by the removal of a single flake transversely across the wide distal end of a tool. The...
Article
Recent archaeological work at Colha and at other localities in the geographically restricted chert-bearing zone of northern Belize has revealed large-scale exploitation of chert for stone tool production. Workshops dated during the Late Preclassic period signal the beginning of craft specialization in chert working that continued in the Late Classi...
Article
This paper reports recent findings at the NAN Ranch Ruin in the Mimbres River Valley in southwestern New Mexico that provide insight on the structure of family unit dwellings in a Classic Mimbres pueblo. A model of Mimbres households consisting of room clusters built during one construction episode and connected by interior doorways is described. D...
Article
The first occurrence of a fluted point from the Maya lowlands of Belize is documented in this paper. This heavily patinated artifact was found at Ladyville #1, a surface site near Belize City. It is of interest that similarly patinated chert tools from various periods of Maya culture were also found at the site and the paper discusses the nature of...
Article
A model of the middle Archaic adaptations in the lower Pecos River area of southwest Texas is presented. Working within excellent temporal and spatial frameworks and using the results of ethnobotanical, ethnozoological and dietary studies, the adaptive efficiency of the ancient technology is examined. A basically unchanged adaptive continuum prevai...
Article
This monograph reports the findings made during the summer of 1977 of test excavations and/or surface collections at 17 prehistoric archaeological sites in the Choke Canyon Reservoir area. The work was carried out by Texas A&M University for the Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio. The field work was conducted...
Article
The approximate prehistoric territorial limits of an Archaic belief system in the lower Pecos area of Texas is hypothesized on the basis of the geographic distribution of a distinctive pictograph style. It is proposed that these rock art localities functioned as ritual sites for a group of Archaic bands who shared a common ideology.
Article
Evidence of a late prehistoric and protohistoric blade technology has been found at a number of sites on the central and southern Texas coast. Blades and cores from two major sites, Kirchmeyer and Indian Island, are described in detail. Wear pattern analyses of the materials indicate that laterally-trimmed blades functioned as cutting tools or kniv...
Article
All reported findings of anthropomorphic clay figurines from the lower Pecos region of Texas are synthesized. Considerations are given to figurine chronology, technology, morphology, and function. The finds made with adequate chronological control occur in the Middle Archaic period, from about 2000 B.C. to 200 B.C. A brief description of the Lower...
Article
A cache of four clay figurines from a large rockshelter in the Lower Pecos region in Val Verde County, Texas, is described. A tentative date range of 2000 to 1200 B.C., which is within the Middle Archaic period of the local chronology, is proposed for the cache on the basis of artifact associations.
Article
The repeated occurrence of flakes possessing remnants of unifacially trimmed edges was noted in the analysis of chipping refuse from two late prehistoric sites in west central Texas. Attributes on these flakes suggest three techniques of removal-by a burin technique, by striking the uniface on the ventral surface near the edge, and by striking the...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1973. Includes bibliographical references (p. v-vii, 355-369). Photocopy of typescript.

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