# Harry I. RingermacherUniversity of Southern Mississippi | USM · Department of Physics and Astronomy

Harry I. Ringermacher

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

54

Publications

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355

Citations

Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (54)

We observe damped temporal oscillations in the scale factor at a dominant frequency of ∼7 cycles/Hubble-time in the Pantheon compilation of 1048 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The residual oscillations observed in the Pantheon data closely match and reaffirm our initial observation of oscillations from earlier SNe data (primarily SNLS3 data of Conley...

Systems for examining a route inject one or more electrical examination signals into a conductive route from onboard a vehicle system traveling along the route, detect one or more electrical characteristics of the route based on the one or more electrical examination signals, and detect a break in conductivity of the route responsive to the one or...

We present two independent analyses as further evidence that galaxy clustering at scales of 500 Mpc and greater has a periodic time component induced by oscillations in the scale factor at a frequency of approximately 7 cycles over one Hubble time. The scale factor oscillations were discovered in previous work by analyzing the Hubble diagram for ty...

Nielsen, Guffanti and Sarkar, in their recent Nature article, present a detailed argument that the evidence for cosmic acceleraton is marginal and that a coasting universe model, namely that of the "Milne Universe", fits the same SNe Ia data set in a Hubble diagram (distance modulus vs. redshift) nearly as well. However, we find that when the SNe d...

We have observed damped longitudinal cosmological-scale oscillations in a
unique model-independent plot of scale factor against lookback time for Type Ia
supernovae data. We found several first-derivative relative maxima/minima
spanning the range of reported transition-redshifts. These extrema comprise 2
full cycles with a period of approximately 0...

In the present work we describe a model-independent method of developing a
plot of scale factor versus lookback time from the usual Hubble diagram of
modulus data against redshift. This is the first plot of this type. We follow
the model-independent methodology of Daly and Djorgovski (2004) used for their
radio-galaxy data. Once the data plot is co...

We combine SNLS3, 2011 SNe data of Conley, et al. with the the 2004 SNe
data of Reiss, et al. and the 2004 high-Z Radio Galaxy data of R. Daly,
et al. to provide a dense baseline which improves the observability of
the transition redshift. We fit LCDM to the usual modulus vs. redshift
plot for this data to validate the joining of the three sets. We...

The flow of heat in solids has long been known to possess an electric current analogy applicable to both steady state and transient flows. In the present work we assume a vector analogy between Fourier’s law and the classical electric displacement to develop a method of handling distributed porosity in composite materials subject to heat flow in a...

We describe an analysis of a flash thermographic method to measure thermal diffusivity that is particularly insensitive to heat loss mechanisms near thermal boundaries. This approach is an alternative to the “Parker method” which requires that a plate-like region subject to a uniform energy flux must reach a maximum constant temperature in order to...

Negatively curved, or hyperbolic, regions of space in an FRW universe are a
realistic possibility. These regions might occur in voids where there is no
dark matter with only dark energy present. Hyperbolic space is strange and
various "models" of hyperbolic space have been introduced, each offering some
enlightened view. In the present work we deve...

In MNRAS 397,164 (2009) we introduced a new formula that describes the
natural pitch variation of all spiral galaxy types using a single shape
parameter Φ. r(f) =R/(1-ΦtanΦ log[f /Φ]).
What was not stated was that this formula was derived from a solution of
the Einstein equations for a new geometric model of dark matter. The
Einstein equations resp...

Infrared Imaging of coatings is not new. In the past it has been accomplished either comparatively, for example using additional thickness standards, as a point-wise inspection or as a simple non-quantitative image showing debonds at most. In the present paper we describe the first quantitative infrared image of both coating thickness and integrity...

Advances in Nondestructive Evaluation demand an arsenal of techniques. This was as true twenty years ago as it is today. As materials and their associated technologies progress, so must the strategy for evaluating the quality of the product. Nondestructive Evaluation is a constant struggle to extract, from classical and quantum physics, the quintes...

Infrared NDE techniques have proven to be superior for imaging of flaws in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and carbon
silicon
carbide composites (C/SiC). Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex‐shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excel...

Since Hubble himself classified spiral galaxies according to arm "sweep'' and bulge size, one might naturally expect that the carefully measured angle-of-pitch of arms in spiral galaxies should correlate very well with Hubble Type, for example, at least with Sa, Sb and Sc types. In fact, ever since Kennicut measured arm-pitch in the 1980's to recen...

We describe a new formula capable of quantitatively characterizing the Hubble sequence of spiral galaxies including grand design and barred spirals. Special shapes such as ring galaxies with inward and outward arms are also described by the analytic continuation of the same formula. The formula is r(phi) = A/log[B tan(phi/2N)]. This function intrin...

Seigar, et al, have recently demonstrated a new, tight correlation between galactic central supermassive black hole (BH) mass and the pitch angle of the spiral arm in disc galaxies which they attribute to other indirect correlations. They fit a double power law, governed by five parameters, to the BH mass as a function of pitch. Noting the features...

In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time...

A pulsed transient thermography method is described where a high-intensity light pulse is used to heat a long, uniform stripe on the surface of a plate. A high spatial resolution, high frame rate focal plane array infrared camera is used to monitor surface temperature. We explain the theoretical model and data analysis framework used to experimenta...

We describe the successful synchronization of thermal imaging with acoustic emission to observe and characterize for the first time the thermal responses of discrete fiber breaks and matrix cracks in composite panels under load in real time. These events can be accurately described by ideal buried point and line thermal sources.

Infrared (IR) imaging together with acoustic emission
(AE) sensing are employed to follow the progression to failure of graphite epoxy test panels under dynamic loading. Acoustic emission generated by fiber breaks and matrix cracks define the “zero” time for surface observation by an IR camera of the deep heat source from that event. The AE
clock...

We derive the phenomenological Milgrom square-law acceleration, describing the apparent behavior of dark matter, as the reaction to the Big Bang from a model based on the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion traditionally describing radiation reaction in electromagnetism but proven applicable to expansion reaction in cosmology. The model is applied wit...

We will describe advances in and current applications of thermal imaging at General Electric. Time-of-Flight methods are in use at several GE facilities. This approach is sufficiently robust to be used in production. Examples presented include evaluation of metal airfoils and ceramic materials.

Flash quenching, that is, cutting off the tail of the exponentially decaying light flash, permits great strides in realizing the ideal analysis of high resolution IR data. We will describe some current applications of Quenched Thermal Time-of-Flight Imaging to high-resolution evaluation of metals and fast materials.

Liko and Wesson have recently introduced a new 5-dimensional induced matter solution of the Einstein equations, a negative curvature Robertson-Walker space embedded in a Riemann flat 5-dimensional manifold. We show that this solution is a special case of a more general theorem prescribing the structure of certain N+1-dimensional Riemann flat spaces...

We describe an exact 5-D solution of Einstein's equations based upon a hyperbolic axisymmetric Poincaré 3-space, (dx2+dy^2+dz^2)/ (1+B(x+y))2, that appears to represent the geometry due to dark matter alone underlying the structure of spiral galaxies. The triaxial 3-space, (dx2+dy^2+dz^2) /(1+B(x+y+z))2, is also a solution. The observed Euclidean 3...

We show how the structure of all the Hubble classes of spiral galaxies including barred and grand design can be derived from a Poincare generalization of the Robertson-Walker cosmology . The resulting new exact solutions of Einsteins equations emulate well the apparent effects of Dark Matter, including the observed flat stellar rotation curves in g...

The Flash lamp ``thermal forcing function'' is typically an exponentially decaying source. Ideally, one would like to achieve a short rectangular heating pulse simulating a Dirac Delta function. Then heat input is precisely limited so that image analysis can begin, without distortion from incoming heat, immediately following the flash. This allows...

Wang, Kuzmich and Dogariu, in their 20 July, 2000, Nature article, describe an experiment ostensibly measuring superluminal speeds of 310c via a few percent shift in time of an optical pulse undergoing anomalous dispersion in a pumped medium. This paper seems to have become part of the superluminal lore and is often referenced as a profound example...

Porosity evaluation in composites has been extensively studied with ultrasonics. There are far fewer examples of porosity evaluation using thermal imaging. One reason for this dearth of work has been the qualitative nature of most thermal characterization. In this paper we use quantitative thermal depth imaging to identify, for the first time, the...

Two Comments on the Letter by D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and R. Ruggeri, Phys.Rev.Lett.84, 4830 (2000).

The Program Planning meeting was held on Jan 27-28 at the Washington University, Dept. of Physics. Experiment strategies and details were discussed and milestones mapped. Dr. Ringermacher, the program technical leader and Co-Principal Investigator, presented a Physics Department seminar on the theory and experiment in progress. Following the meetin...

We describe a thermal depth imaging method wherein a synthetic temperature-time reference curve replaces the need for a reference slab in the image. The resulting depth imaging is independent of surface texture and color variation and thus surface temperature variation. .

Warp drives are widely perceived by the public to be the propulsion system of choice in the not too distant future. Engineers and scientists usually ignore the possibility because of the apparently insurmountable obstacles required to create a warp drive. The promise and the problems of warp drives are examined in three parts: 1) a review of some o...

Starting from a first principles basis deformation of a Riemannian manifold, a new affine connection is derived that contains both gravitational and electromagnetic fields on equal footing term for term. Using this connection, it is shown that parallel transport of the tangent vector on a curve yields the Lorentz force equation for a charged partic...

We propose a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiment to measure the influence of electric potentials on clocks in the rest frame of a charged particle. The motivation for these experiments rests on a theory that describes classical electrodynamics within the framework of non-Riemannia n geometry including Torsion. The first of two definitive papers d...

Transient thermal imaging has not as yet found a niche among industrial NDE methodologies even though the field has been active since the mid 1980’s. Difficulty with image interpretation is perhaps the primary reason. An ambiguous image leads to false calls and lack of confidence. Ultrasonics, on the other hand appears not to generally suffer from...

Laser ultrasonics, an esoteric laboratory curiosity in the 1960s, is finding its niche in industry today. The technique has evolved concurrently with advances in electronics and optics to achieve recent breakthroughs. Two applications will be presented here: rapid inspection of complex shaped composite structures and in-situ monitoring of a coating...

Laser ultrasonics has come of age in such diverse industrial applications as in-process evaluation during steel processing[1] and composite air frame inspection[2,3]. This approach generally offers certain unique advantages for process evaluation and diagnostics. It is a noncontact, largely contour independent, technique ideally suited for hostile...

Thermal imaging for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials appears to be of ever increasing importance for industrial applications. The development of new materials. both metallic and ceramic. as thermal and oxide barrier coatings present new challenges to inspection techniques. Thermal imaging methods seem ideally suited for such applica...

In recent years a variety of thermoacoustic techniques have been used to image surface and near surface features in ceramics. These include early gas cell methods [1] as well as the Scanning Electron Acoustic Microscopy (SEAM) technique [2] and more recently the Mirage or Optical Beam Deflection (OBD) methods [3,4]. In the gas cell and Mirage metho...

Scanning Electron Acoustic Microscopy (SEAM) studies are discussed in order to describe the role of macroscopic elastic properties in imaging. The SEAM technique is based on coordinate modulation (CM) of the electron beam; the operation and advantages of the CM technique are discussed. The SEAM CM technique is applied to a specimen fabricated from...

Discrete a coustic emission events have been observed and identified in orthotropic fibrous plates. A point c ontact, c onical element transducer (PCT) was used to monitor the acoustic emissions generated in fiber/matrix test coupons subject to a 3-point bending test. For transducer calibration, Pao's predicted isotropic plate waveforms were first...

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Both continuous wave and pulsed ultrasonic methods have been used to study changes in longitudinal sound velocity as a function of fatigue damage in graphite/epoxy composites. No significant variation was observed for lightly and heavily damaged specimens in the range 1-11 MHz. It was concluded that velocity is not a useful parameter to characteriz...

The Frenet-Serret equations for a curve in a Riemann space are used to derive a theorem regarding the Minkowski Force. The consequence is that the well-known Lorentz-Dirac equation, involving radiation reaction is already implicit in the geometry.