Harry Levine

Harry Levine
FPSC · PhD

http://www.foodpolymerscience.com/fpscourse2009.html

About

205
Publications
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Introduction
Dr. Harry Levine is an associate of Food Polymer Science Consultancy. He retired in '06, after 30 yrs in R&D w/General Foods, Nabisco & Kraft. Dr. Levine, in partnership with Dr. Louise Slade, developed Food Polymer Science, a new discipline that emphasizes glass transitions and water plasticization in foods as central themes. Dr. Levine has 42 granted US and 2 EP patents (33 were industrially commercialized) for novel food ingredients/products/processes, and 250 publications (>8000 citations).

Publications

Publications (205)
Article
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Water, the most abundant constituent of natural foods, is a ubiquitous plasticizer of most natural and fabricated food ingredients and products. Many of the new concepts and developments in modern food science and technology revolve around the role of water, and its manipulation, in food manufacturing, processing, and preservation. This article rev...
Article
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The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients-flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential di...
Article
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Solvent retention capacity (SRC) technology, its history, principles, and applications are reviewed. Originally, SRC testing was created and developed for evaluating soft wheat flour functionality, but it has also been shown to be applicable to evaluating flour functionality for hard wheat products. SRC is a solvation test for flours that is based...
Article
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This paper reviews the application of the ?Food Polymer Science? approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology . The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products,...
Article
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This review paper describes our exploratory experimental studies on the functionality of sucrose and other sugars in cake-baking, and effects on cake quality. We have used the American Association of Cereal Chemists Method 10-90.01 as a base cake-baking method, and have applied Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Rapid Visco-Analyzer, and time-lapse...
Article
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Pre‐harvest sprouting (PHSing) of wheat induces more heterogeneous germination in the field than in a controlled laboratory setting, but the former phenomenon has not been studied extensively to date. In the present study, the impacts of field‐weathering (FWing)/PHSing in soft wheats on resulting flour quality and baking performance, for soft wheat...
Technical Report
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[SladeLevinepublications.doc]
Conference Paper
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ABSTRACT NAME: 2019 Alsberg-French-Schoch Memorial Lectureship Award lecture TITLE: A 39-Year Retrospective on Slade/Levine's 'Food Polymer Science' Approach to the Practice of Industrial R&D, Leading to U.S. Patent Estates Based on Fundamental Starch Science and Technology AUTHORS: Louise Slade and Harry Levine INSTITUTION: Food Polymer Science Co...
Patent
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Full list of granted U.S. and EP Patents.
Conference Paper
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This paper reviews the application of the ‘Food Polymer Science’ approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology. The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, b...
Data
This talk presents a 37-year retrospective on the applications of Slade/Levine’s ‘Food Polymer Science’ approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to U.S. patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology. The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-s...
Chapter
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Texture is one of the key attributes of foods, which is used to define product quality and acceptability. Food texture can be defined by the way in which the various constituents and structural elements are arranged and combined into a micro- and macrostructure, and by the external manifestations of this structure, in terms of flow and deformation....
Article
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The effects of heat and pressure on protein denaturation in soy flour were explored by an experimental design that used pressure (atmospheric to 600 MPa), temperature (room to 90oC), time (1 to 60 min), and type of aqueous plasticizer (NaCl, sucrose, betaine, and lactobionic acid (LBA)) as factors. When 50% (w/w) soy flour-water paste was high hydr...
Article
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ABSTRACT: In follow-up to high-ratio cake baking with small sugars as alternative carbohydrates for potential sucrose replacement, sucrose and two healthful, lower-glycemic-impact carbohydrate oligomers (i.e. isomaltulose monohydrate and Mylose syrup/Glucodry powder) were used to explore the effects of the sucrose alternatives on results from SRC,...
Article
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For exploring the effects of sugar type on predictive Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA), and cake baking, including time-lapse photography analyses, xylose (X), glucose (G), fructose (F), and sucrose (Su) were selected as a diagnostic series of small sugars. The effects of chlorination on Solvent Retention Capacity...
Article
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ABSTRACT: Sugar reduction in low-moisture cookies is a challenge for the baking industry, because detrimental gluten development and starch gelatinization/pasting increase as sugar concentration decreases. In this study, sucrose and two healthful carbohydrate oligomers (i.e. isomaltulose and Mylose 351 syrup/Glucodry 314 powder) were used to explor...
Presentation
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Slade 1 Lecture. “MOISTURE MANAGEMENT IN FOOD SYSTEMS – INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE”
Presentation
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Levine 1 Lecture. “FOOD MATERIALS AT LOW MOISTURE CONTENT – WATER AS PLASTICIZER”
Presentation
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Slade 2 Lecture. “STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF INTERMEDIATE MOISTURE FOODS: BEYOND WATER ACTIVITY”
Presentation
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Levine 2 Lecture. “CRYOTECHNOLOGY - THE THERMOMECHANICAL STABILITY OF FROZEN PRODUCTS”
Presentation
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Slade 3 Lecture. “ASPECTS OF STARCH AS A PARTIALLY CRYSTALLINE, WATER-COMPATIBLE POLYMER”
Presentation
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Levine 3 Lecture. “POLYMER PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GLUTEN AND OTHER PROTEINS IN BAKED GOODS”
Presentation
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Levine 4 Lecture. “FOOD POLYMER SCIENCE APPROACH TO INGREDIENT FUNCTIONALITY IN COOKIE/CRACKER BAKING TECHNOLOGY”
Presentation
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Louise Slade & Harry Levine Food Polymer Science Website and Short Course Manual
Research
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Louise Slade's 2012 Cake Symposium Presentation
Technical Report
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Article
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The impact of heat treating wheat flour (for 2 or 5 h at 80 or 100 degrees C) on its functional properties was studied with solvent retention capacity (SRC) tests and related to changes in individual groups of flour constituents. Heat treatments increased the overall water retention capacity (from 55.6% for control flour to 62.4% for flour heated 5...
Article
Melting of sugars has been studied by numerous authors, including Roos (1) and many others, as summarized in Lee et al. (2). Lee et al. (2-5) published a series of papers on melting of sugars, studied almost exclusively using variations of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These publications have opened up a serious discussion on the melting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This presentation reviews our exploratory experimental studies on the functionality of sucrose and other sugars in cake-baking, and effects on cake quality. We have used the American Association of Cereal Chemists Method 10-90 as a base cake-baking method, and have applied Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Rapid Visco-Analyzer, and time-lapse phot...
Article
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Supplemented temperature/composition phase diagrams include the non-equilibrium glass-transition temperature (T(g)) curve and equilibrium ice-melting and solubility curves. The inclusion of the non-equilibrium curve allows one to establish relationships with the time coordinate and, thus, with the dynamic behavior of systems, provided that the ther...
Article
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A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. To identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium bicarbonate), sugar concentration (%S), and total solvent (T...
Article
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A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. Using a diagnostic formula and procedure, dough rheology was analyzed to evaluate the extent of gluten development during mixing and machining. The effects of enzymes on cracker-baking perfor...
Article
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Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate, and particle-size reduction) in cake-baking functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects, but postmilling to reduce flour particle size was...
Article
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Materials Eighteen soft wheat samples grown at four locations (OH, VA, IN, MO) in the eastern U.S. were obtained. These wheats (7.8– 14.3% moisture) were tempered to 14% moisture before milling to produce straight-grade flour on a Miag Multomat mill. The 18 flours (12.5–14.0% moisture) were used for solvent retention capacity (SRC) analysis and coo...
Article
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This paper describes the main thermodynamic concepts related to the construction of supplemented phase (or state) diagrams (SPDs) for aqueous solutions containing vitrify-ing agents used in the cryo-and dehydro-preservation of natural (foods, seeds, etc.) and syn-thetic (pharmaceuticals) products. It also reviews the empirical and theoretical equat...
Article
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Despite much research, bread crumb firming during storage and amylase anti-staling properties are still ill understood. We present a coherent view on the topic based on literature, experimental data, and food polymer science-related concepts. During bread storage, the gelatinised starch (amylopectin) network, present in soft, fresh bread, is gradua...
Article
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Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two critical network-forming polymeric components of wheat flours, functionally related to mixing and baking performance and baked goods quality. For soft wheat flour applications, solvent-accessible arabinoxylans (pentosans) play a dominant role in both sweet and savory products. Solvent retention capacity (SRC) tes...
Article
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The sugar series - - xylose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose - - can be used diagnostically to explore the effects of sugar type on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA), and cookie baking performance because of the differences in glass-forming abilities (related to plasticization) and solubility parameters (related to...
Article
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Chlorination is an essential soft wheat flour treatment for production of high-ratio cakes in the United States, frequently coupled with a postmilling treatment to reduce flour particle size. The effects of extent of chlorination, extraction rate, and particle size reduction on flour and gluten functionality have been explored by SRC and mixograph...
Article
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The effects of heat and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on glassy and crystalline transitions of starches, and the distinctive contributions of amylopectin and amylose, with respect to annealing, gelatinization, pasting, and retrogradation were explored by conducting an experimental design with five factors: type of starch (dent and waxy corn), pre...
Article
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Wheat starch was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated in aqueous solutions with various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0 to near-saturation), in order to explore the effects of salt on glassy and crystalline transitions of starch during the treatment, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For wheat starch at atmospheric pressure...
Article
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Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to establish criteria for optimization of raw material selection, roasting process, eating quality, visual appearance, and shelf-life extension of peanuts [1-4]. DSC methods were developed as both predictive and analytical tools to define process operating guidelines and to correlate with traditional...
Conference Paper
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Presentation
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PMCA/Keystone IFT/Penn State Univ. Food Indust. Group and Food Sci. Dept. Symposium
Article
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Aim: To determine if cell death from osmotic stress is because of lack of sufficient energy to maintain cell metabolism. Additionally, the solute-specific effect of five humectants on bacterial osmoregulation and cell survival was examined. Methods and Results: Staphylococcus aureus was placed into 84% relative humidity (RH) broth (five humectants...