Harriet Whiley

Harriet Whiley
Flinders University · College of Science and Engineering

BMedSc, BScHon, PhD

About

77
Publications
19,075
Reads
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1,325
Citations
Introduction
Harriet Whiley is an Associate Professor in environmental health. As an environmental microbiologist her research is aimed at informing best practice to protect human health from pathogens present in the environment. Her research areas include infection control, food safety, water quality and risk assessment. http://www.flinders.edu.au/people/harriet.whiley Email: harriet.whiley@flinders.edu.au
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - present
Flinders University
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2015 - December 2018
Flinders University
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2011 - December 2012
Flinders University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
March 2011 - April 2015
Flinders University
Field of study
  • Environmental Microbiology
March 2010 - November 2010
Flinders University
Field of study
  • Environmental Microbiology
March 2006 - November 2008
Flinders University
Field of study
  • Microbiology

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health significance. One of the main sources of Legionella is potable water systems. As a consequence of aging populations there is an increasing demographic considered at high risk for Legionellosis and, as such, a review of the guidelines is required. Worldwide, Legionella has been detected from m...
Article
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Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic pathogens of major public health concern. It is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease dependent on subspecies, route of infection and patients pre-existing conditions. Presently, there is limited research on the incidence of MAC infection that considers both pulmonary and other clin...
Article
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Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of...
Article
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Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review fo...
Article
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Strongyloidiasis is an underestimated disease caused by the soil-transmitted parasite of the genus Strongyloides. It is prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities and it is estimated that global infection could be as high as 370 million people. This paper explores current methods of strongyloidiasis treatment, which rely on administra...
Article
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Purpose of review: Drinking water is considered one of the most overlooked and underestimated sources of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Recently, the prevention and control of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in healthcare water systems has been receiving increasing attention in infection control guidelines. However, thes...
Article
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Airborne microorganisms play a significant role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As such, improving indoor microbial air quality can enhance infection control in numerous settings. This study examined the efficacy of the PlasmaShield® air purification device to remove airborne microorganisms under laboratory conditions. Pure cultures of...
Article
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Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP) are microorganisms that are native to the plumbing environment and that present an emerging infectious disease problem. They share characteristics, such as disinfectant resistance, thermal tolerance, and biofilm formation. The colonisation of domestic water systems presents an elevated health risk for...
Article
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This pilot study investigates the formation of aggregates within a desalination plant, before and after pre-treatment, as well as their potential impact on fouling. The objective is to provide an understanding of the biofouling potential of the feed water within a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant, due to the limited removal of fou...
Article
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been identified as emerging contaminants of public health concern. With PFAS now detected globally in a wide range of environments, there is an urgent need for effective remedial treatment solutions at the field scale. Phytoremediation presents a potential remediation strategy for PFAS that...
Article
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Food safety inspections are a key health protection measure applied by governments to prevent foodborne illness, yet they remain the subject of sustained criticism. These criticisms include inconsistency and inadequacy of methods applied to inspection, and ineffectiveness in preventing foodborne illness. Investigating the validity of these criticis...
Article
Worldwide, foodborne illness is a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and shigellosis are common foodborne gastrointestinal illnesses caused by the bacteria Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. respectively. These zoonotic diseases are frequently linked to eg...
Article
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To better protect public health from third-hand exposure to methamphetamine, it is important to understand the techniques and current practices used within the methamphetamine testing and decontamination industry in Australia. A survey was conducted focusing on business owners that advertised testing and/or remediation services online. They were al...
Article
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Iron-related clogging of boreholes, pumps and dripper lines is a significant and costly problem for irrigators worldwide. The primary cause of iron-related clogging is still debated. Previous studies have described complex interactions between biological clogging and inorganic iron/manganese oxide precipitation. This case study examined groundwater...
Article
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Streptococcus pyogenes, (colloquially named “group A streptococcus” (GAS)), is a pathogen of public health significance, infecting 18.1 million people worldwide and resulting in 500,000 deaths each year. This review identified published articles on the risk factors and public health prevention and control strategies for mitigating GAS diseases. The...
Article
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Background: The New Environmental Health is an approach to environmental health adopted in 1999. The new approach was in response to emerging health risks from the pressures that development placed on the environment, climate change, and increasing vulnerabilities of local communities. The new approach heralded a change in perception and roles wit...
Article
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Legionella is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen associated with Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. Despite improved public awareness, the incidence of Legionella associated infections has been increasing. Aerosols generated from engineered potable water systems are a demonstrated cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired legionellosi...
Article
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Campylobacter spp. is one of the most widespread infectious pathogens of veterinary and public health significance. Globally, the incidence of campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade in both developing and developed countries. Squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians) are a potential reservoir and source of transmission of campyl...
Article
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In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, current modeling supports the use of masks in community settings to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, concerns have been raised regarding the global shortage of medical grade masks and the limited evidence on the efficacy of fabric masks. This study used a standard mask...
Article
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Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are one of the most common patient complications, affecting 7% of patients in developed countries each year. The rise of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria has been identified as one of the biggest global health challenges, resulting in an estimated 23,000 deaths in the US annually. Environmental reservoi...
Article
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Antibiotic resistance is set to become one of the greatest threats to human existence and new treatments or more effective ways of treating infections have to be developed. Colistin is considered a last line of defence antibiotic which has decreased usage due to undesirable side effects and thus has reduced resistance. Due to the rise of pathogens...
Article
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Both Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms are common soil-transmitted helminths in remote Australian communities. In addition to infecting humans, S. stercoralis and some species of hookworms infect canids and therefore present both environmental and zoonotic sources of transmission to humans. Currently, there is limited information available on...
Article
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Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen of public health concern. It is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) and Pontiac fever and is ubiquitous in manufactured water systems, where protozoan hosts and complex microbial communities provide protection from disinfection procedures. This review collates the literatu...
Article
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Background: Strongyloidiasis is a gastrointestinal infection caused by the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. It is estimated to infect up to 370 million people globally and is predominately found in tropical and subtropical areas of socioeconomic disadvantage. Main body: This systematic literature review identified studies published...
Article
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Objective: Toxoplasmosis may follow consumption of undercooked meat containing Toxoplasma gondii cysts. Lamb is considered to pose the highest risk for contamination across meats. Red meat is often served undercooked, yet there are no current data on T. gondii contamination of Australian sourced and retailed lamb. We sought to address this gap in...
Article
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Contamination of residential homes with methamphetamine is an emerging issue of significant concern to public health. Cooking or smoking methamphetamine in a residential property contaminates the house, furnishings and personal possessions within it, with subsequent exposure through ingestion, dermal absorption and/or inhalation causing adverse hea...
Article
Eggs are a highly nutritious food source used in a wide range of food products. In Australia, eggs are a frequent source of foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks, associated with eggshell contamination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST). Despite their potentially hazardous nature, raw eggs are often used and consumed in mayonnaise, mouss...
Article
Full-text available
Raw egg products are often associated with salmonellosis. The Australian guidelines recommend raw egg mayonnaise to be prepared and stored under 5 °C and adjusted to a pH less than 4.6 or 4.2. Despite these guidelines, a significant amount of salmonellosis outbreaks are recorded annually in Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the ef...
Article
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Recently in Australia concerns have been raised regarding the contamination of municipal drinking water supplies with lead. This is of particular concern to children due to the impact of lead exposure on cognitive development and as such these findings have received much media attention. The response from legislators has been swift, and The Victori...
Article
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Antibiotic loaded nanomeshes were fabricated by electrospinning polycaprolactone, a biocompatible polymer, with 12.5% w/w Colistin, 1.4% w/w Vancomycin and either cationic or anionic gold nanoparticles in varying combinations. The resulting nanomeshes had different antibiotic release profiles, with citrate capped gold nanoparticles combined with Co...
Article
Full-text available
Strongyloidiasis is caused by the human infective nematodes Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni subsp. fuelleborni and Strongyloides fuelleborni subsp. kellyi. The zoonotic potential of S. stercoralis and the potential role of dogs in the maintenance of strongyloidiasis transmission has been a topic of interest and discussion for m...
Article
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Strongyloides spp. are parasitic nematodes that are transmitted through the environment and are capable of causing disease. These nematodes affect an estimated 3–300 million humans worldwide. Identifying the environmental reservoirs of Strongyloides spp. is essential for the development of appropriate control strategies. This systematic literature...
Article
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Introduction Roof-harvested rainwater held in domestic tanks is used for a variety of purposes in Australia, including drinking and irrigation. There is limited evidence about the quality of rainwater after bushfires. Current health guidelines can be interpreted that landholders need to drain their rainwater tanks to avoid the risk of contamination...
Article
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Within hospitals and healthcare facilities opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) are a major and preventable cause of healthcare-acquired infections. This study presents a novel approach for monitoring building water quality using real-time surveillance of parameters measured at thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs) across a hospital water d...
Article
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Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia like infection caused by inhalation or aspiration of water particles contaminated with pathogenic Legionella spp. Household showers have been identified as a potential source of sporadic, community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease. This study used qPCR to enumerate Legionella spp. and Legionella...
Preprint
Full-text available
Strongyloidiasis is caused by the human infective nematodes Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni subsp. fuelleborni and Strongyloides fuelleborni subsp. kellyi . The zoonotic potential of S. stercoralis and the potential role of dogs in the maintenance of strongyloidiasis transmission has been a topic of interest and discussion for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Salmonellosis is a foodborne illness of public health significance. In Australia the incidence of salmonellosis has been significantly increasing over the last decade with eggs and raw egg products identified as the main source of outbreaks. The primary cause of salmonellosis in Australia is S. typhimurium. This study investigated the effe...
Article
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Improvements in environmental health have had the most significant impact on health status. In Australia, life expectancy has significantly increased through provision of vaccination, safe food and drinking water, appropriate sewage disposal and other environmental health measures. Yet the profession that is instrumental in delivering environmental...
Article
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Rainwater is consumed for drinking water in many parts of Australia, either preferentially over municipal water or in regional or remote areas, because rainwater is the primary source of water. Previous rainwater studies in other areas in Australia have shown the levels of some metals to be above the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). Thi...
Article
Environmental Health (EH) is an essential profession for protecting human health and yet as a discipline it is under-recognised, overlooked and misunderstood. Too few students undertake EH studies, culminating in a dearth of qualified Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) in Australia. A major deterrent to students enrolling in EH courses is a lack...
Article
Full-text available
Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the helminth, Strongyloides stercoralis. Up to 370 million people are infected with the parasite globally, and it has remained endemic in the Indigenous Australian population for many decades. Strongyloidiasis has been also reported in other Australian populations. Ignorance of this disease has caused unne...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a relatively new approach in identifying health risks associated with the ubiquitous presence of pathogens and opportunists in the human environment. The methodology builds on experimental and meta-analytical data to identify measurable factors that contribute to, and can quantify, the likely extent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Australia the incidence of salmonellosis is increasing with Salmonella Typhimurium linked to eggs and raw egg products identified as the main cause. Australian guidelines recommend raw egg mayonnaise is prepared and stored under 5 0 C and adjusted to a pH of 4.6. This study investigated the combined effect of pH and temperature on the survival o...
Article
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as environmental mycobacteria due to their ubiquitous nature, are opportunistic human pathogens of public health concern. They are the causative agent of lymphadenitis in children; pulmonary, skin, and soft tissue infections; and have been linked to Crohn's disease. Human-tohuman transmission is rare an...
Article
Using roof harvested rainwater held in domestic rainwater tanks is a common practice in Australia, particularly in rural areas. This rainwater might become contaminated with ash and other contaminants during or after a bushfire. Current advice from Australian Health Departments can include the recommendation that landholders drain their tanks after...
Article
Fungal contamination of indoor air is an issue of increasing public health concern. Essential oils have been demonstrated to have antifungal capabilities, but there are limited studies investigating the efficacy of essential oils against fungi relevant to air quality. This study provides a preliminary screening of the antifungal properties of clove...
Article
Full-text available
In Australia, rainwater is an important source of water for many households. Unlike municipal water, rainwater is often consumed untreated. This study investigated the potential contamination of rainwater by microorganisms. Samples from 53 rainwater tanks across the Adelaide region were collected and tested using Colilert™ IDEXX Quanti-Tray*/2000....
Article
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To address concern regarding water sustainability, the Australian Federal Government and many state governments have implemented regulatory mechanisms and incentives to support households to purchase and install rainwater harvesting systems. This has led to an increase in rainwater harvesting in regional and urban Australia. This review examines th...
Article
Concerns regarding indoor air quality, particularly the presence of fungi and moulds, are increasing. The potential for essential oils to reduce, control or remove fungi, is gaining interest as they are seen as a "natural" alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides. This review examines published research on essential oils as a method of fungal c...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that human and dog strongyloidiasis is caused by the same causative agent, Strongyloides stercoralis of human and animal origin respectively. The cross-infection between dogs and humans has not been confirmed nor described well. However, strongyloidiasis cases of humans and dogs existing in close proximity have been reported. A limited...
Article
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Globally, there has been an increase in squamates (particularly lizards and snakes) being kept as pets. Additionally, urban spread has resulted in greater human encroachment and interaction with the natural habitat of wild squamates. A potential consequence of increasing human interaction with squamates is the increased potential for disease transf...
Article
Full-text available
Legionella is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen of increasing public health significance. Pasteurization, otherwise known as super-heat and flush (increasing water temperature to above 70oC and flushing all outlets), has been identified as an important mechanism for the disinfection of Legionella in manufactured water systems. However, several s...
Article
Full-text available
Strongyloides stercoralis is a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode with a life cycle that includes free-living and parasitic forms. For both clinical (diagnostic) and environmental evaluation, it is important that we can detect Strongyloides spp. in both human and non-human fecal samples. Real-time PCR is the most feasible method for detecting the...
Article
Full-text available
Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologicall...
Article
This technical research communication describes the first study to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in Australian pasteurised milk. MAC is the most common NTM responsible for human illnesses and includes M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). MAC is a causative a...
Article
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Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions ass...
Article
Research has demonstrated that bacterial pathogens present in beach sand may be a risk to human health. The indicator species enterococci, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were measured in beach sand collected from South Port Beach, South Australia, a popular recreational beach. Samples were collected from five distances from the low tide mark...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close pro...
Article
Full-text available
Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart fr...
Article
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Foodborne illness is a global public health burden. Over the past decade in Australia, despite advances in microbiological detection and control methods, there has been an increase in the incidence of foodborne illness. Therefore improvements in the regulation and implementation of food safety policy are crucial for protecting public health. In 200...
Article
Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on co...
Article
Full-text available
Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick-host intera...