Harilaos N Psaraftis

Harilaos N Psaraftis
Technical University of Denmark | DTU · Department of Management Engineering

MSc(2), PhD

About

221
Publications
112,899
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7,288
Citations
Introduction
I am a Professor at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Department of Management Engineering. I have a diploma from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) (1974), and two M.Sc. degrees (1977) and a Ph.D. (1979) from MIT, USA. I have been Assistant and Associate Professor at MIT from 1979 to 1989 and Professor at NTUA from 1989 to 2013. I have been PI or co-PI in 50 or so funded projects (24 from the EU). I have coordinated 3 EU projects, including project SuperGreen on European green corridors (2010-2013). I have served as CEO of the Piraeus Port Authority (1996 -2002). My latest book is entitled "Sustainable shipping: a cross-disciplinary view" (Springer, 2019). ORCID profile: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1671-4406
Additional affiliations
May 2013 - present
Technical University of Denmark
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1996 - March 2002
Piraeus Port Authority
Position
  • CEO
May 1989 - July 2013
National Technical University of Athens
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (221)
Article
Full-text available
The pressure on shipping to reduce its carbon footprint is increasing. Various measures are being proposed at the International Maritime Organization (IMO), including Market-Based Measures (MBMs). This paper investigates the potential of a bunker levy in achieving short-term CO2 emissions reductions. The analysis focuses on the tanker market and us...
Article
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) entails investments to improve overland (rail) transport between Europe and China. This paper introduces a microscopic Multi-Commodity Flow Service Selection Problem for freight transport under the BRI and provides a decision tool for shippers to make door-to-door service plans. The minimizing objective function c...
Article
Full-text available
The paper focuses on the impacts of the inclusion of the maritime sector in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). The enforcement of a regional Market-Based Measure (MBM) such as the EU ETS may provide financial incentives to shipping operators to reconfigure their networks and avoid voyages inside the European Economic Area (EEA). This paper inve...
Article
The paper contributes a reasoned methodology and useful data to the debate that is taking place in the context of rational Goal Based Standards. It is hoped that the paper will generate further debate which should eventually lead to generally accepted conclusions on meaningful minimum design and classification rule standards.
Article
In order to maintain shipping capacity to serve seaborne trade, new ships have to be built to replace those scrapped. The cost of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing a ship throughout its life is borne by society at large through market mechanisms. Gratsos and Zachariadis (2005) had investigated through a cost/benefit analysis h...
Article
Ship air emissions are recognized as one of the key concerns of the maritime industry. Competent authorities have issued various regulations to manage air emissions from ships. Although the authorities are policy makers, the effectiveness of policies is up to the shipping industry who operates the vessels and terminals to fulfill maritime transport...
Article
Full-text available
The 76th session of the Marine Environment Committee (MEPC 76) of the International Maritime Organization adopted several mandatory measures in June 2021 to reduce carbon emissions from ships. One of the measures is the carbon intensity indicator (CII), which is the carbon emissions per unit transport work for each ship. Several options of CIIs are...
Article
The shipping industry is associated with approximately three quarters of all world trade. In recent years, the sustainability of shipping has become a public concern, and various emissions control regulations to reduce pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships have been proposed and implemented globally. These regulations aim to driv...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact assessment of a mandatory operational goal-based short-term measure to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions from ships. The specific measure has been proposed by Denmark and other co-sponsors in the context of the relevant discussion at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and in partic...
Article
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The purpose of this short paper is to provide a brief and non-encyclopedic commentary on the decisions made at IMO MEPC 76 (June 2021) and assess the prospects for the future of shipping decarbonization in the aftermath of that meeting. The recent action of the European Commission to include shipping into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) is al...
Article
Full-text available
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a strategy to reduce emissions from international shipping that sets very ambitious targets. The first set of actions, so-called short-term measures, are expected to be implemented by 2023 and result in a reduction of emission intensity by at least 40% by 2030 compared with 2008 levels. Comp...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and discussion of potential Market Based Measures (MBMs) under the Initial IMO Strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. In this context, some related developments are also seen as directly relevant, mainly in the context of the possible inclusion of shipping into th...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose As of January 1, 2020, the upper limit of sulfur emissions outside emission control areas decreased from 3.5% to 0.5%. This paper aims to present some of the challenges associated with the implementation of the sulfur cap and investigates its possible side effects as regard the drive of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime transport carries around 80% of the world's trade. It is key to the economic development of many countries, it is a source of income in many countries, and it is considered as a safe and environment friendly mode of transport. Given its undisputed importance, a question is what does the future hold for maritime transport. This chapter is a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to present some basics as regards the energy efficiency of ships, including related regulatory activity at the International Maritime Organization and elsewhere. To that effect, the Energy Efficiency Design Index is first presented, followed by a discussion of market-based measures and the recent Initial IMO Strategy to...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to assess the status and prospects of the decarbonization of maritime transport. Already more than two years have passed since the landmark decision of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in April 2018, which entailed ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. The paper attempts to...
Article
Full-text available
The European maritime transport policy recognizes the importance of the waterborne transport systems as key elements for sustainable growth in Europe. A major goal is to transfer more than 50% of road transport to rail or waterways within 2050. However, waterways are at a disadvantage as they normally depend on transhipment and land transport to an...
Article
Full-text available
Ship weather routing has seen considerably increasing attention in recent years in both academia and industry. Problems in this area consider finding the optimal path and sailing speed for a given voyage considering the environmental conditions of wind and waves. The objectives typically consider minimizing operating costs, fuel consumption, or ris...
Article
In an effort to reduce carbon emissions from international shipping, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed its initial strategy in April 2018 setting ambitious targets for the sector. According to the initial strategy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping need to be reduced by at least 50% by 2050, and the CO...
Article
To achieve IMO's goal of a 50% reduction of GHG emission by 2050 (compared to the 2008 levels), shipping must not only work towards an optimization of each ship and its components but aim for an optimization of the complete marine transport system, including fleet planning, harbour logistics, route planning, speed profiles, weather routing and ship...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to conduct an updated literature survey on the Market-Based Measures (MBMs) currently being proposed by various member states and organizations at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) or by the scientific and grey literature as a cost-effective solution to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. Τhe paper collects...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report summarizes the actions taken and results achieved under Activity A3.2 of the Scandria®2Act Interreg project. It consists of four main chapters, one for each activity: 1. Existing multimodal freight offers in the Scandria®2Act partner regions 2. The role of Ro-Ro shipping in a stricter regulatory environment 3. Shipper needs in relation t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the speed limit debate, and specifically to look into whether reducing speed by imposing a speed limit is better than achieving the same by imposing a bunker levy. This debate, along with the various issues of speed optimization versus speed reduction, is currently ongoing at the International Mari...
Article
Full-text available
Aiming at reducing CO2 emissions from shipping at the EU level, a system for monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of CO2 emissions of ships was introduced in 2015 with the so-called ‘MRV Regulation’. Its stated objective was to produce accurate information on the CO2 emissions of large ships using EU ports and to incentivize energy efficie...
Article
Full-text available
International shipping is at a crossroads as regards decarbonization. The Paris climate change agreement in 2015 (COP21) was hailed by many as a most significant achievement. Others were less enthusiastic, and more recently American President Trump decided to take the U.S. out of the agreement. Four years earlier, the International Maritime Organiz...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on liner shipping includes many models on containership speed optimization, fleet deployment, fleet size and mix, network design and other problem variants and combinations. Many of these models, and in fact most models at the tactical planning level, assume a fixed revenue for the ship operator and as a result they typically minimiz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to shed some light into the speed limit debate, and specifically whether reducing speed by imposing a speed limit is better than doing the same by imposing a bunker levy. This debate, along with the various issues of speed optimization versus speed reduction, is currently ongoing at the International Maritime Organizati...
Article
Full-text available
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has established the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) as the most important policy measure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shipping. A vessel’s EEDI is based on sea trials at delivery, and vessels cannot exceed a threshold for emitted CO2 per ton-mile, depending on vessel type and size...
Article
Full-text available
Speed optimization and speed reduction" are included in the set of candidate short-term measures under discussion at the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in the quest to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. However, there is much confusion on what either speed optimization or speed reduction may mean, and some stakeholders ha...
Article
Full-text available
“Speed optimization and speed reduction” are included in the set of candidate short-term measures under discussion at the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in the quest to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships. However, there is much confusion on what either speed optimization or speed reduction may mean, and some stakeholders h...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The International Maritime Organization has decided that as of 1.1.2020, SOx content in a ship’s emissions should be no more than 0.5 per cent. The purpose of this paper is to address the various challenges expected to arise from the enforcement of the global cap sulfur regulation. Design/methodology/approach The authors outline various...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report presents the work performed and the results achieved under Activity 3.2-3 of the Scandria®2Act Interreg project. It reviews existing publications on shipper requirements in the region and analyses the views of shippers/freight forwarders in relation to multimodal transport solutions.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The emissions from transport and residential sectors have significant shares in total emissions of Europe. In this study, we identified key priorities in support to the EU Macro-regional Strategies implementation based on an ex-ante assessment focusing on two EU macro-regions: Adriatic-Ionian (AIR) and Alpine (ALP).
Article
Full-text available
The 0.1% limit in sulphur content within Sulphur Emission Control Areas as of 1st January 2015 requires that ship operators either use pricier ultra-low sulphur fuel oil, or alternatively install abatement technologies through substantial capital investments. A part of the resulting higher operating costs are passed on to shippers resulting in incr...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on ship routing and scheduling has grown substantially over the last few decades, with many papers authored by top experts in this area and examining various versions of the problem. Many publication outlets have hosted these papers, with a broad variety of problem formulations, solution approaches, and application contexts. Equally...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of Activity 3.2-2 of the Scandria®2Act project. It investigates the sensitivity of the Ro-Ro services along the Scandria® corridor to fuel cost fluctuations, anticipates the adverse effects of a possible fuel price hike and discusses potential mitigating measures.
Chapter
In recent years the issue of sulfur emissions from maritime transport has seen newfound attention. This chapter presents an overview of the main issues of sulfur emissions and the legislative framework that seeks to reduce the sulfur footprint of the maritime sector. It also analyzes potential modal shifts toward less efficient land-based modes whi...
Chapter
Among the spectrum of logistics – based measures for sustainable shipping – this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices induce slow steaming which is being practiced...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of market-based measures (MBMs) to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships and review several distinct MBM proposals that were under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter then moves on to discuss the concept of monitoring, reporting and verificati...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to attempt to make an assessment on what may lie ahead as regards sustainable shipping. The focus of the chapter is the April 2018 decision of the International Maritime Organization on the formulation of an Initial Strategy to reduce maritime greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In that context, an assessment of the prosp...
Book
International shipping is currently at a crossroads. The decision of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in April 2018 to adopt an Initial Strategy so as to achieve by 2050 a reduction of at least 50% in maritime greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions vis-à-vis 2008 levels epitomizes the last among a series of recent developments as regards susta...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years have witnessed an increased awareness of the negative external impacts of freight transportation. The field of Operational Research (OR) has, particularly in the recent years, continued to contribute to alleviating the negative impacts through the use of various optimization models and solution techniques. This paper presents the basic...
Article
Full-text available
On 1 January 2015, the sulphur upper limit for marine fuels used within sulphur emission control areas was lowered from 1% to 0.1%, with which vessels can comply only through using pricier ultra-low-sulphur fuel, or investing in abatement technologies. A potential increase of fuel prices could lead to closures of services due to the combined effect...
Preprint
Full-text available
The literature on liner shipping includes many models on containership speed optimization, fleet deployment, fleet size and mix, network design and other problem variants and combinations. Many of these models, and in fact most models at the tactical planning level, assume a fixed revenue for the ship operator and as a result they typically minimiz...
Article
Full-text available
The 0.1% sulphur limit within Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) has made compulsory the use of either pricier ultra-low sulphur fuel, or the installation of abatement technologies that require significant capital investments. Due to the unexpectedly low fuel prices, Ro-Ro operators have been able to cope with the new sulphur limits, but recent...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0.1%, which can only be achieved if vessels are using pr...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as a...
Article
The paper proposes a methodology for freight corridor performance monitoring that is suitable for sustainability assessments. The methodology, initiated by the EU-funded project SuperGreen, involves the periodic monitoring of a standard set of transport chains along the corridor in relation to a number of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It consi...
Article
Full-text available
By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve several trade-offs, and win-win solutions are typical...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of Synchro modality is effectively an evolution of a multimodal supply chain. It integrates different transport modes and gives shippers and logistics service providers the freedom to deploy different modes of transportation in the same chain and in a flexible way so as to gain the desired outcome according to their priorities in a cert...
Chapter
Green corridors” is a concept introduced by the European Commission to enhance the provision of sustainable freight transport logistics services by concentrating freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. SuperGreen, a Coordination and Support Action aiming at further defining this concept, identified the characteristics t...
Research
Full-text available
A description of the Military Sealift Command project at MIT.
Research
Full-text available
This is old but interesting nonetheless. Perhaps the most exciting project I had when was at MIT.
Chapter
Among the spectrum of logistics-based measures for green maritime transportation, this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices induce slow steaming which is being pra...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses the mechanisms used by MBMs, and explores how the concept o...
Chapter
Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated in most countries around the world, much of the attent...
Chapter
Green transportation logistics is an area that combines the following: (a) it is relatively new in terms of research carried out thus far, (b) it has become increasingly important for both industry and society, and (c) it is rich in topics for further research, both basic and applied. In this final chapter of this book we discuss directions for fur...
Chapter
Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at th...
Article
Full-text available
As of January 2015, the new maximum limit of fuel sulfur content for ships sailing within emission control areas has been reduced to 0.1%. A critical decision for ship owners in advance of the new limits was the selection of an abatement method that complies with the regulations. Two main options exist: investing in scrubber systems that remove sul...
Chapter
Slow steaming is being practised in many sectors of the shipping industry. It is induced principally by depressed shipping markets and/or high fuel prices. In recent years the environmental dimension of slow steaming has also become important, as ship emissions are directly proportional to fuel burned. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the...
Conference Paper
Power solutions for seagoing vessels have typically been designed to enable operation at maximum economic speeds based on hydrodynamic considerations, and to ensure that vessels have the necessary power to be seaworthy and maneuverable in heavy weather and in high sea states. Historically, fuel costs have been low compared to fixed and other variab...
Article
Full-text available
In fact, in Modeling the Impacts of Tides and the Virtual Arrival Policy in Berth Allocation, by Du, Chen, Lam, Xu, and Cao, the impacts of tides on seaside operations in container ports are quantified, by modeling their impacts on berth allocation in tidal ports. Furthermore, the paper examines the ”virtual arrival” policy, which determines vessel...
Article
Full-text available
Policy emphasis in ship design must be shifted away from global and idealized towards regional based and realistic vessel operating conditions. The present approach to reducing shipping emissions through technical standards tends to neglect how damages and abatement opportunities vary according to location and operational conditions. Since environm...
Article
Since the late 70s, much research activity has taken place on the class of dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRP), with the time period after year 2000 witnessing a real explosion in related papers. Our paper sheds more light into work in this area over more than 3 decades by developing a taxonomy of DVRP papers according to 11 criteria. These are...
Article
This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sul...
Book
This book examines the state of the art in green transportation logistics from the perspective of balancing environmental performance in the transportation supply chain while also satisfying traditional economic performance criteria. Part of the book is drawn from the recently completed European Union project Super Green, a three-year project inten...
Article
The optimal (economic) speed of oceangoing vessels has become of increased importance due to the combined effect of low freight rates and volatile bunker prices. We examine the problem for vessels operating in the spot market in a tramp mode. In the case of known freight rates between origin destination combinations, a dynamic programming formulati...
Article
Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about minimizing their costs, it is likely that speed and...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes a computer-assisted methodology for solving
Article
Full-text available
Positioning tramp vessels: Selecting charters of a tramp vessel taking into account seasonality in charter rates. A quasi markovian formulation is presented and a dynamic programming procedure is used to solve an academic example. This work has been extended to include speed selection, random charter variation with an underlying markovian structure...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to present the concept of green corridors and analyse their possible impact on the supply chain. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU SuperGreen project and therefore the geographical setting of the chapter is Europe. The general objective of the SuperGreen project has been to support...
Article
In view of the ongoing discussions concerning the possible designation of the Mediterranean Sea as a Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA), a modal split model was applied to a case involving the transportation of consolidated cargoes between Thessaloniki, Greece and industrial hubs of northern Germany. A road-only option was assessed against a comb...