Harald Böhm

Harald Böhm
KIZ Chiemgau · Orthopaedic Hospital for Children

Professor

About

116
Publications
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Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Children with cerebral palsy present with poor motor control, altering their ability to perform tasks such as walking. Continuous relative phase analysis is a popular method to quantify motor control impairments via inter-joint coordination and coordination variability; however, it has not been explored in children with cerebral palsy....
Article
Introduction The frontal plane knee moment (KAM1 and KAM2) derived from non-invasive threedimensional gait analysis is a surrogate measure for knee joint load and of great interest in clinical and research settings. Many aspects can influence this measure either unintentionally or purposely in order to reduce the knee joint load to relieve symptoms...
Article
Introduction The flexible spastic varus foot in cerebral palsy is commonly corrected by split-tendon transfer of tibialis anterior or tibialis posterior. These tendon transfers are said to preserve hindfoot motion which is until now not been proven. Therefore, the aim of the study was to show the hindfoot motion following split-tendon transfer in c...
Article
Background: Spastic drop-foot is a common problem in children with cerebral palsy that may lead to tripping and falling. To improve ankle dorsiflexion in swing phase, prefabricated carbon-composite ankle-foot orthoses are commonly prescribed; by increasing ankle stiffness, these orthoses may also improve knee extension in stance. Objectives: To...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the study is to identify and evaluate possible factors that influence the ability to run before and after single event multi-level surgery (SEMLS). Young patients (6–25 years) with spastic cerebral palsy (GMFCSI-II) were retrospectively included. Type and number of surgical procedures, time for recovery and 3D gait analysis variabl...
Article
Full-text available
Background Instrumented 3D gait analysis (IGA) has been established for the functional evaluation of orthopedic diseases. It can provide valuable additional information beyond conventional static radiographic diagnostics and, thus, contributes to treatment decisions and a successful surgical outcome. Regarding the assessment of leg axis deformities...
Article
The present literature review presents the current state of the art on the prevalence and causes of the rebound phenomenon after successful correction of leg axis deformity using temporary epiphysiodesis in children and adolescents. A total of 20 studies was included by three independent reviewers. The validity of most studies regarding the rebound...
Article
Full-text available
Despite good clinical functional outcome, deficits in gait biomechanics exist 2 years after total hip replacement surgery. The aims of this research were (1) to group patients showing similar gait adaptations to hip osteoarthritis and (2) to investigate the effect of the surgical treatment on gait kinematics and external joint moments. In a seconda...
Article
Introduction Shortening of the tibialis anterior tendon (TATS) has been shown to improve the ankle dorsiflexion in swing following the calf muscle lengthening procedure (CMLP) in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Others have reported the similar improvements following CMLP but without TATS. However there are no studies comparing both procedures. T...
Article
Introduction Flatfoot deformity is commonly characterized by a subtalar valgus, a low medial longitudinal arch, and abduction of the forefoot. Although flatfoot deformity has been associated with lower first (KAM1) and second (KAM2) peak knee adduction moments during walking, the biomechanical connection remains unknown. Research question We hypot...
Article
Full-text available
Background The postural control in cerebral palsy (CP) is often deficient and manifests in a variety of impairments. Consequently, maintaining balance and controlling posture is impeded and results in an increased cost of locomotion and higher risk of falls. The margin of stability is an established measure to quantify dynamic stability during gait...
Article
Full-text available
Spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) affects neural control, deteriorates muscle morphometrics, and may progressively impair functional walking ability. Upon passive testing, gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle bellies or fascicles are typically shorter, thinner, and less extensible. Relationships between muscle and gait parameters might help to understand...
Article
Background Foot-drop is a common impairment in individuals with upper motor neuron syndrome. It may cause walking instability, and greater risk of tripping and falling. Ankle–foot orthoses are the standard of care for foot-drop, but may constrain ankle movement and limit function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was shown to be a less restr...
Article
Background Lower limb malalignment in the frontal plane is one of the major causes of developing knee osteoarthritis. Growing children can be treated by temporary hemiepiphysiodesis when diagnosed with lower limb malalignment. Research question Is there a difference between medial or lateral knee contact force (KCF) before (PRE) and after (POST) h...
Article
Background Noticeable in-toeing gait is present in most children with internal rotational malalignment and often a reason to consult an orthopedic specialist. The risk of tripping may be higher for these patients. Research Question The aim of this study was to determine compensatory mechanisms adopted by children with internal rotational deformiti...
Article
Background Multiple full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs are common practice to quantify the mechanical axis angle (MAA) in young patients with lower limb malalignment in the frontal plane treated with a temporary hemiepiphysiodesis. Research question Is it possible to predict the MAA measured with gold-standard radiographs from a non-...
Article
Background: Overcorrection is a recognized problem following surgical treatment of congenital clubfoot. Recently this complication has also been mentioned following Ponseti treatment. Research question: Do overcorrected clubfeet (OCCF) caused by surgery behave differently from those caused by Ponseti treatment in terms of segmental motion of the...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background There is considerable debate as to which parameters to include in the assessment of paediatric flatfeet. Dynamic pedobarography is an objective, dynamic method to measure foot function. Information about its associations to patient-reported measures may help to focus on the most relevant parameters. Research Question What is the...
Article
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Introduction: Excessive lateral trunk lean is a commonly observed gait deviation in children with cerebral palsy (CP), with implications for energy expenditure and the development of back pain. While the trunk lean toward the stance leg is widely interpreted as a compensatory strategy to unload the hip, in CP the relation to hip abductor muscle str...
Article
Background: Idiopathic flexible flatfeet, congenital clubfeet and pes cavovarus are the most common foot deformities in children. Accurate assessment to quantify the severity of these deformities by clinical examination alone can be challenging. Radiographs are a valuable adjunct for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. However, static radi...
Poster
Full-text available
Multi-segmental kinematic patterns of lower limb transverse plane malalignments in patients with bilateral cerebral palsy Altered transverse plane kinematics in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) are highly prevalent [1] and are often caused by torsional malalignments, which result in dysfunctional lever arms. These lever arm dysfunctions, not only,...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a prefabricated carbon-composite ankle foot orthoses (c-AFOs) on gait parameters in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) exhibiting a drop foot pattern. Methods: Sixteen ambulatory children with USCP and a drop foot pattern were included (mean age: 9 years; gross motor f...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Children and adolescents do not meet the current recommendations on physical activity (PA), and as such, the health-related benefits of regular PA are not achieved. Nowadays, technology-based programs represent an appealing and promising option for children and adolescents to promote PA. Objective: The aim of this review was to systemat...
Article
Introduction: The paediatric flexible flatfoot constitutes the major cause of clinic visits for orthopaedic foot problems. It shows variations of deformities in different planes and locations of the foot and its indication for treatment have been extensively discussed. Despite its high prevalence there exists no classification of flatfeet during w...
Article
Background Classification of sagittal gait patterns in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) provides direct implication for treatment. Five types are described: type 0 has minor gait deviation; type 1 has inadequate ankle dorsiflexion in swing; type 2 has inadequate ankle dorsiflexion throughout the gait cycle; types 3 and 4 have abnormal functio...
Article
Foot drop is a common finding in cerebral palsy and may be associated with foot drop. According to the literature, the shortening of Tibialis anterior would improve the active dorsiflexion of the ankle Joint. However the studies in the literature do not provide any control groups. We conducted a study both in hemiplegics and diplegics where tibiali...
Article
Background: Patients with spastic Cerebral Palsy are prone to equinus deformities, likely affected by short and inextensible plantarflexor muscles. Manual stretching is a popular treatment but its effectiveness concerning joint mobility, muscle-tendon morphometrics and walking function is debated. Eccentric exercise by backward-downhill treadmill...
Article
Background: Running is a fundamental movement skill and a prerequisite for children to participate in numerous daily activities. The prevalence of the ability to run in people with Cerebral Palsy and the role of their impairments on running ability are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of the ability to run a...
Article
Background: Patella-alta is very common in patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP). While several diagnostic x-ray indices have been developed for patella-alta in general, the specific relationship with walking dysfunction in CP is only partly understood. Methods: 33 participants with bilateral spastic CP between 4 and 20 years (GMFCS I-II without pre...
Article
Background: Floor reaction ankle-foot orthoses are commonly prescribed to improve knee extension of children with cerebral palsy having crouch gait. Their effectiveness is debated. Therefore, the objective of this study is to optimize current prescription criteria for the improvement of crouch gait. Study design: Cross-sectional interventional s...
Article
Background: Equinovalgus deformity is the second most common deformity in cerebral palsy and may be flexible or rigid. Several operative methods from joint sparing to arthrodesis have been described with varying success rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of naviculectomy in combination with midfoot arthrodesis (talo-...
Article
Introduction: Patellar tendon shortening procedure within single event multilevel surgeries was shown to improve crouch gait in Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients. However, one of the drawbacks associated to the correction of flexed knee gait may be increased pelvic anterior tilt with compensatory lumbar lordosis. Research question: Which CP patients...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Foot motion and plantar-pressure measures gained widespread popularity in the evaluation of pediatric flatfeet [FF]. For the clinician, there is a need to examine and connect complaints, such as pain and perceived disability with objective measures to gain knowledge about causal relationships and initiate treatment with improved certainty. Our aim...
Article
Objective: Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-di...
Article
Background: Plantarflexor tightness due to muscle degenerations has been frequently documented in children with spastic cerebral palsy but the contractile behavior of muscles during ambulation is largely unclear. Especially the adaptability of gastrocnemius muscle contraction on sloped surface could be relevant during therapy. Methods: Medial ga...
Article
The minimal invasive anterolateral Yale 2-incision approach for total hip arthroplasty aims minimizing damage to the muscles for faster recovery of function. Therefore the hypothesis was investigated, that during the rehabilitation process the Yale approach shows a faster return to natural gait than a conventional lateral approach. Nineteen patient...
Article
Derotation osteotomies of the femur and tibia are established procedures to improve transverse plane deformities during walking with inwardly pointing knees and in- and out toeing gait. However, effects of femoral derotation osteotomies on gait were reported to be small, and those for the tibia are not known. Therefore, the aim of the study was to...
Article
Malaligned knees are predisposed to the development and progression of unicompartmental degenerations because of the excessive load placed on one side of the knee. Therefore, guided growth in skeletally immature patients is recommended. Indication for correction of varus/valgus deformities are based on static weight bearing radiographs. However, th...
Article
Full-text available
In children with cerebral palsy (CP), braces are used to counteract progressive joint and muscle contracture and improve function. We examined the effects of positional ankle-foot braces on contracture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and gait in children with CP while referencing to typically developing children. Seventeen independently ambulant c...
Article
Background: Adolescents with cerebral palsy often complain about a Duchenne gait, which increases the load on the spine, the energy consumption and therefore decreases gait efficiency. However the underlying causes of a Duchenne gait in patients with CP are not clearly researched yet. Nevertheless there is an assumption that excessive trunk lean mi...
Article
Climbing therapy combines the challenge of height with strength, flexibility and coordination training. The typical climbing posture with abducted and external rotated hips, extended knees and ankle dorsiflexion might be ideally suited to improve typical intoeing, crouch and equinus gait pathologies in cerebral palsy. Therefore, the objective was t...
Article
Patients with cerebral palsy frequently experience foot dragging and tripping during walking due to reduced toe clearance mostly caused by a lack of adequate knee flexion in swing (stiff-knee gait). The aim of this study was to investigate adaptive mechanism to an uneven surface in stiff-knee walkers with cerebral palsy. Sixteen patients with bilat...
Article
Background: Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study tested the hypothesis that not only frontal plane kinematics and kinetics but also transverse plane lower extremity mechanics during gait are affected by varus malalignment of the knee. Methods: Eighteen, otherwis...
Article
Ipsilateral trunk lean toward the affected stance limb has been identified as a compensatory mechanism to unload the hip joint. However, this altered gait pattern increases the lever arm around the knee joint by shifting the ground reaction vector more lateral to the knee joint center, which could be sufficient to deform the lateral compartment of...
Article
The aim was to investigate the causes for pathological trunk movements during gait in children with Amyoplasia. Eighteen children with Amyoplasia were compared with 18 typically developed children. Three-dimensional motions of pelvis, thorax and spine during gait were analyzed. Excessive trunk movements were defined as being above 4 standard deviat...
Article
The standard Plug-in-Gait (PiG) protocol used in three-dimensional gait analysis is prone to errors arising from inconsistent anatomical landmark identification and knee axis malalignment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the reliability and accuracy of a custom made lower body protocol (MA) compared to the PiG protocol. Twenty-five subjec...
Article
Instrumented 3-dimensional gait analysis is increasingly being used for the evaluation of movement disorders in orthopedic and neurological musculoskeletal diseases. Due to the high reliability of the measurements the procedures are appropriate for diagnostic purposes as well as for outcome assessment after conservative or surgical interventions. C...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-segment foot models are increasingly being used to evaluate intra and inter-segment foot kinematics such as the motion between the hindfoot/tibia (ankle) and the forefoot/hindfoot (midfoot) during walking. However, kinetic analysis have been mainly restricted to one-segment foot models and could be improved by considering a multi-segment appr...
Article
Excessive pelvic rotation in the transverse plane is common in patients with cerebral palsy. Knowing the underlying reasons is important for clinical decision making, since changes in pelvic retraction might have an effect on internally rotated gait. We hypothesized that the contralateral leg contributes considerably to pelvic rotation on the retra...
Article
In children with cerebral palsy (CP) analysis of gait asymmetry can provide insight into the control of walking and may help in guiding the clinician's treatment decisions. Running is more difficult that walking for the musculoskeletal system, however, in the literature it has been shown that gait deviations associated with CP maybe better tolerate...
Article
Three-dimensional gait analysis is a diagnostic tool that can be used to gain a better understanding of the relationship between joint loading and the onset or progression of articular cartilage degeneration in subjects with varus malalignment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate knee and hip joint angles and moments in children and...
Article
Increased boot shaft stiffness may have a noticeable impact on the range of motion of the ankle joint. Therefore, the ability of the ankle joint to generate power for propulsion might be impaired. This might result in compensatory changes at the knee and hip joint. Besides, adaptability of the subtalar joint to uneven surface might be reduced, whic...
Article
Full-text available
A biomechanical simulation model was developed to analyze energy efficient pedal forces in cycling. With a genetic optimisation algorithm muscle activation has been optimized in order to minimize metabolic energy consumption. Results show that the established mechanical definition of the Index of Efficiency is not appropriate to quantify pedaling t...
Article
Objective. Investigate the relationship between exercise induced joint loading at the knee, changes in cartilage volume and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration. Design. In a pre-post comparison active athletes were tested before and after defined ru