Hans-Rudolf Bork

Hans-Rudolf Bork
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel | CAU · Institute for Ecosystem Research

Prof. Dr.

About

272
Publications
54,538
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,763
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
1614 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • Specialist in Geo-Archeaology, Palaeopedology, Palaeoecology, Geomorphology, Palaeo-hydrology, Environmental History Generalist in Ecosystem Research, Landscape Ecology, Landscape Development, Landscape Management
February 2002 - present
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany
Position
  • Landscape Development of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Chile)
Description
  • Reconstruction of human impact on the environment of Rapa Nui Analysis of past and recent soil erosion processes and resulting forms Soil development under human impact Dynamics of soil fertility
April 2000 - December 2009
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
October 1984 - June 1988
Technische Universität Braunschweig
Field of study
  • Physical Geography, Geoecology
August 1978 - July 1982
October 1976 - July 1978
Technische Universität Braunschweig
Field of study
  • Geography, Geology, Soil Science, Rural Water Management

Publications

Publications (272)
Article
Full-text available
Babeldaob is the largest island of Palau. The landscape of this mostly volcanic island is dominated by monumental earthworks, like terraced hills, crown and moat constructions, and modified ridgelines. The majority of the Palau earthworks were built between 2400 and 1200 BP, making them the oldest examples of monumentality in Oceania according to t...
Poster
Full-text available
Excavations in September 2017 in the Lower Town at Tiryns revealed fluvial deposits dating between the Late Helladic IIIA1 (1.400 BC) and the Late Helladic IIIB2 (1.200 BC) period. According to the current state of research, the related river traversed the alluvial plain and passed the Upper Citadel of Tiryns in the north. Previous geoarchaeologica...
Chapter
The exact timing of the first settlement of Rapa Nui is still subject of debate. Some authors argue for a settlement around 800 to 1000 AD (Steadman et al. 1994; Martinsson-Wallin and Crockford 2002; Mieth and Bork 2010). Other authors advocate the scenario of initial settlement around 1150 AD at the earliest (e.g., Hunt and Lipo 2006; DiNapoli et...
Article
Full-text available
The protected status of archaeological sites requires the use of minimally invasive methods of material investigation such as coring. In contrast to excavations, the coring method does not present the entire view of inner structure and the limited amount of material in cores represents a small portion of the study object. This complicates the inter...
Article
Anecic Earthworm casting is the process explaining Chernozem genesis, properties and distribution across Europe. This has consequences for long-term carbon sequestering, sustainable management and protection of these valuable resource. Whereas climatic steppe Chernozems might form since epigeic and endogeic Earthworm species are limited by natural...
Article
Full-text available
Die monumentalen Erdwerke Palaus sind eines der eindrucksvollsten Bei-spiele anthropogener Landschaftstransformation in Ozeanien. Die terrassierten und über-formten Hügel dominieren bis heute das Landschaftsbild der vulkanischen Insel Babeldaob im Norden des Inselstaates. Die hier präsentierten geoarchäologischen und archäologischen Un ter-suchunge...
Chapter
This chapter describes the study of the Holocene erosion history of the slopes adjacent to the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) site of Vráble (Nitriansky kraj, Slovakia). The analysis of sediments deposited at the outlet of a small valley about 1.5 km east of the settlement site resulted in a detailed chronostratigraphy of Holocene phases of slope instabil...
Article
Although Rapa Nui has been proposed as a classic example of cultural collapse, this hypothesis has been repeatedly questioned. This paper investigates cultural continuity on Rapa Nui following the onset of deforestation through a study of red ochre pits. Red ochre pigments are well-known from various contexts on Rapa Nui, but until recently its ori...
Article
Full-text available
The central part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, is a highly flood-prone area of the province. The lives and assets of local communities are deeply vulnerable, attributed to the recurrence of seasonal floods. This concern has motivated decision-makers and the research community to develop and adopt best management practices to address flood vulner...
Chapter
The dynamics of Holocene geomorphic processes were characterized by transformations of the societal-environmental systems. Superimposed by climatic variability, these transformations constituted the evolution of the cultural landscapes in Central Europe. Driven by socio-economical improvements and population growth, this resulted in the long-term v...
Article
Full-text available
Soils and sediments are able to preserve traces of human activity in the form of morphological, geochemical and geophysical properties of materials. Thanks to that the study of these materials may provide valuable information about the formation and functioning of archaeological sites. Materials transported for earthwork construction and their conf...
Book
Full-text available
The book compiles ten years of research at the water sactuary of Ava Ranga Uka A Toroke Hau on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). The results of this international and interdisciplinary research project offer new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of the Rapanui culture and their interaction with nature on the island. A vast degree of landscape t...
Book
Das Buch führt durch die vergangenen zweitausend Jahre bis in die Zukunft: von der Landnutzung der Römer über die großen Naturkatastrophen und Seuchenzüge der ausklingenden Antike und des beginnenden Mittelalters zum Landesausbau im hohen Mittelalter und den dramatischen Umweltkatastrophen des 14. Jh., denen fast die Hälfte der Menschen auf dem heu...
Chapter
Wie wandelten sich die Kenntnisse zu unserer Umwelt, zu unseren Wirkungen auf die Umwelt und zu den Wirkungen der Umwelt auf uns in den vergangenen zwei Jahrtausenden? Wie gingen Menschen und Institutionen mit dem sich ändernden Wissen um? Welche Umweltveränderungen traten auf? Im zweiten Kapitel werden diese Fragen für 260 Umweltgeschichten gestel...
Chapter
Trotz der geschilderten Erfolge der Umweltpolitik der vergangenen Jahrzehnte bleibt ein immenser Handlungsbedarf. Dieses abschließende Kapitel zeigt exemplarisch Möglichkeiten auf, wie wir durch ein vollkommen verändertes Handeln den Verbrauch unersetzbarer Ressourcen drastisch mindern, den menschengemachten Klimawandel entscheidend drosseln und di...
Article
Full-text available
The Younger Quaternary erosion history was reconstructed in a catchment close to the Chalcolithic giant settlement Maidanetske, central Ukraine based on dated sediment sequences. Four trenches and a long percussion drill-core were analyzed in a valley grading from a Loess covered plateau towards the Talianky River. The sediments were dated by a com...
Preprint
The younger Quaternary erosion history was reconstructed in a catchment close to the Chalcolithic giant settlement Maidanetske, central Ukraine based on dated sediment sequences. Four trenches and a long percussion drill-core were analyzed in a valley grading from a Loess covered plateau towards the Talianky River. The sediments were dated via a co...
Preprint
The younger Quaternary erosion history was reconstructed in a catchment close to the Chalcolithic giant settlement Maidanetske, central Ukraine based on dated sediment sequences. Four trenches and a long percussion drill-core were analyzed in a valley grading from a Loess covered plateau towards the Talianky River. The sediments were dated via a co...
Article
Full-text available
Objective classification of settlement deposits is a prerequisite for understanding human‐environment interactions at habitation sites. This paper presents a novel approach combining a relatively fine‐scale sampling strategy, a multimethod geoarchaeological investigation of cores and multivariate statistics to aid in the classification and interpre...
Chapter
Full-text available
A soil profile from a highland location in the center of Rapa Nui was investigated. The profile is situated on the southern slope of Maunga Terevaka at the edge of the Quebrada Vaipú a ew hundred meters below Rano Aroi. The profile contains a variety of information about past soil formation and vegetation, namely a dense woodland dominated by palm...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sacred trees are well-known in the Polynesian culture. Certain tree species formed parts of the ritual architecture of the marae and me’ae and had in important rol during the rituals that were held at these religious sites. Due to myths and chants it is known that the sites were regularly cleaned of unwanted vegetation as a communal task. This indi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Geoarchaeological investigations on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) revealed several hundred pits filled with reddish silty material. These pits were discovered in a fluvial terrace in a tributary valley east of the Quebrada Vaipu on the southern slope of Maunga Terevaka. The shape of the pits and the structure of the fillings leave no doubt about their a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the 2000s, the intensity of land-use in the highlands of Rapa Nui has increased significantly. Much more motor vehicles and horses are crossing the area. Cars, motorcycles, and horses have destroyed the vegetation along lanes and trails. In consequence runoff caused soil erosion. Thereby many new shallow and long outcrops have emerged. In the...
Article
Full-text available
There are several approaches to assess flood vulnerability as a proactive measure to reduce the risk of flooding. The indicator-based approach is primarily practiced from a policy point of view through the use of composite indicators. Composite indicators can be built from very easy to very complex and sophisticated methods. However, there are two...
Article
Aims: To classify and characterize montane mires and deduce management strategies based on their current state and long-term development. Location: Kleinwalsertal, Austria. Methods: Vascular plants and bryophytes were recorded in a field study of 274 relevés. Abiotic parameters (groundwater dynamics, water and soil characteristics) were measured at...
Presentation
Since 2007, the German Archaeological Institute and Kiel University have undertaken archaeolo- gical excavations on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). Excavations in 2011 and 2014 revealed pits at various locations on the island that contained alternating thin layers of reddish iron oxide, phytoliths and charred material, representing a new type of a...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter introduces, by literature reviews, the issue of the links and processes behind climate change, environmental change, and socio-culture change in the past at the ancient Silk Road region. Analyses of the changes of the socio-environment system in this area enhance our understanding on the regular patterns of coupled natural and social e...
Book
Full-text available
Open access link https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-030-00728-7#about ============ This open access book discusses socio-environmental interactions in the middle to late Holocene, covering specific areas along the ancient Silk Road regions. Over twenty chapters provide insight into this topic from various disciplinary angles and perspec...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of geoarchaeological investigations on Easter Island several hundred human-made pits filled with reddish silty material were discovered in fluvial terraces of two valleys on the southern slope of Maunga Terevaka, the highest volcano of the island. Micromorphological analysis of one representative pit filling and comparison of its geo...
Poster
Full-text available
Olchon ist die größte und einzige bewohnte Insel im Baikalsee, dem tiefsten und ältesten Süßwassersee der Erde. Obwohl die ersten menschlichen Aktivitäten auf Olchon bereits in das späte Neolithikum datieren, hatten sie keine nachweisbaren degradierenden Einflüsse auf die Landschaftsentwicklung. Erst seit dem 20. Jh. finden intensive Landnutzungen...
Poster
Olchon ist die größte und einzige bewohnte Insel im Baikalsee, dem tiefsten und ältesten Süßwassersee der Erde. Obwohl die ersten menschlichen Aktivitäten auf Olchon bereits in das späte Neolithikum datieren, hatten sie keine nachweisbaren degradierenden Einflüsse auf die Landschaftsentwicklung. Erst seit dem 20. Jh. finden intensive Landnutzungen...
Article
Since the early fifteenth century, huge parts of the Portuguese island of Madeira have been transformed from a natural into a cultural landscape. The most eminent feature of this anthropogenic landscape change is agricultural terraces, which are extremely solid in structure and thus resilient to erosion and collapse. This makes them ideal proxies f...
Article
Full-text available
The Silk Road is a modern concept for an ancient network of trade routes that for centuries facilitated and intensified processes of cultural interaction and goods exchange between West China, Central Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean. The Silk Road flourished when the Han dynasty explored Central Asia around 139 BCE and thrived througho...
Article
Full-text available
Deforestation and soil degradation are serious sustainability challenges in many countries of Sub-Sahara Africa such as Ethiopia. Rapid socioeconomic change is a key underlying factor for the unsustainable use and management of natural resources. However, there is a number of well-established resource management systems and a wealth of local experi...
Article
In North-Western Europe, Pleistocene sand sheets have been reactivated during phases of Holocene deforestation and agricultural land use. Although there are temporal overlaps between anthropogenic activity and sand sheet reactivation, the root cause and subsequent feedbacks between aeolian activity and societal response remain largely unknown. Here...
Presentation
During recent investigations on Easter Island by the German Archaeological Institute and Kiel University several hundred pits filled with reddish silty material were discovered at three locations on the island. A small tributary valley of Quebrada Vaipu was particularly rich in pits and was investigated in more detail. Micromorphological analysis o...
Poster
Full-text available
Hedeby represented the largest urban settlement and a major international trading center in Northern Europe and Southern Scandinavia in the Viking Age (8th-11th cent. AD). Geoarchaeological and palaeopedological investigations based on drilling transects across the brook that flows through the settlement into the lake Haddebyer Noor revealed a larg...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment delivery from hillslopes to trunk streams represents a significant pathway of mass transfer in the landscape, with a large fraction facilitated by gully systems.The internal gully geomorphic dynamics represent a considerable gap in many landscape and empirical erosion models, therefore a better understanding of these processes over longer...
Presentation
Since 2007, the German Archaeological Institute and Kiel University are undertaking archaeological excavations on the island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). Excavations in 2011 and 2014 revealed pits that contain thin layers of charcoal and phytoliths and thick layers of reddish iron oxide at various locations on the island. These finds resulte...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural societies around the world have dramatically altered the natural landscape, particularly through accelerated soil erosion. The expansion of agricultural land use into steeper headwater areas during the Medieval period in central Europe is known to have caused large increases in soil erosion and sediment redistribution downstream. Altho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Catchment wide sediment fluxes have been modified throughout the Anthropocene, but it's spatial and temporal dimension is still under debate. Here, we present a long-term sediment budget, highlighting the overlooked role of gullies as significant sediment sinks, and challenging the prevalent view of gullies as being exclusively conveyor belts of se...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents highly unexpected paleobotanical data. Eight (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates of soil macrocharcoal pieces, identified taxonomically, indicate the presence of oak and beech in the Younger Dryas, and pine in the Allerød, in the northernmost low mountain range of Central Europe, the Harz Mountains, in Germany. If t...
Article
Land degradation is the major economic and environmental threat in Ethiopia. Since the 1960s, the various traditional land management systems have undergone unprecedented changes. Within the context of farmers’ awareness of land degradation and local responses to the problems, the objective of this study is to examine the resilience and stability o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Investigations of sediment and landform dynamics are the basis for a better understanding of human-landscape interactions and past living conditions. However, relief reconstruction of strongly culturally impacted areas like settlements using modelling approaches faces problems in terms of unknown former surface alterations, interpretation of soil s...
Article
Agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia have undergone unprecedented changes. The direction of change, however, is unsustainable as manifested in land degradation, biodiversity loss, and low agricultural productivity. The objective of this study is to examine the patterns and trends of agricultural landscape development and responses of the local peopl...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for rad...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term environmental changes in some areas of Central Europe are still poorly documented due to the lack of archives suitable for well-established paleoecological approaches. However, paleorecords of such areas would provide important insights into the Holocene vegetation history of Central Europe. To contribute to fill this gap, we conducted so...
Article
Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use a...
Chapter
Abstract: Since 2009, a Priority Program of the German Research Foundation (DFG) deals with the Funnel Beaker Period in Northern Germany, focussing, in a holistic approach, on the conjunction of social structures and the erection of monuments. To this end, evidence for subsistence patterns, social organisation, communication and networks are consid...
Article
Full-text available
Phases of formation and erosion of Holocene soils were reconstructed based on a sequence of buried soil horizons and colluvial layers at a lower slope section beneath the Neolithic earthwork of Salzmünde, Germany. The chronology is based on eight radiocarbon ages of charcoal, soil organic matter as well as on archaeological age estimations of embed...
Article
Full-text available
Alluvial and colluvial deposits were investigated at prehistoric tells close to the Bosna River. The chronology is based on ten radiocarbon ages, five optically stimulated luminescence ages, and on the archaeological record. Fluvial activity of the Bosna River is indicated by overbank fines [ca. 5000 (±1000) BC, 500 BC until today] and a phase of l...
Article
A combined analysis of macro-charcoal records from peat and soil samples was used to investigate Holocene fire history and correlated forest dynamics. Both soil and peat contexts are favorable to record past fire signals by archiving charcoal assemblages. It is postulated that this combination of charcoal data can provide relevant complements for f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Wie veränderten extreme hygrischer Witterungsereignisse im Spätmittelalter mitteleuropäische Landschaften? Zwar geben die wenigen erhalten gebliebenen Schriftquellen Hinweise besonders zu Schäden an der Infrastruktur in Städten und an großen Flüssen. Verlässliche Informationen zu den Veränderungen des Reliefs und der Böden enthalten sie nur sehr se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prehistoric Easter Island society not only caused severe environmental degradation on the island, but suffered as well from its consequences. A dramatic loss of forests, biodiversity, and fertile topsoils posed considerable peril for the continuity of the social structure. Nevertheless, by means of innovative, adaptive land-use management, the inha...