Hans Markowitsch

Hans Markowitsch
Bielefeld University · Physiologische Psychologie

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582
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Publications

Publications (582)
Conference Paper
"Episodic or episodic-autobiographical memory is considered to be a significant attribute of human cognition, depending on autonoetic consciousness and allowing mental time travel into past and future. Furthermore, episodic memory is embedded in an appraisal system, in which individual episodes are evaluated. We used patients with a condition of ‘d...
Conference Paper
"False memories, memory distortions, confabulations, and other forms of memory aberrations and deficits occur in everyday life and – more frequently – in neurological and psychiatric patients. We studied such changes of memories in 42 patients with alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome, 18 with clipped or ruptured aneurysms of the anterior communicating a...
Chapter
Die fünf Systeme des menschlichen Langzeitgedächtnisses haben jeweils spezifische neurofunktionelle Grundlagen und sind unterschiedlich anfällig für anatomische und neurochemische Schädigungen des Gehirns. Die behavioralen und neurofunktionellen Charakteristika des episodisch-autobiographischen Gedächtnisses ermöglichen das Erinnern persönlicher Er...
Article
The term 'episodic memory' was coined by Endel Tulving, who also created a classification in several memory systems. This classification is presented, and it is described which predecessors existed for the partition of memory into systems. The 'episodic memory system' is discussed as being in general equivalent with 'episodic-autobiographical memor...
Article
Memory disorders without a direct neural substrate still belong to the riddles in neuroscience. Although they were for a while dissociated from research and clinical arenas, risking becoming forgotten diseases, they sparked novel interests, paralleling the refinements in functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Although Endel Tulving has not fu...
Chapter
There are a number of alcohol-related and nutrition-deficit diseases, of which the Korsakoff syndrome and alcohol-related dementia are the most well-known conditions. Korsakoff syndrome and its precursor – Wernicke disease – have been known already in the 19th century and were largely seen as caused by excessive alcohol drinking, although they prim...
Chapter
Das Gedächtnis stellt den wohl bedeutendsten Bereich menschlichen Lebens dar. Dies hat schon im vorletzten Jxahrhundert der Physiologe Ewald Hering (1870) vorausgesehen, der damals schrieb: Das Gedächtnis verbindet die zahllosen Einzelphänomene zu einem Ganzen, und wie unser Leib in unzählige Atome zerstieben müsste, wenn nicht die Attraktion der M...
Chapter
Der Bereich des Gedächtnisses wird von der Einspeicherung bis zum Abruf beleuchtet. Die Anwendung von Neuroimplantaten – psychischen Vorstellungen, die die Erinnerung verändern sollen – wird hinsichtlich Anwendungsmöglichkeiten, insbesondere zur Erhöhung des Selbstwertgefühls, erläutert. Eine gebührende Aufmerksamkeit erhält die Stillung der Bedürf...
Chapter
Das Herbeiführen von Homöostase wird als Prinzip erfüllter Bedürfnisse geschildert. Wohlbefinden und psychische Gesundheit sind nur möglich, wenn Bedürfnisse weitgehend gestillt werden. Hierzu zählen Zuwendung und Liebe, Verstehen und Lernen, die Teilnahme am Leben, das Erreichen von Sorglosigkeit und Gelassenheit, Kreativität, Identität, Mut sowie...
Chapter
Wie kann man sich wohlfühlen, Wohlbefinden erreichen? Betont wird die Bedeutung der kindlichen Erziehung sowie später – im Erwachsenendasein – die Güte der sozialen und biologischen Bedingungen, die mit inneren Erwartungen und Notwendigkeiten korrespondieren sollten. Abgehoben wird darauf, dass Wohlbefinden sehr individuell definiert wird, dass es...
Chapter
Die Bedeutung elektronischer Medien für den gegenwärtigen Lebensalltag wird herausgestrichen, wobei auch Beispiele aus Weltregionen herangezogen werden, die aufgrund ihrer dünnen Bevölkerungsdichte gegenwärtig schon stark auf Internetkommunikation angewiesen sind – z. B. im Bereich der Gesundheitsüberwachung und des Anbietens von Therapiemaßnahmen....
Chapter
Es wird herausgearbeitet, dass Menschen Bedürfnisse haben, die sie über Erinnerungen in Form von Vorstellung zu reaktivieren trachten. Der heutige Mensch wird dabei als integriert in einen bio-psycho-sozialen Kontext verstanden, aus dem heraus er seine Bedürfnisse formuliert und aktiviert. Lebenszufriedenheit und „Work-Life-Balance“ werden als gege...
Chapter
Der „kraftvolle Mensch“ wird mit Blick auf seine phylogenetische Abstammung und im Vergleich zu anderen Primaten und weiteren Säugetieren betrachtet. Dabei spielt die soziale Dimension eine Hauptrolle: der Mensch als soziales Wesen und als Geschlechtspartner. Darüber hinaus geht es um sexuellen Dimorphismus, also Geschlechtsunterschiede, wie sie im...
Chapter
Für den Buchinhalt wesentliche Grundbegriffe werden herausgearbeitet und definiert, u. a die Termini Homöostase, Wohlbefinden, Zufriedenheit, psychische Gesundheit. Ein weiterer zentraler Begriff ist die Gehirnplastizität. Gehirnplastizität wird per se, aber auch in Zusammenhang mit Epigenetik und Stress – den beiden zentralen Einflussgrößen auf di...
Book
Dieses Buch richtet sich mit einem neuartigen Ansatz zur Persönlichkeitsentwicklung auf der Basis der Hirnforschung an den interessierten Laien. Dargestellt wird, wie psychische Gesundheit auf neurowissenschaftlichen Grundregeln aufgebaut ist, und wie sie über eine neuartige Vorgehensweise am Beispiel der psychischen Neuroimplantate® stabilisiert u...
Article
The memory impairment of neurological and psychiatric patients is seen as occurring mainly in the autobiographical-episodic memory domain and this is considered to depend on limbic structures such as the amygdala or the septal nuclei. Especially the amygdala is a hub for giving an emotional flavor to personal memories. Bastin et al. fail to include...
Article
Dissociative disorders are heterogeneous with respect to clinical features, course, antecedents and treatment. Among them, dissociative amnesia occupies a special place, at times encroaching on the borders between neurology and psychiatry. Herein we describe dissociative amnesia according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Sleepiness and cognitive impairment are common symptoms observed in patients with epilepsy. We investigate whether self-reported sleepiness is associated with cognitive performance in patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Seventy-one consecutive patients with MTLE-HS were evaluated...
Article
Full-text available
The psychiatric disease of dissociative amnesia is described and illustrated with case reports. It is emphasized that dissociative amnesia has a stress or trauma-related etiology and that affected individuals, contrary to the still dominant clinical belief, are frequently more severely and enduringly affected. That means, most of them show severe r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Memory performance of an individual (within the age range: 50-55 years old) showing superior memory abilities (protagonist PR) was compared to an age- and education-matched reference group in a historical facts ("famous events") retrieval task. Results: Contrasting task versus baseline performance both PR and the reference group show...
Article
Interictal hypometabolism is commonly measured by 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in the temporal lobe of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE-HS). Left temporal lobe interictal FDG-PET hypometabolism has been associated with verbal memory impairment, while right temporal lobe FDG-PET hypometabolism is ass...
Article
Autobiographical amnesia is found in patients with focal or diffuse brain damage ("organic amnesia"), but also without overt brain damage (at least when measured with conventional brain imaging methods). This last condition is usually named dissociative amnesia at present, and was originally described as hysteria. Classically and traditionally, dis...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the following: i) the objective impairment in neuropsychological tests that were associated with the subjective perception of cognitive function decline in Brazilian patients who underwent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery and ii) the predictive variables for those impaired objective...
Article
Dissociative amnesia is an illness that can follow a chronic course, resulting in the life-long inability to work. It apparently occurs clustered in connection with migration, where it then takes a more severe course than in other cases. This illness is generally reversible, since the recall of memories is only blocked. Persons affected are those w...
Chapter
Versucht man, wie in diesem Kapitel thematisiert, ein Vergessen aus möglichen Verflechtungen genetischer Vorgaben mit wechselnden Umweltbedingungen zu erklären, kann es z. B. nicht genügen, diesen Vorgang allein als Folge von mehr oder weniger deutlich erkennbaren Programmfehlern zu verstehen. Denn damit wäre Vergessen lediglich als ein Problem gen...
Chapter
Einer aus der (Sozial-)Anthropologie abgeleiteten Grundannahme über die Bedeutung der „Traumzeit“ entsprechend, wird in diesem Kapitel das komplexe Gebilde der gelebten „Traumzeit“ zunächst auf einige gemeinschaftsstiftende und überlebenssichernde Funktionen reduziert, um aus den „Erinnerungsstrategien“ auch Phänomene des Vergessens abzuleiten. Dab...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird gezeigt, dass eine Vielfalt an Zeitkonzepten unterschiedliche Vorstellungen über das Vergessen mitbedingt. So stehen z. B. experimentalpsychologisch ausgerichtete Denkweisen, die Vergessen letztlich als eine – dem „Zahn der Zeit“ geschuldete – Störungsanfälligkeit eines Systems betrachten, jenen gegenüber, die sich an der evo...
Chapter
Im klinisch-neurowissenschaftlichen Bereich wird Vergessen meist mit Amnesie gleichgesetzt, wobei der Terminus „Amnesie“ vielfältige Bedeutung haben kann: Er kann sowohl den vollständigen Verlust der eigenen Erinnerung meinen („retrograde Amnesie“) als auch das Fehlen von Erinnerung an bestimmte Ereignisse, bestimmte Lebensepochen, bestimmtes Mater...
Chapter
In diesem zusammenfassenden Schlusskapitel wird aufgezeigt, dass Vergessen zum Leben in dieser Welt, sei es als Individuum, als Teil eines Kollektivs oder der vom Menschen geschaffenen virtuellen Welt, als unverzichtbarer Bestandteil schlichtweg dazugehört. Allerdings erwächst in der gelehrten Welt gerade aus dieser Alltäglichkeit des Geschehens ei...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird dargestellt, dass sich die verschiedenen Befunde über Vorgänge des Vergessens in physiologischen Systemen als so vielgestaltig erweisen, dass man sie kaum mit einem fehlenden oder fehlerhaften Abbild von etwas umschreiben oder gar damit gleichsetzen könnte. Vergessen ist vielmehr als eine Form neuronalen Geschehens aufzufasse...
Chapter
Betrachtet man die in diesem Kapitel zusammengestellten Ergebnisse im Überblick, so ergeben sich mehrere Möglichkeiten, bestehende Modelle des Vergessens in der Psychologie durch Kenntnis der Vorgänge im Immunsystem zu bereichern, und zwar nicht, weil grundlegend Neues zu bedenken oder zu vermelden wäre, sondern weil das bereits Bestehende unter ei...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird das Problem thematisiert, dass vieles, was mit den sog. Eigengesetzlichkeiten des Körperlichen zu tun hat, nicht nur, aber auch in der Psychologie mehr oder weniger ausgespart bzw. nur so weit thematisiert wird, als man es vom Gehirn gesteuert betrachten kann. Indem aber dieses, das Ich einer Person symbolisierende Organ, übe...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel werden sowohl altbekanntes, weil seit vielen Jahrhunderten weitergegebenes Wissen über Vorgänge des Vergessens als auch neuere Erkenntnisse aus Kultur- und Naturwissenschaft zusammengetragen, um den Möglichkeitsraum für die Betrachtung des Phänomens zu erweitern, aus dem in den nachfolgenden Kapiteln geschöpft wird. Die Vielfalt d...
Chapter
Am Beispiel des Weistums, das man sich als mündlich tradierte Weitergabe eines sehr komplexen, verschiedene Widersprüche in sich tragenden Überlieferungsgeschehens vorstellen kann, soll Vergessen als eine Vermischung von Individual- und Kollektivgedächtnis hinsichtlich des öffentlich Akzeptierten einerseits und des persönlich Erlebten andererseits...
Article
Objectives: To investigate prospectively the independent predictors of a minimum clinically important change (MCIC) in quality of life (QOL) after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) in Brazilian patients. Methods: Multiple binary logistic regression analys...
Chapter
Im deutschen Sprachgebrauch ist Handeln im Normalfall zielgerichtetes Agieren, während in anderen, auf dem Lateinischen basierenden Sprachen, die Differenzierung zwischen zielgerichtetem und nicht zielgerichtetem Agieren entfällt (agere, to act). Ursachen und Motive von Handlungen zu erforschen ist Ziel mehrerer Wissenschaftsdisziplinen. Die Neurow...
Book
Ist Vergessen ein psychisch gesunder oder ein krankhafter Prozess? Fest steht, es gibt kein normales Leben ohne Vergessen und kein normales Leben ohne Erinnerung. Diese Dichotomie steht im Zentrum des Buches und wird aus ganz unterschiedlichen Perspektiven beleuchtet – unter anderem aus individualpsychologischer, neurowissenschaftlicher, sozialer...
Article
Full-text available
Glucocorticoids (GC) released during stress response exert feedforward effects in the whole brain, but particularly in the limbic circuits that modulates cognition, emotion and behavior. GC are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medication worldwide and pharmacological GC treatment has been paralleled by the high i...
Article
I argue that it is advantageous to add neuroscience to psychology and that referring to physical uncertainties (principal indeterminism) is incompatible with everyday observations and with a scientific world which anyway relies largely on probability measures. As long as determinism provides more realistic descriptions of the world than indetermini...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory refers to the ability to mentally time travel into the past and to remember personal experiences in terms of what happened and where and when it happened and to be autonoetically aware of it (Tulving, 2002). Humans (and perhaps also animals) are able to remember the specific perceptions, emotions and thoughts they had during a parti...
Chapter
Retrograde amnesia is described as condition which can occur after direct brain damage, but which occurs more frequently as a result of a psychiatric illness. In order to understand the amnesic condition, content-based divisions of memory are defined. The measurement of retrograde memory is discussed and the dichotomy between “organic” and “psychog...
Article
Learning is described as a universal attribute of animals that is accompanied by diverse changes in the nervous system. On the brain level, memory is seen as being represented in distributed neural networks. On the behavioral level, memory is seen as divided along a time- and a content-based axis (short-term, working, long-term memory; procedural m...
Article
Amnesic disorders are multifaceted conditions, with respect to etiology, course, and prognosis. Herein, data on epidemiology, clinical and neuropsychological aspects, and neurobiology and neuroimaging of amnesia due to psychological mechanisms (psychogenic, dissociative, or functional amnesia) are reviewed. By emphasizing the commonalities and diss...
Article
Socially-relevant decisions are based on clearly recognizable but also not consciously accessible affective stimuli. We studied the role of the dorsolateral frontal cortex (DLFC) in decision-making on masked affect expressions using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our paradigm permitted us to capture brain activity during a pre-decision phas...
Article
The relations between the semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory systems are more complex than described in the target article. We argue that understanding the noetic/autonoetic distinction provides critical insights into the foundation of the delineation between the two memory systems. Clarity with respect to the criteria for classification...
Article
Full-text available
Psychoanalytic theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that underlying conflicts about aggression or sexuality drive a variety of obsessive-compulsive behaviors. This study aimed to explore the possible neural correlates of these processes in OCD patients in response to emotion-evoking stimulus material. A total of 15 unmedicated OC...
Article
Socially-relevant decisions are based on clearly recognizable but also not consciously accessible affective stimuli. We studied the role of the dorsolateral frontal cortex (DLFC) in decision-making on masked affect expressions using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our paradigm permitted us to capture brain activity during a pre-decision phas...
Chapter
Neurowissenschaftliche Methoden (Pritzel et al. 2009; Pritzel 2006) versuchen, mittels noninvasiver Verfahren und durch eine möglichst engmaschige räumlich-zeitliche Auflösung bestimmte als relevant angesehene Veränderungen im Gehirn in Relation zum zeitlichen Verlauf bestimmter Verhaltensweisen (z.B. zwischen Reizbeginn und Antwort) abzubilden. Da...
Article
Dissociative amnesia is one of the most enigmatic and controversial psychiatric disorders. In the past two decades, interest in the understanding of its pathophysiology has surged. In this report, we review new data about the epidemiology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging of dissociative amnesia and show how advances in memory research and neurobiolo...
Article
Healthy aging is accompanied by a decline in spatial working memory that is related to functional cerebral changes within the spatial working memory network. In the last decade, important findings were presented concerning the location (e.g., prefrontal), kind (e.g., ‘underactivation,’ ‘overactivation’), and meaning (e.g., functional deficits, comp...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most f...
Article
Full-text available
Using a Bayesian latent group analysis in a simulation design, we recently showed a high diagnostic accuracy when assessing effort in the context of malingered memory deficits. We here further evaluate our Bayesian model in a sample of cognitively impaired patients. The main analysis showed both high sensitivity and specificity, thus corroborating...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy refers to our ability to recognize and share emotions by another human being. Impairment may underlie many of the emotional deficits commonly associated with a range of neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been implicated in these processes, but the specific contribution of subregions of the PFC...
Article
Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 m...
Article
Full-text available
Memory and time have multifaceted links. Along the time axis, memory is divided into short- and long-term memory. Another popular time-dependent distinction is between new and old memories and anterograde and retrograde memory impairments, respectively. Time-embedment characterizes the processing of mnemonic information, which encompasses the stage...
Article
Full-text available
The history and the behavioral profile of 2 patients with brain abnormalities in the region of the left amygdaloidal complex might suggest that the dysfunction of the neural pathways related to the left amygdala has to occur at an early developmental stage to result in impaired emotional judgments of facial expressions. This is in line with the hyp...
Article
Ecological assessment and training of real-life cognitive functions such as visual-spatial abilities in patients with epilepsy remain challenging. Some studies have applied virtual reality (VR) paradigms, but external validity of VR programs has not sufficiently been proven. Patients with focal epilepsy (EG, n=14) accomplished an 8-day program in a...
Article
The contribution of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) to the retrieval of autobiographical memories is widely accepted. Results of former patient studies and functional imaging studies suggest different involvement of the MTL during the retrieval of autobiographical context information and the remoteness of these. Varying recency, the MTL contribution...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are experts in face perception. We are better able to distinguish between the differences of faces and their components than between any other kind of objects. Several studies investigating the underlying neural networks provided evidence for deviated face processing in criminal individuals, although results are often confounded by accompany...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that Llewellyn's hypothesis about the lack of rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep dreaming leading to loss of personal identity and deficits in episodic memory, affectivity, and prospection is insufficiently grounded because it does not integrate data from neurodevelopmental studies and makes reference to an outdated definition of episodic...
Article
Several authors pointed out that left-right discrimination (LRD) tasks may be entangled with differential demands on mental rotation (MR). However, studies considering this interrelationship are rare. To differentially assess LRD of stimuli with varying additional demands on MR, we constructed and evaluated an extended version of the Bergen right-l...
Article
Relationships between specific learning tasks and ablation of the prefrontal cortex in the cat are reviewed. The cat’s prefrontal area is defined, and its anatomical connections are enumerated. Differences in the locus and extent of the so-called frontal association regions that have been reported are described. Effects of prefrontal lesions on var...
Article
Running activity of guinea pigs was compared before and after ablation of the cortical projection areas of the medial and lateral sectors of the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus (sulcal vs. medial prefrontal cortex). Only ablation of the sulcal prefrontal cortex was followed by a significant increase in running activity. This result corresponds to simi...
Article
The recognition of emotional facial expressions is an important means to adjust behavior in social interactions. As facial expressions widely differ in their duration and degree of expressiveness, they often manifest with short and transient expressions below the level of awareness. In this combined behavioral and fMRI study, we aimed at examining...
Article
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Categorization tasks are often used in priming studies, although the impact of categories has seldom been evaluated. We asked participants to classify natural images of animals belonging to four different categories. These were bovid, cats, rodents, and monkeys. The study consisted of three parts: learning, testing, and recognition. Participants re...
Article
Full-text available
Categorization tasks are often used in priming studies, although the impact of categories has seldom been evaluated. We asked participants to classify natural images of animals belonging to four different categories. These were bovid, cats, rodents, and monkeys. The study consisted of three parts: learning, testing, and recognition. Participants re...
Article
Full-text available
The role of color in perceptual priming still remains unclear. We investigated the influence of color during the identification of natural images using a perceptual priming paradigm. In a learning phase, two groups of participants were presented with either colored or gray-scaled variants of photos. A control group did not participate in the learni...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic-autobiographical memory (EAM) is considered to emerge gradually in concert with the development of other cognitive abilities. Developmental studies have emphasized socio-cultural-linguistic mechanisms that may be unique to the development of EAM. Furthermore it was hypothesized that one of the main functions of EAM is the social one. In th...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, different statistical techniques have been introduced to improve assessment of malingering-related poor effort. In this context, we have recently shown preliminary evidence that a Bayesian latent group model may help to optimize classification accuracy using a simulation research design. In the present study, we conducted two an...