Hans Joosten

Hans Joosten
University of Greifswald · Peatland Studies and Palaeoecology Group

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c.

About

255
Publications
129,976
Reads
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6,621
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 1996 - present
Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology
Position
  • Professor of Peatland Studies and Palaeoecology
May 1996 - present
University of Greifswald
Position
  • Professor of Peatland Studies and Palaeoecology
May 1988 - May 1996
Utrecht University
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (255)
Article
Biogeomorphic wetlands cover 1% of Earth’s surface but store 20% of ecosystem organic carbon. This disproportional share is fueled by high carbon sequestration rates and effective storage in peatlands, mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows, which greatly exceed those of oceanic and forest ecosystems. Here, we review how feedbacks between ge...
Article
Full-text available
Remnants of a specimen of Plateumaris Thomson, 1859, probably P. discolor (Panzer, 1795), were found in a peat layer from a drained kettle hole in the Uckermark area (Brandenburg, Germany, 53°23'49.44"N 13°36'04.84"E). The peat, in which the remnants were found, was analysed for its pollen content to determine age and former site conditions. The re...
Research
Full-text available
Peatlands cover about 400 million hectares (ha), or 3% of the land surface of our planet. Yet they store more carbon, more effectively and for longer periods, than any other ecosystem on land. Intact peatlands also provide essential ecosystem services such as regulating water cycles, purifying water, and supporting a wealth of biodiversity. Since p...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This Briefing Note presents key information on practical peatland rewetting and restoration on site. It formulates general guiding principles applicable to all peatland restoration practices and provides detailed information on a wide range of restoration techniques, including peatland rewetting by building blocks, bunds and screens and by reducing...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Convention on Wetlands (The Convention) and other national, regional and global policy frameworks promote the restoration of degraded peatlands. Rewetting peatland to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is an important climate change mitigation strategy, and meeting the objectives of the Paris Agreement may require rewetting of virtually all draine...
Article
Full-text available
We studied a pristine, prominently patterned raised bog in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to disentangle the complex interactions among plants and water and peat. The studied bog lacks complicating features often posed by other bogs. It is completely dominated by Sphagnum magellanicum, which covers all niches and growth forms, and is joined by only a...
Article
Full-text available
Rewetting is the most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from drained peatlands and must significantly contribute to the implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate within the land sector. In 2010-2013, more than 73 thousand hectares of fire-prone peat-lands were rewetted in the Moscow Region (the hitherto largest rewetting...
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands have been drained for land use for a long time and on a large scale, turning them from carbon and nutrient sinks into respective sources, diminishing water regulation capacity, causing surface height loss and destroying biodiversity. Over the last decades, drained peatlands have been rewetted for biodiversity restoration and, as it strong...
Article
Full-text available
Drainage-base agriculture and forestry are key drivers of emissions from degraded peatlands. An important challenge of climate-oriented peatland management is an improved conservation of their huge carbon stocks. Paludiculture, the productive use of wet peatlands, is a promising land use alternative that reduces greenhouse gas emissions substantial...
Article
Full-text available
In spite of the worldwide largest proportional loss of mires, Europe is a continent with important mire diversity. This article analyses the condition and protection status of European mire ecosystems. The overview is based on the system of European mire regions, representing regional variety and ecosystem biodiversity. We combined peatland distrib...
Article
Full-text available
To understand the perception of wetlands by ancient Mesopotamians, it is crucial to have an understanding of the natural landscape "between the rivers". This paper provides an overview on the geomorphology of the region and the human-landscape interaction. In the course of time, starting in the early or mid-Holocene, the land “between the rivers” l...
Article
Full-text available
Forest-peat fires are notable for their difficulty in estimating carbon losses. Combined carbon losses from tree biomass and peat soil were estimated at an 8 ha forest-peat fire in the Moscow region after catastrophic fires in 2010. The loss of tree biomass carbon was assessed by reconstructing forest stand structure using the classification of pre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sacred forests are of immense value for their ecosystem functions. Traditional indigenous conservation practices have helped maintaining biological diversity over centuries and have resulted in the preservation of some of the best patches of natural vegetation. Exclusive taxa find refuge in the micro-climatic conditions of sacred groves and many ra...
Article
Full-text available
Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a rare bog species that is commonly collected for the European herbal market in the wild, leading to the destruction of its natural populations. The aim of this study is to compare sundew cultivation methods on Sphagnum lawn that meet the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry and could promote...
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands cover 3% of the land, occur in 169 countries, and have—by sequestering 600 Gt of carbon—cooled the global climate by 0.6 °C. After a general review about peatlands worldwide, this paper describes the importance of the Great Vasyugan Mire and presents suggestions about its protection and future research. The World’s largest peatland, the G...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement reflects the global endeavour to limit the increase of global average temperature to 2 °C, better 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels to prevent dangerous climate change. This requires that global anthropogenic net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced to zero around 2050. The German Climate Protection Plan substantiates thi...
Article
Sphagnum farming can substitute peat with renewable biomass and thus help mitigate climate change. Large volumes of required founder material can only be supplied sustainably by axenic cultivation in bioreactors. We established axenic in-vitro cultures from sporophytes of 19 Sphagnum species collected in Austria, Germany, Latvia, Netherlands, Russi...
Article
Full-text available
Land cover changes following rewetting of 73 thousand hectares of peatland after the severe 2010 peat fires in Moscow Region (Russia) were monitored using multispectral remote sensing. The results revealed a reduction in the area of bare peat and dry grasslands, the rapid expansion of willow and birch vegetation, and a steady increase in wet grassl...
Article
Full-text available
Sphagnum farming is paludiculture aiming to produce Sphagnum biomass as a sustainable alternative to peat in horticultural growing media. Here we focus on the habitat value of artificial Sphagnum farming sites for peatland species. We report results from seven years of biodiversity monitoring (2011–2018) in a 14 ha Sphagnum farm in north western Ge...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is experiencing substantial warming with possibly large consequences for global climate when its large soil carbon stocks are mobilized. Yet the functioning of permafrost peatlands, which contain considerable amounts of carbon, is still not fully understood. Palaeoecological studies may contribute to unravelling this functioning but requ...
Article
Global forest loss is highest in the tropical region, an area with high biological biodiversity. As some of these forests are part of indigenous forest management, it is important to pay attention to such management, its values and practices for better conservation. This paper focuses on sacred freshwater swamp forests of the Western Ghats, India,...
Article
Full-text available
The dictionary ‘On the meaning of words’ was written by the Roman grammarian Marcus Verrius Flaccus (ca. 55 BCE – 20 CE) but has not been preserved. A summary (“epitome”) by Sextus Pompeius Festus (2nd century CE), which did survive in a heavily damaged state, was in turn further epitomised by Paul the Deacon (Paulus Diaconus, 8th century CE). The...
Data
This report presents the results of the peatland mapping, carbon stock estimation, land use assessment and the evaluation of CO2 emissions avoidance potential in the Equatorial Nile (Nile Equatorial Lakes NEL and Sudd) and Blue Nile sub-systems (Ethiopia).
Article
Full-text available
Peatlands are strategic areas for climate change mitigation because of their matchless carbon stocks. Drained peatlands release this carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). Peatland rewetting effectively stops these CO2 emissions, but also re-establishes the emission of methane (CH4). Essentially, management must choose between CO2 emissi...
Article
Full-text available
The agricultural use of drained peatlands leads to huge emissions of greenhouse gases and nutrients. A land-use alternative that allows rewetting of drained peatland while maintaining agricultural production is the cultivation of Sphagnum biomass as a renewable substitute for fossil peat in horticultural growing media (Sphagnum farming). We studied...
Preprint
Full-text available
The cultivation of Sphagnum mosses reduces CO 2 emissions by rewetting drained peatlands and by substituting peat with renewable biomass. ‘Sphagnum farming’ requires large volumes of founder material, which can only be supplied sustainably by axenic cultivation in bioreactors. We established axenic in-vitro cultures from sporophytes of 19 Sphagnum...
Article
Full-text available
Of all terrestrial ecosystems, peatlands store carbon most effectively in long-term scales of millennia. However, many peatlands have been drained for peat extraction or agricultural use. This converts peatlands from sinks to sources of carbon, causing approx. 5% of the anthropogenic Soil Syst. 2020, 4, 14 2 of 27 greenhouse effect and additional n...
Article
Full-text available
Global forest loss is highest in the tropical region, an area with high biological biodiversity. As some of these forests are part of indigenous forest management, it is important to pay Forthcoming in Environmental Values. ©2020 The White Horse Press www.whpress.co.uk 2 attention to such management, its values and practices for better conservation...
Article
Full-text available
Sphagnum biomass is a promising material to substitute peat in growing media and can be sustainably produced by converting existing drainage based peatland agriculture into wet, climate‐friendly agriculture (paludiculture). Our study focuses on yield maximisation of Sphagnum as a crop. We tested the effects of three water level regimes and of phosp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Of all terrestrial ecosystems, peatlands store carbon most effectively. However, many peatlands have been drained for peat extraction or agricultural use. This converts peatlands from sinks to sources of carbon, causing approx. 5% of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and additional negative effects on other ecosystem services. Rewetting peatlands...
Preprint
Full-text available
Peatlands are strategic areas for climate change mitigation because of their matchless carbon stocks. Drained peatlands release this carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Peatland rewetting effectively stops these CO 2 emissions, but also re-establishes the emission of methane (CH 4 ). Essentially, management must choose between CO 2...
Article
Full-text available
The reconstruction of the past development of peat- and wetlands is normally the task of a wide variety of biological and earth-scientific disciplines. An important source is, however, often overlooked: contemporary written accounts of eye-witnesses of these landscape types. Written records are generally considered to belong to the realms of lingui...
Article
Full-text available
Except for the aquatic wetlands already designated under the Ramsar (Wetland) Convention, little is known about the flora and habitat ecology of mountain mire patches in the Hyrcanian forest of northern Iran. The present study describes the floristic composition and the life forms, chorology and habitat characteristics of plants at Chaman-e Kelar,...
Article
Full-text available
The value of peatlands as archives for vegetation, landscape, climate, and human history is well known, but often neglected in conservation planning. Archive value is the potential to satisfy future (yet unknown) demands for information about the past. This study aims at assessing the comparative archive value of a set of peatlands, to identify the...
Chapter
The arctic ice-wedge polygon mire landscape is under great threat by the changing climate. Yet, it is difficult to accurately predict how this landscape will develop because of the complex interaction of external and internal forcing, direct and indirect effects, and positive and negative feedback mechanisms, affecting frost and thaw processes, hyd...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing global demand for vegetable oils has resulted in a significant increase in the area under oil palm in the tropics during the last couple of decades, and this is projected to increase further. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil discourages the conversion of peatlands to oil palm and rubber plantations. However, our understanding o...
Article
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_______________________________________________________________________________________ SUMMARY Sphagnum farming-the production of Sphagnum biomass on rewetted bogs-helps towards achieving global climate goals by halting greenhouse gas emissions from drained peat and by replacing peat with a renewable biomass alternative. Large-scale implementation...
Article
Full-text available
Sphagnum biomass is commercially harvested from semi-natural and natural peatlands. In this article we analyse the effects of harvesting Sphagnum by cutting off the top parts of the plants and leaving the cut stems to regenerate. We tested regrowth of Sphagnum palustre and Sphagnum papillosum in natural peatlands with high Sphagnum productivity in...
Article
Full-text available
Sphagnum farming provides a sustainable wet land use alternative for drained peatland agriculture. Since 2011 Sphagnum has been cultivated on formerly drained bog grassland at Hankhauser Moor in northwest Germany. The site has been rewetted and is equipped with an automatic irrigation system which controls the inflow and outflow of water. We used m...
Article
Full-text available
Sacred areas are the oldest form of habitat protection, and many of these areas contribute to biodiversity conservation. While sacred groves have received considerable scholarly attention, little is known about fresh water swamps in the Western Ghats, India and sacred swamps have largely been ignored. This paper provides a first overview testing th...
Research
Full-text available
Weißtorf (schwach zersetzter Hochmoortorf) ist, neben Schwarztorf (stark zersetzter Hochmoortorf), der wichtigste Substratrohstoff und Produktionsgrundlage im modernen Gartenbau. Weltweit werden dafür jährlich 30 Mio. m³ Weißtorf, davon 3 Mio. m³ in Deutschland verbraucht. Dieser fossile Rohstoff wird aus Mooren abgebaut, und seine Verfügbarkeit si...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the ‘European Mires Book’ of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG), this article provides a composite map of national datasets as the first comprehensive peatland map for the whole of Europe. We also present estimates of the extent of peatlands and mires in each European country individually and for the entire continent. A minim...
Book
Full-text available
Smoke on Water is a Rapid Response Assessment that looks at peatland location, extent, threats and the policies to manage and protect them. The goal of this rapid response assessment, carried out on behalf of UN Environment and based on the efforts of more than 30 contributors, is to raise awareness about the importance of the world's peatlands and...
Article
Door natte teelten (paludicultuur) in veenweidepolders kan een productief landschap gekoppeld worden aan groenblauwe diensten. Paludicultuur met lisdodde of riet kan op verschillende manieren bijdragen aan de verbetering van de kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater, vooral door snelle opname van nutriënten en de daaropvolgende afvoer van biomassa. Doo...
Article
Full-text available
Sphagnum farming allows sustainable and climate-friendly land use on bogs while producing a renewable substitute for peat in horticultural growing media. We studied Sphagnum productivity on an experimental Sphagnum culture established on a cut-over bog in Germany with strongly humified peat at the surface. Preparation of the site included levelling...
Article
Full-text available
The first International Peat Congress (IPC) held in the tropics - in Kuching (Malaysia) - brought together over 1000 international peatland scientists and industrial partners from across the world (“International Peat Congress with over 1000 participants!,” 2016). The congress covered all aspects of peatland ecosystems and their management, with a...
Article
Vegetation distribution and pollen deposition were studied in a complex of degraded ice-wedge polygon mires near Pokhodsk (NE Siberia) in order to obtain insight in the relation between actual vegetation and pollen deposition in microtopographic landscape elements. Pollen surface samples with 1 m spacing were collected along a transect and compared...
Article
A previously unpublished pollen diagram from the late KLAUS KLOSS allows the reconstruction of vegetation history and mire development in the northwestern part of the Dubringer Moor, one of the most important mires of the German Federal State Sachsen. The diagram covers the final time-frame of the Weichselian Lateglacial and the complete Holocene,...
Article
Large areas of peatlands have worldwide been drained to facilitate agriculture, which has adverse effects on the environment and the global climate. Agriculture on rewetted peatlands (paludiculture) provides a sustainable alternative to drainage-based agriculture. One form of paludiculture is the cultivation of Sphagnum moss, which can be used as a...
Article
Joosten H. & Wichtmann, W. (2016): Das Moor, ein vielfältiger Landschaftstyp unter Druck. Aquaviva 3/2016 p 1- 9