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Hans De Witte

Hans De Witte
KU Leuven | ku leuven · Research unit for Work, Organization & Personnel Psychology

PhD in Work Psychology

About

450
Publications
452,618
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21,428
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
April 2010 - September 2023
North-West University
Position
  • Professor
January 2004 - September 2023
KU Leuven
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (450)
Article
Full-text available
Background Burnout is an increasing public health concern that afflicts employees globally. The measurement of burnout is not without criticism, specifically in the context of its operational definition as a syndrome, also recently designated as such by the World Health Organisation. The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-23) is a new measure for burnout...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The increasing burden of mental distress reported by healthcare professionals is a matter of serious concern and there is a growing recognition of the role of the workplace in creating this problem. Magnet hospitals, a model shown to attract and retain staff in US research, creates positive work environments that aim to support the wel...
Article
Full-text available
Applying qualitative and quantitative analyses across four studies and seven samples, we clarified the meaning and developed a new measure of career insecurity. Career insecurity is defined as “an individual's thoughts and worries that central content aspects of one's future career might possibly develop in an undesired manner.” The new Multidimens...
Article
Full-text available
In general, being unemployed has negative implications for the individual and the mental health of the public as a collective. One way to escape this situation is to search for a job. However, following self-determination theory (SDT), unemployed people’s different reasons (i.e., their motivation) for engaging in a job search influence their well-b...
Article
Full-text available
Background Burnout is related to huge costs, for both individuals and organizations and is recognized as an occupational disease or work-related disorder in many European countries. Given that burnout is a major problem it is important to measure the levels of burnout in a valid and reliable way. The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) is a newly develop...
Article
Full-text available
Political scientists and sociologists have highlighted insecure work as a societal ill underlying individuals’ lack of social solidarity (i.e., concern about the welfare of disadvantaged others) and political disruption. In order to provide the psychological underpinnings connecting perceptions of job insecurity with societally-relevant attitudes a...
Article
This study examines the relationship between individual and climate-level job insecurity (JI) and employee performance (i.e. adaptivity, proactivity, task proficiency). We suggest that while JI at individual and climate level triggers similar appraisal, the behavioural response of employees might be different. While individual JI might evoke a with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Political scientists and sociologists have highlighted insecure work as a societal ill underlying individuals’ lack of social solidarity (i.e., concern about the welfare of disadvantaged others) and political disruption. In order to provide the psychological underpinnings connecting perceptions of job insecurity with societally-relevant attitudes a...
Article
Samenvatting Werkloosheid veroorzaakt zowel op maatschappelijk als op individueel vlak problemen. Door een stijging van het aantal werklozen in de jaren tachtig ontstond de vraag naar risicoprofielen. De werklozenpopulatie is immers een heterogene groep, die ingedeeld kan worden in typen. Op basis van deze typen kan er een geschikt beleid en geschi...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on job insecurity: the subjectively perceived threat of job loss and the worries related to that threat. Job insecurity is related to contractual flexibility, as it is the subjective counterpart of the “objective” employment contract. The chapter summarizes the literature on the association of (perceived) job insecurity with va...
Article
The Qualitative Job Insecurity Scale (QUAL-JIS) has been used in job insecurity (JI) research for the past 9 years, without formal validation. The goal of the current study was to test the scale’s psychometric properties. We checked the scale’s reliability, as well as its validity, investigating evidence based on the scale’s content, internal struc...
Article
The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) represents a new measure of burnout that addresses the shortcomings of previous instruments. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian short version of the BAT. The sample consisted of 648 employees that completed the short version of the BAT. Of this sample, 117 employees also completed m...
Article
Full-text available
Despite substantial interest in job insecurity as a severe workplace stressor, the way in which its qualitative and quantitative dimensions co-occur is not fully understood. As a result, the variety of their combinations and potentially differential effects that they produce remain underexplored. The current study aimed to address this gap in two w...
Article
Samenvatting In deze bijdrage wordt geëxploreerd in hoeverre de coronacrisis van invloed is op onzekerheid over het voortbestaan van de arbeidsplaats, hier geoperationaliseerd als beroepsonzekerheid. Tevens wordt de samenhang onderzocht tussen beroepsonzekerheid en twee maatschappelijke attitudes: politieke machteloosheid en geloof in een coronasam...
Article
In this study, we expand on the existing work on job crafting by focusing on (1) within-person fluctuation in affective experiences in relation to job crafting and person-job fit and (2) between-person fluctuations in personal growth initiative (PGI) as an important boundary condition of these relationships. Using multilevel data from 116 employees...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to adapt and show evidence of validity for the Ecuadorian version of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) considering only its "core" dimensions. The adaptation process included its translation and back translation. For content validation, expert reviews and focus groups were carried out. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to ide...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study, we aimed to investigate consequences of workplace bullying for the perpetrators of this behavior. Building on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we reconcile the traditional view of perpetrator being more powerful than the target, with the idea that this power balance can change through time. We test this idea using longitudinal s...
Article
Full-text available
Prior cross-sectional research indicates that the negative effects of quantitative job insecurity (i.e., threat to job loss) on employees’ wellbeing are fully mediated by qualitative job insecurity (i.e., threat to job characteristics). In the current longitudinal study, we replicated and further extended this view to include a direct effect of qua...
Article
The past two decades saw an increase in political populism, set against the backdrop of turbulent economic and political developments. This is associated with a rise in workers worrying about job loss as well as an increase in individuals holding politicians and politics in disrepute. This study investigates whether these two processes are linked....
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigates employee well-being in stable versus changing psychosocial working conditions, using the Job Demand-Control theoretical framework. It thereby addresses a gap in the literature dealing with how the dynamics of the work environment may affect different aspects of well-being, such as job satisfaction, work stress, mental...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify developmental patterns of job insecurity, taking into account quantitative as well as qualitative job insecurity, and to examine if these groups vary with regard to different work-related learning aspects, that is, occupational self-efficacy, learning from supervisor and colleagues, and acquired knowledge and s...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify developmental patterns of job insecurity, taking into account quantitative as well as qualitative job insecurity, and to examine if these groups vary with regard to different work-related learning aspects, that is, occupational self-efficacy, learning from supervisor and colleagues, and acquired knowledge and s...
Article
Full-text available
To push the job insecurity literature forward, we bring together and simultaneously examine multiple theoretical frameworks to explain the direct job insecurity-mental health relationship and the reciprocal mental health-job insecurity relationship. Using 3-wave survey data, with a six-month time lag, from 1994 employees, we found that the stabilit...
Article
This study investigates whether job insecurity is related to employee learning (i.e. the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies/characteristics; KSAOs) and whether occupational self-efficacy functions as a mediating mechanism in this relationship. We used three-wave longitudinal data, with a time lag of six months, collected among Flemis...
Article
Research has disregarded the processes and boundary conditions associated with the effects of job insecurity on innovative work behavior. Combining the job demands‐resources and the self‐determination perspectives, the present study develops and tests a first‐stage moderated mediation model that identifies intrinsic motivation as a key mechanism ac...
Article
Full-text available
This study contributes to the research of employee health and well-being by examining the longitudinal effects of psychological contract (PC) breach on employees' health. We integrate Social Exchange and Conservation of Resources theories to position effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as the mediating mechanism. We also assessed the moderating role of p...
Article
Full-text available
Nurses are a key workforce in the international health system, and as such maintaining optimal working conditions is critical for preserving their well-being and good performance. One of the psychosocial risks that can have a major impact on them is job insecurity. This study aimed to carry out a bibliometric analysis, mapping job insecurity in 128...
Article
Against the backdrop of various and sometimes unexpected transformations of working conditions, qualitative job insecurity has become increasingly prevalent in academia and beyond. As a result, there is a great need for identifying factors that may mitigate its detrimental outcomes on employee well‐being. To do so, the current study aimed to invest...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new definition for burnout and investigates the psychometric properties of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT). In a prior qualitative study, 49 practitioners were interviewed about their conceptualization of burnout (part 1). Using a dialectical approach, four core dimensions—exhaustion, mental distance, and impaired emotiona...
Article
Full-text available
Unemployment has negative consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. Consequently, interventions should be designed and implemented to alleviate the psychological burden of unemployment. The design of these interventions should, however, be approached with care, as ‘the unemployed’ may not be a homogeneous group. The aim of the study w...
Article
Full-text available
Burnout as a concept indicative of a work-related state of mental exhaustion is recognized around the globe. Numerous studies showed that burnout has negative consequences for both individuals and organizations but also for society at large, especially in welfare states where sickness absence and work incapacitation are covered by social funds. Thi...
Article
This contribution introduces the Job Insecurity Appraisals Scale (JIAS-6), a tool that measures job insecurity primary appraisals (i.e., challenge and hindrance). Starting from the transactional theory of stress and extending previous unpublished versions of the same scale, the authors developed JIAS-6, using two samples of Italian workers ( N 1 =...
Article
Full-text available
Job insecurity is an indicator of precarious work that refers to the fear of losing one's job. It is a relevant source of stress, with negative consequences on people's mental health. The main objective and contribution of this study is to identify how gender inequality and job insecurity are related, responding to the lack of consensus found in sc...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This exploratory study aimed to provide a description of the experiences and perceptions of survivalist entrepreneurs in under-resourced communities. These survivalist entrepreneurs perceived themselves as ‘temporary’ entrepreneurs. They engaged in entrepreneurial ventures, whilst actively searching for secure formal employment. Design/me...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the measurement invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) across seven cross-national representative samples. In this study, burnout was modeled as a second-order factor in line with the conceptual definition as a syndrome. The combined sample consisted of 10,138 participants from countries in Europe a...
Article
Full-text available
Modern technologies can aid working processes as well as provide individuals with an opportunity to connect and form interpersonal relationships. However, they can also create a context for displaced aggression. In this study, we examine whether people experiencing work stressors may engage in online antisocial behavioral as a means of venting thei...
Article
Full-text available
No validated intervention that specifically addresses the psychosocial needs of unemployed people exists in the South African context. This study intends to evaluate an evidence-based job-search program, called the JOBS intervention, that is aimed at the self-efficacy, amotivation, and self-esteem related to participants searching for jobs. A quasi...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution introduces the Job Insecurity Appraisals Scale (JIAS-6), a tool that measures job insecurity primary appraisals (i.e., challenge and hindrance). Starting from the transactional theory of stress and extending previous unpublished versions of the same scale, the authors developed JIAS-6, using two samples of Italian workers (N1 = 20...
Chapter
Pesten op het werk staat meer dan ooit in de belangstelling. Recente veranderingen binnen Europese arbeidswetten en verschillende bedrijfscases die – ook in de Lage Landen – afgelopen jaren de media haalden, droegen bij aan een groeiende aandacht voor dit fenomeen. Ook het maatschappelijke debat over pesten op het werk nam toe. Het is dan ook zinvo...
Chapter
Dit hoofdstuk biedt een overzicht van onderzoek naar baanonzekerheid, gedefinieerd als de subjectief ingeschatte kans op baanverlies. Aan bod komen aspecten zoals prevalentie, factoren die aanleiding geven tot baanonzekerheid (antecedenten), gevolgen voor individueel welzijn en gezondheid en gevolgen voor de organisatie, een discussie over de causa...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution introduces the Multidimensional Qualitative Job Insecurity Scale (MQJIS). Drawing from the qualitative job insecurity literature and addressing some of other scales’ limitations, a multidimensional model is proposed and investigated by means of confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. Study 1 aims...
Article
Full-text available
This study tests the assumption that job insecurity threatens people’s work‐related identities and thereby affects their political attitudes. Work‐related identity threat in times of job insecurity is proposed to happen in two ways: people will fear to lose an important part of their identity (their identity as employed people), and they also be af...
Article
Full-text available
Job insecurity is a work stressor with many negative consequences for the individual as well as the organization. However, currently, little is known about why job insecurity is related to these outcomes. In the present study, actual turnover was investigated as a possible consequence of job insecurity. Additionally, rumination about a possible job...
Article
Full-text available
Background: South Africa is challenged with high levels of unemployment, comprising many people with low levels of education and also individuals who have never held a job before. Despite having many vulnerable participants, interventions aimed at the unemployed generally exclude psychosocial training and are methodologically weak. Aim: The JOBS p...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the relative importance of four job demands and five job resources for employee vitality, i.e., work engagement and exhaustion, in three different employment groups: permanent, temporary and temporary agency workers. We employed data from the sixth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) collected in 2015...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the relationship between burnout and life satisfaction in Brazilian workers through the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) theoretical model of Positive Psychology. The associations between burnout and job demands, job resources, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms were tested in 986 participants, 87.2% women, from the...
Article
This study investigated coping styles and coping resources in the relationship between work stressors and exposure to workplace bullying. A two-wave survey was conducted (N = 482) to investigate whether T1 emotion-focused coping amplifies the positive lagged relationship from T1 role conflict and role ambiguity to T2 bullying. T1 problem-focused co...
Article
Full-text available
Felt job insecurity is commonly seen as a stressor that is tied to a specific segment of employees and which implies overall negative outcomes. We challenge this view based on the new career rhetoric that assumes that felt job insecurity is widespread, although not necessarily problematic; rather, on the contrary, that felt job insecurity may promo...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Work-related stress is a major contributor to human error. One significant workplace stressor is job insecurity, which has been linked to an increased likelihood of experiencing burnout. This, in turn, might affect human error, specifically attention-related cognitive errors (ARCES) and the ability to detect errors. ARCES can be cos...
Article
ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate the pattern of cross-lagged relationships between job insecurity and self-rated health over a period of five years. While health complaints are usually seen as one of the detrimental outcomes of job insecurity, the question of the direction of the job insecurity-health relationship has not yet been fu...
Article
Full-text available
Orientation: Given the absence of organised and accessible information on programmes relating to unemployment in South Africa, it may be difficult for beneficiaries to derive value from existing programmes; and for stakeholders to identify possible gaps in order to direct their initiatives accordingly. Research purpose: The purpose of this study w...
Article
Full-text available
Current work life has become increasingly turbulent, which has sparked employees’ concern about the loss of valued job features, coined as qualitative job insecurity. No prior research has investigated the relationship between this type of job insecurity and informal learning. However, informal learning might be particularly relevant for qualitativ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research indicates that workplace changes can have both positive and negative consequences for employees. To explore the mechanisms that trigger these different outcomes, we propose and test a mediation model, which builds on the premises of the challenge–hindrance model of work stress. Specifically, we suggest that whereas workplace changes...
Article
Full-text available
Alleviating the psychological burden of unemployment and preventing the unemployed from withdrawing from the labor market remains a priority for unemployment researchers and practitioners alike. Job search motivation and the differential relationships with experienced psychological need satisfaction (and need frustration) potentially induce differe...
Article
The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to validate the psychometric properties of the Academic Resilience Scale (AR‐S) in a Spanish university context; and (b) to test a model where different coping strategies are antecedents of AR, and where academic satisfaction and performance are its consequences. The studies were conducted with 185 (study 1)...
Article
Full-text available
Although the majority of research on adolescents’ online behavior has focused on antisocial behavior such as cyberbullying, adolescents more often behave prosocially than antisocially online. Research on offline prosocial behavior has shown that happiness and prosocial behavior are related. Furthermore, spillover-crossover research suggests that em...
Article
Purpose – Using the framework of fairness heuristic theory and social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of perceived overall justice in the relationship between qualitative job insecurity and attitudinal outcomes. In line with both theories, job insecurity is hypothesized to negatively relate to perceived o...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to propose a theoretical model that explains the psychological processes underlying the job insecurity–performance relationship. To accomplish this goal, we draw on a two-dimensional stressor framework. Job insecurity may undermine performance through a hindrance effect, because it causes strain reactions and withdrawal behaviors. I...
Article
The present study examines an important contemporary stressor: Job insecurity, both in terms of losing one’s job as such (i.e. quantitative job insecurity) and losing one’s valued job aspects (i.e., qualitative job insecurity). Moreover, we study whether humor assists in offsetting the negative associations of these types of job insecurity with emp...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates whether (and to what extent) there are differences in health and well-being between the unemployed and employees with job insecurity. An examination of theories results in two views: some theories predict unemployment to be more detrimental, whereas others predict both phenomena to be equally problematic for health and well-...
Article
Wanneer scoort men té hoog of té laag op een vragenlijst die werkkenmerken meet? Het doel van deze studie is om grenswaarden te berekenen voor de 'Short Inventory to Monitor Psychological Hazards' (SIMPH). Deze vragenlijst is een inkorting van de VBBA en omvat zowel werkkenmerken als welzijnsaspecten. Voor de werkkenmerken werden grenswaarden berek...
Article
In dit artikel wordt nagegaan of werklozen en baanonzekeren van elkaar verschillen inzake hun welzijn en gezondheid. Een overzicht van theorieën suggereert twee mogelijkheden: werkloosheid is problematischer dan baanonzekerheid of beide fenomenen zijn even problematisch voor de gezondheid en het welzijn. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om na te gaan...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesized mediation model that specifies psychological climate dimensions as antecedents of job insecurity, while accounting for occupational self-efficacy. Stemming from the conservation of resources theory, the authors hypothesize that job challenge, role harmony, leader support and co-worker c...