Hans Baumgartner

Hans Baumgartner
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Marketing

Ph.D.

About

116
Publications
66,878
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
19,968
Citations

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
In factorial survey designs, respondents evaluate multiple short descriptions of social objects (vignettes) that experimentally vary different levels of attributes of interest. Analytical methods (including individual-level regression analysis and multilevel models) estimate the weights (or utilities) assigned to the levels of the different attribu...
Article
Common method variance (CMV) is an important concern in international marketing research because presumed substantive relationships may actually be due to shared method variance. Because method effects may vary systematically across cultures and countries, accounting for method effects in international marketing research is particularly critical. A...
Article
We propose the use of balanced item parcels to account for method effects caused by acquiescent responding. The use of balanced parcels avoids the need to model method effects explicitly and results in a parsimonious specification of measurement and full structural equation models in the presence of unwanted method effects, particularly when a scal...
Article
Common method variance (CMV) is an important concern in international marketing research because presumed substantive relationships may actually be due to shared method variance. Since method effects may vary systematically across cultures and countries, accounting for method effects in international marketing research is particularly critical. A s...
Article
Although pickiness fundamentally concerns one’s preferences, there is currently no definition of this construct in the consumer psychology literature. This paper presents a conceptualization of shopper “pickiness” – an overly narrow latitude of acceptance around an idiosyncratic ideal point. Pickiness is revealed in two ways: pickiness by acceptanc...
Article
There are enduring misconceptions in the marketing and management literature about the potential biasing effects of Common Method Variance (CMV). One belief is that the biasing effect of CMV is of greater theoretical than practical importance; another belief is that if CMV is a potential problem, it can be easily identified with the Harman one-fact...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a conceptual framework of misresponse to multi-item scales in surveys in which misresponse to items that are reversed relative to other items (reversal misresponse) is differentiated from misresponse to items that are negated (negation misresponse) and from misresponse to items whose core concept is the opposite of the core conc...
Article
Full-text available
Generic price terms such as cheap, not expensive, not cheap, and expensive are used frequently in marketing, but little is known about how consumers interpret them. In typical consumer contexts, in which lower prices are preferred, we find that not cheap means essentially the same as expensive (i.e., not cheap = expensive). By contrast, not expensi...
Article
Full-text available
We present the SEMWISE (structural equation modeling for within-subject experiments) approach for analyzing policy capturing data. Policy capturing entails estimating the weights (or utilities) of experimentally manipulated attributes in predicting a response variable of interest (e.g., the effect of experimentally manipulated market-technology com...
Article
Full-text available
People frequently observe others’ consumption, making inferences about both the consumer and the consumed brands. Although these observations are often beneficial for brands, this research demonstrates that observing luxury brand consumers whose consumption arose from unearned (vs. earned) financial resources reduces observers’ brand attitudes when...
Chapter
Regardless of whether the research goal is to establish cultural universals or to identify and explain cross-cultural differences, researchers need measures that are comparable across different cultures when conducting cross-cultural studies. In this chapter, we describe two major strategies for enhancing cross-cultural comparability. First, we dis...
Chapter
The term structural equation modeling (SEM) refers to a family of multivariate techniques concerned with the examination of relationships between constructs (conceptual or latent variables) that can generally be measured only imperfectly by observed variables. For example, a researcher may be interested in the determinants of consumers’ use of self...
Chapter
Researchers who seek to understand marketing phenomena frequently need to measure the phenomena studied. Yet, constructing reliable and valid measures of the conceptual entities of interest is a nontrivial task, and before substantive issues can be addressed, the adequacy of the available measures has to be ascertained. In this chapter, we discuss...
Article
As there is still no commonly accepted scale to measure the brand personality of sport teams, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Sport Team Personality Scale (STPS) in a professional sport context. The authors conducted a series of studies in the United States and United Kingdom with fans of the English Premier League, Major...
Article
Survey research methodology is widely used in marketing, and it is important for both the field and individual researchers to follow stringent guidelines to ensure that meaningful insights are attained. To assess the extent to which marketing researchers are utilizing best practices in designing, administering, and analyzing surveys, we review the...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses methodological issues related to language in advertising research. We introduce a framework that distinguishes between cross-linguistic research settings, where several languages are used in the study and different samples of respondents are studied in their own language, and multilingual research settings, where only a singl...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the effects of actual product experiences with typical brand extensions on attitudes toward low- vs. high-equity brands. By using a three-wave longitudinal design, we assess both the immediate and delayed intra-individual influence of an experience with an extension on evaluations of the core brand. We find support for the microtheor...
Article
The authors propose a procedure, labeled the calibrated sigma method, which is designed to correct for between-group differences in endorsement likelihood of response categories that are unrelated to the content of the items. The method is especially useful in cross-cultural research where group differences may reflect variation in scale usage rath...
Article
People who want to control their body weight often aim to regulate both energy intake (by reducing food consumption) and energy expenditure (by increasing physical activity), thus addressing both sides of the energy balance equation. Marketers have developed fitness-branded food that may lead restrained eaters (i.e., consumers who are chronically c...
Article
Full-text available
In questionnaires, items can be presented in a grouped format (same-scale items are presented in the same block) or in a randomized format (items from one scale are mixed with items from other scales). Some researchers have advocated the grouped format because it enhances discriminant validity. The current study demonstrates that positioning items...
Article
Full-text available
Surveys in the social sciences often employ rating scales anchored by response category labels such as “strongly (dis)agree” or “completely (dis)agree.” Although these labels may exert a systematic influence on responses since they are common to all items, academic research on the effect of different labels is surprisingly scarce. In order to help...
Data
Surveys in the social sciences often employ rating scales anchored by response category labels such as “strongly (dis)agree” or “completely (dis)agree”. Although these labels may exert a systematic influence on responses since they are common to all items, academic research on the effect of different labels is surprisingly scarce. In order to help...
Article
Eight distinct types of purchase behavior are distinguished in the model of the purchase cube proposed by the author, based on the purchase motives or reasons for buying underlying a purchase. One of the purchase types is repetitive purchase behavior, which is characteristic of functional purchases that are made deliberately rather than spontaneous...
Article
Full-text available
In the recent methodological literature, various models have been proposed to account for the phenomenon that reversed items (defined as items for which respondents' scores have to be recoded in order to make the direction of keying consistent across all items) tend to lead to problematic responses. In this article we propose an integrative concept...
Article
Full-text available
MacKenzie and Podsakoff (M&P) have written a very useful guide for researchers in retailing and marketing on how to deal with the problem of common method bias in survey research. We applaud their effort to provide procedural remedies that can be implemented before the data are collected in an attempt to counter satisficing and prevent the damaging...
Article
Full-text available
There are important advantages to including reversed items in questionnaires (e.g., control of acquiescence, disruption of nonsubstantive responding, better coverage of the domain of content of a construct), but reversed items can also lead to measurement problems (e.g., low measure reliability, complex factor structures). The authors advocate the...
Article
It is recommended that individuals exercise regularly (Haskell et al. 2007). However, today's environment provides many apparent substitutes for physical activity. This research investigates whether and how fitness cues - both cues that are incidentally present in the environment and cues that are integral to food products (e.g., as part of the pac...
Article
In this study we investigate how consumers cope with guilt and shame in the impulse buying context. Based on recent psychological research on guilt and shame, we posit that the intensity of shame experienced after buying on impulse will be positively associated with the use of avoidant coping strategies, whereas the intensity of guilt experienced w...
Article
Full-text available
Socially desirable responding (SDR) has been of long-standing interest to the field of marketing. Unfortunately, the construct has not always been well understood by marketing researchers. The authors provide a review of the SDR literature organized around three key issues— the conceptualization and measurement of SDR; the nomological constellation...
Article
This article analyzes citation data for over 7000 articles published in the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and Journal of Consumer Research between 1936 and the end of 2009 to address five questions relating to the history of consumer research: What types of articles have been influential in consumer research? Does consumer re...
Article
Full-text available
People need to allocate their limited cognitive resources to current and future tasks. We provide evidence that anticipating the resource demands of a future task creates a "get ready mind-set" that mobilizes these resources. However, the mobilized resources for the future task can carry over to unrelated current tasks. This implies the counterintu...
Article
Full-text available
Socially desirable responding (SDR) has been of long-standing interest to the field of marketing. Unfortunately, the construct has not always been well understood by marketing researchers. The authors provide a review of the SDR literature organized around three key issues the conceptualization and measurement of SDR; the nomological constellation...
Article
A review of previous literature shows that there are at least three ways in which regulatory focus may be related to message framing. Specifically, persuasion might be enhanced when there is a match between a person’s regulatory focus and (a) the outcome focus of the message (i.e., gain vs. loss anchor); (b) the overall valence of the message (i.e....
Article
The purpose of this chapter is twofold: (1) to critically review prior typologies of purchase behavior, recognizing their strengths and weaknesses; and (2) to propose a new, empirically derived typology based on purchase motives that better captures the important dimensions underlying different forms of buying behavior. Although the purchase of pro...
Article
Previous research on message framing has focused on the effect of overall valence on persuasion, since most studies compare positively versus negatively valenced frames that are anchored by the same end-state. Unlike previous studies, this paper investigates the role of end-states, or outcome focus, in message framing by using two positively valenc...
Article
We distinguish between two kinds of future-oriented emotions (anticipatory and anticipated) and investigate their behavioral effects. Anticipatory emotions are currently experienced due to the prospect of a future event (e.g., hope or fear). Anticipated emotions, on the other hand, are expected to be experienced in the future if certain events do o...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing procedures by allowing different items to be different...
Article
Dans le but de faire avancer la théorie de la mesure en recherche en marketing, trois améliorations du paradigme actuel de développement d'échelle sont proposées. Tout d'abord, les auteurs portent leur attention sur les distinctions états/traits et présentent un modèle qui sépare les sources stables des sources temporaires de la variation intrinsèq...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to advance measurement analysis in marketing research, the authors propose three extensions of the current scale development paradigm. First, the authors focus attention on the trait–state distinction and present a model that separates stable sources of substantive variation in a construct from transient sources. Second, the authors de...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to advance measurement analysis in marketing research, the authors propose three extensions of the current scale development paradigm. First, the authors focus attention on the trait–state distinction and present a model that separates stable sources of substantive variation in a construct from transient sources. Second, the authors de...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to advance measurement analysis in marketing research, the authors propose three extensions of the current scale development paradigm. First, the authors focus attention on the trait-state distinction and present a model that separates stable sources of substantive variation in a construct from transient sources. Second, the authors de...
Article
This research reveals systematic eVects of outcome and behavior knowledge on memory for prior decision making in a three-wave longitudinal study of retrospective predictions and intentions involving the 1999-2000-millennium change. We demonstrate a perva- sive consistency bias in memory for prior decision making, such that not only are remembered p...
Article
Full-text available
When a researcher collects data from research participants, the expectation is that the observed measurements are accurate indicators of the constructs of interest. For example, if the researcher is interested in the construct of brand loyalty and administers a question that asks respondents to indicate how committed they feel to the brands they bu...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate how extraneous or incidental emotions influence product evaluations as a function of consumers' salient goals. By manipulating specific emotions that correspond closely to two basic categories of human goals (achievement vs. protection), we extend affect-as-information theory and show that product judgments are a function not simply...
Article
We investigate how consumers manage stressful emotional experiences in purchase-related situations. Eight coping strategies that consumers may use to deal with stressful incidents are distinguished and hypotheses are formulated about which coping strategies are linked to each of four different negative emotions (anger, disappointment, regret, and w...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on structural equation models is unclear on whether and when multicollinearity may pose problems in theory testing (Type II errors). Two Monte Carlo simulation experiments show that multicollinearity can cause problems under certain conditions, specifically: (1) when multicollinearity is extreme, Type II error rates are generally una...
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigate the overall and subarea influence of a comprehensive set of marketing and marketing-related journals at three points in time during a 30-year period using a citation-based measure of structural influence. The results show that a few journals wield a disproportionate amount of influence in the marketing journal network as a w...
Article
Country-of-origin is a product attribute that can influence product evaluation and consumption via an affective route. A questionnaire administered to over 1300 Thai teenagers was used to explore the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes is perceived as part of an attractive American lifestyle, particularly by youth in developing countries. It was fur...
Article
Full-text available
Personality research has long been a fringe player in the study of consumer behavior. Little research is directly devoted to personality issues, and if consumer personality is investigated at all, it tends to be from the narrow perspective of developing yet another individual difference measure in an already crowded field of personality scales or c...
Article
We report 2 studies that served to clarify the role of consumption emotions in the satisfaction response. In the 1st study, we examined the role of consumption emotions within the expectancy-disconfirmation model of consumer satisfaction and investigated whether consumption emotions are a result of product performance or disconfirmation. The findin...
Article
Citation patterns between 42 journals in economics from 1995 to 1997 are examined, plus between economics and anthropology, political science, psychology, sociology and five business disciplines. Building on social network theory, we identify a hierarchical organization of journals in economics and seven journal clusters. Major citation flows are f...
Article
Personality research has long been a fringe player in the study of consumer behavior. Little research is directly devoted to personality issues, and if consumer personality is investigated at all, it tends to be from the narrow perspective of developing yet another individual difference measure in an already crowded field of personality scales or c...
Article
Full-text available
Response styles are a source of contamination in questionnaire ratings, and therefore they threaten the validity of conclusions drawn from marketing research data. In this article, the authors examine five forms of stylistic responding (acquiescence and disacquiescence response styles, extreme response style/response range, midpoint responding, and...
Article
We propose that a fundamental difference between quality and value judgments is that consumers rely more on internal standards (i.e., information stored in memory) to evaluate a brand''s quality and external standards (i.e., reference brands available in the evaluation context) to assess a brand''s value. Since internal standards are relatively sta...
Article
We reflect on the role of structural equation modeling SEM in marketing modeling and managerial decision making. We discuss some benefits provided by SEM and alert marketing modelers to several recent developments in SEM in three areas: measurement analysis, analysis of cross-sectional data, and analysis of longitudinal data. q
Article
Full-text available
An important characteristic of journals is how influential they are in the generation and dissemination of scholarly knowledge in a discipline. We report a citation analysis of 49 marketing and marketing-related journals to assess their relative influence based on the index of structural influence proposed by Salancik (1986). We investigate the lev...
Article
The citation network of the International Journal of Research in Marketing (IJRM) is examined from 1981 to 1995. A time-heterogenous log-multiplicative model is estimated to examine simultaneously the importance and similarity of journals in the network over time. Two distinct types of journal similarity, cohesion and structural equivalence, are co...
Article
Full-text available
Varying sets of items and constructs are a problem frequently encountered in cross-national and longitudinal studies in marketing. We discuss the use of multi-group latent variable models in this situation and describe a method that can be used to handle unequal sets of items and constructs across groups in such models. A simulation study based on...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the applicability of frameworks developed in one country to other countries is an important step in establishing the generalizability of consumer behavior theories. In order for such comparisons to be meaningful, however, the instruments used to measure the theoretical constructs of interest have to exhibit adequate cross-national equival...
Article
Full-text available
The citation network of the International Journal of Research in Marketing (IJRM) is examined from 1981 to 1995. We propose a model that contains log-linear and log-multiplicative terms to estimate simultaneously the importance, cohesion, and structural equivalence of journals in the network across time. Our findings show that the overall importanc...
Article
Assessing the applicability of frameworks developed in one country to other countries is an important step in establishing the generalizability of consumer behavior theories. In order for such comparisons to be meaningful, however, the instruments used to measure the theoretical constructs of interest have to exhibit adequate cross-national equival...
Article
The authors develop several hypotheses regarding the integration of moment-to-moment emotional responses into overall ad judgments, using the psychological literature dealing with people's preferences for sequences of hedonic outcomes, and they conduct three studies to test these predictions. The results of Study 1 indicate that consumers' global a...
Article
The authors develop several hypotheses regarding the integration of moment-to-moment emotional responses into overall ad judgments, using the psychological literature dealing with people's preferences for sequences of hedonic outcomes, and they conduct three studies to test these predictions. The results of Study 1 indicate that consumers’ global a...
Article
We develop a series of hypotheses delineating the impact of arousal potential on arousal and of arousal on stimulus evaluation, and we introduce the concept of need for stimulation (NST) as a key moderating variable which takes into account other sources of stimulation and individual differences in preferred level of stimulation. The hypotheses are...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a two-factor conceptualization of exploratory consumer buying behavior in which exploratory acquisition of products is distinguished from exploratory information seeking. A scale for measuring individual differences in consumers' tendencies to engage in exploratory buying behavior is developed based on this conceptualization, an...
Article
This paper reviews prior applications of structural equation modeling in four major marketing journals (the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, International Journal of Research in Marketing, and the Journal of Consumer Research) between 1977 and 1994. After documenting and characterizing the number of applications over time, we di...
Article
In an effort to explore the meaning of action-relevant constructs and to uncoverphenom- enological similarities and differences among commonly hypothesized antecedents of people's actions, 222 subjects in two studies categorized a variety of statements expressing motivations for doing things (e.g. I'd like to do it, I will do it, I'll try to do it)...
Article
Full-text available
This article shows how methods for the analysis of moment structures based on latent variates can be used to investigate theories hypothesizing interactive effects of exogenous constructs on endogenous constructs. Building on the work of Kenny and Judd, the authors discuss the specification of structural equation models with latent interaction term...
Article
The implications of the phenomenon of hindsight bias for the expectancy-disconfirmation model of consumer satisfaction are investigated, and the moderating effects of choice (i.e., whether or not a product is selected on the basis of one′s expectations regarding the product′s likely performance) on the incidence of hindsight bias and on the relatio...
Article
This paper presents a conceptualization of goal-directed consumer behavior in terms of a hierarchical structure of increasingly more abstract goals which are connected to one another through means-end relationships. The goal structure incorporates both the relatively concrete level of specific action plans, which is concerned with the how of behavi...
Article
The important role played by optimum stimulation level (OSL) in a variety of consumer behaviors renders it highly desirable that researchers have a short but valid instrument for measuring this construct. In this paper, a shortened (7-item) version of the Change Seeker Index (CSI) is developed and cross-validated in three countries (USA, Belgium, a...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on people's proficiency in assessing covariation between continuous variables is reviewed, and the impact of prior expectations and characteristics of the evidence on judgment accuracy is discussed. The present study investigates how the availability of a theory (i.e., prior expectations of relatedness) influences assessments of c...
Article
Full-text available
The internal psychometric properties and the criterion-related validity of a popular measure for assessing a person's optimal stimulation level (OSL), the 32-item Arousal Seeking Tendency Scale, version II (AST-I1), were investigated. Using data from samples of undergraduate business students (n = 519) and undergraduate students in hotel, restauran...