Hannu Savolainen

Hannu Savolainen
University of Eastern Finland | UEF · School of Educational Sciences and Psychology

PhD

About

77
Publications
49,980
Reads
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2,466
Citations
Introduction
Current research interests: -School Wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation and Research -Multi-tiered support for behavior problems in schools and pre-school - Teacher efficacy and attitudes towards inclusive education Methodological approaches: -Randomised Controlled trials, Quasi-experimental research, single case experimental research -Longitudinal research -SEM modeling
Additional affiliations
April 2016 - present
North-West University
Position
  • Professor
January 2014 - present
University of Jyväskylä
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2007 - present
University of Eastern Finland
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
Starting with the COVID-19 pandemic, research intensively investigated the effects of school lockdowns on involved stakeholders, such as teachers, students and parents. However, as research projects had to be hurriedly conducted, in-depth and longitudinal studies are lacking. Therefore, the current study uses data from a longitudinal study to inves...
Article
Full-text available
h i g h l i g h t s A meta-analysis was used to examine relationship between teachers' attitudes and self-efficacy in inclusion. Effects of 43 unique samples of in-service teachers are aggregated. Meta-analyses reveal a positive sample size weighted correlation between teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes. Findings suggest the relationship might b...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to explore Finnish pre-service teachers' self-efficacy in implementing inclusive education and their resilience. Survey data were collected from 105 pre-service teachers studying in a teacher education programme in one university in Finland. The relationships between pre-service teachers' self-efficacy in implementing inclusive prac...
Article
Suomessa oppimisen ja koulunkäynnin tukea toteutetaan vuonna 2011 voimaan tulleella kolmiportaisen tuen mallilla yleisessä, tehostetussa ja erityisessä tuessa. Oppimisen tuen käytännöt vaihtelevat eri kuntien ja koulujen välillä paljon, ja tuen toteuttamisen käytäntöihin on kaivattu selkeyttä. ”Opettajien arviointiosaaminen oppimisen, osallisuuden...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies pointed out that dealing with difficult behaviour is perceived by teachers as a major challenge in inclusive settings. However, research on the students' perception of the classroom behavioural climate (CBC) is rare. Therefore, this study aims to examine students’ perceptions of CBC and to identify predictors of CBC as well as asso...
Article
Full-text available
Check in–check out (CICO) is a widely used and studied behavioural intervention. Although CICO is an effective way to support pupils’ behaviour in a school context, not all pupils benefit from basic CICO. A single-case experimental study was designed to evaluate the effects of CICO Plus support (CICO Plus) for participants whose behaviour was deter...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decades, an abundance of studies have assessed teacher attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs related to inclusive education. However, empirical evidence on the causal relationship between efficacy and attitudes is still rare and inconclusive. Therefore, the present study focused on identifying the interdependent relationship between tea...
Presentation
This study aims to explore how teachers define ‘inclusive education’ and what kinds of professional development they seek for implementing inclusive practices. The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances towards inclusive education since the Salamanca Statement was published (UNESCO, 1994). Inclusive education refers to including st...
Article
It has been indicated that teachers’ perceptions of the most suitable educational environment for students with different disabilities depends on the type and severity of students’ disability. Although the perceptions are found to be different by country, research comparing Japanese teachers’ perceptions and perceptions of teachers from other count...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyse and compare teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education in two culturally different countries: Finland and Japan. A sample of 362 Finnish and 1518 Japanese teachers participated in this survey. The teachers’ attitudes varied and were rather critical. The Finnish teachers were more worried about teachers’ eff...
Presentation
A brief Blog on developing inclusive education and the essential role teachers play in it. See: http://blogs.worldbank.org/education/learning-all-essential-role-teachers-inclusive-education
Presentation
This study aims to examine the extent and sources of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy (TSE) for inclusive practices and to explore whether there are similarities or differences in how the sources of efficacy affect TSE in Japan and Finland. Inclusive education, that means students with diverse educational needs are included in mainstream schools, has become...
Article
h i g h l i g h t s Teachers' self-efficacy (TSE) and its sources were examined in Japan and Finland. Measurement invariance testing confirmed the scales' construct validity. Mastery experience made the strongest unique contribution to TSE in both countries. The influence of verbal persuasion on TSE differed between Japan and Finland. Sources other...
Article
Many behavioural and emotional characteristics are associated with children’s peer relationships. The purpose of this study is to examine behavioural and emotional strengths of sociometrically popular, rejected, controversial, neglected, and average children. 773 third-grade children (51% girls) are assessed with a sociometric questionnaire and sel...
Article
Käyttäytymisen ongelmat ovat koulussa yleisiä. Erityisen tavallisia ne ovat oppilailla, joilla on aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö (ADHD). Koulussa esiintyvän ongelmakäyttäytymisen lieventämiseen ja ennaltaehkäisyyn tarvitaan moniammatillista yhteistyötä ja tutkittuja toimintamalleja. Aikaisemman tutkimuksen valossa vaikuttaa aiheelliselta jär...
Presentation
Inclusive education has become the mainstream in global education policies since the Salamanca Statement was published (UNESCO, 1994). In order for teachers to implement inclusive education effectively, previous studies suggested that it is essential to have not only knowledge and skills but also positive attitudes and higher self-efficacy regardin...
Article
The academic self-concept changes from childhood to early adulthood in relation to experiences of capability in different school tasks and comparison with peers. Students in special education have a lower academic self-concept than their peers do, but it is unclear how part-time special education affects self-concept development. In Finnish schools...
Article
h i g h l i g h t s Teacher self-efficacy and attitudes on inclusion in Japan and Finland are examined. Testing measurement invariance showed cross-cultural validity of the used scales. The strongest predictor was experience in teaching students with disabilities. A longer teaching career had a positive impact on teachers' self-efficacy in Japan. T...
Article
The idea and concept of inclusive education have been debated, and different interpretations of what inclusion means and to whom it concerns have been presented. In this paper, we bring together notions of inclusive quality education, pedagogy, learning and teachers, and illustrate how the principle(s) of inclusion(s) has been enacted and translate...
Article
Artikkelissa kuvataan alakouluikäisille oppilaille tarkoitetun kasvatuksellisen pienluokan toimintamallia. Oppilaat ovat erityisessä tuessa käyttäytymisen ongelmiensa vuoksi, ja tutkimme luokkamuotoisen erityisopetuksen toimintamallin tuloksellisuutta oppilaan yleisopetukseen palaamisen näkökulmasta. Intervention tavoitteena on kehittää oppilaan ry...
Article
Check In–Check Out (CICO) is a support programme for students with externalising problem behaviours. This study implemented in Finland is one of the first reports on the application of CICO in the European context. An experimental, multiple-baseline, single-case design is used to examine the effects of the CICO intervention on the problem behaviour...
Article
This study was done to examine the transition of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) and hearing students from the first cycle (Grade 4) to the second cycle (Grade 5) of primary education in Ethiopia. Academic achievement and self-concept were measured longitudinally with 103 DHH and hearing students. Participants were selected from three different sett...
Article
This research sought to develop an understanding of teachers’ attitudes, sense of self-efficacy and approach to enacting inclusive education in their classrooms in two diverse countries. A mixed-methods research design guided the data collection and analysis. This article focuses on how quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used seq...
Article
Disruptive behaviour in classrooms is a significant challenge for learning in schools and a risk factor for students’ academic achievement and a significant source of teachers’ work-related stress. Earlier research shows that clear behavioural expectations, monitoring students’ adherence to them and behaviour-specific praise are effective practices...
Article
The current study examined the over-time association between externalizing behaviour problems and academic performance during school transition in a cross-lagged design. The main focus was to reveal whether the externalizing behaviour composite and its components separately, including symptoms of CD and ADHD, differ in their relationship with acade...
Article
Inclusion is never only a practical issue of placement. School-wide systemic change, together with well-functioning, multi-tiered support, can promote the inclusion of all pupils. This paper draws on research conducted in two mainstream primary schools in Finland. The primary focus was to gain insight into practical solutions to facilitate the incl...
Poster
Full-text available
http://www.eera-ecer.de/ecer-programmes/conference/22/contribution/40632/
Article
Using a sample of 359 in-service teachers, this study examines Japanese teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education and their self-efficacy for inclusive practices. The results indicate that although teachers’ sentiments toward disabilities were generally positive, the teachers had some concerns about implementing inclusive education in their cl...
Article
This paper reports on the findings of an international comparative research project where the roles of teachers in the implementation of inclusive education in mainstream-classroom settings in South Africa and Finland were investigated. Inclusive education within this project is broadly defined as welcoming all students to general-education schools...
Article
The present study investigated the self-concept of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students in different educational settings compared with those of hearing students in Ethiopia. The research involved a sample of 103 Grade 4 students selected from 7 towns in Ethiopia. They were selected from a special school for the deaf, a special class for the dea...
Article
In this study, the relationship between adolescents’ difficulty in mathematics and reading and the influence on academic self-concept and school grades was examined. The participants (N = 585; 299 girls, 286 boys) were one age group of ninth-graders whose mathematics and reading skills were assessed at the end of comprehensive school at age 16 year...
Article
Positive student–teacher relationships are related to students’ academic achievement and behavioural and emotional adjustment. How a student’s behavioural and emotional strengths are associated with these relationships and how the relationships influence students’ academic performance remains unknown. We examined this framework using a cross-lagged...
Article
Policy and practice in relation to meeting the diverse needs of all children, including those with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities, is in a state of change in the UK. As a result, there is growing interest in and understanding of the need to focus on factors which impact on teachers’ levels of self-efficacy in meeting the needs of...
Article
Full-text available
Learning difficulties have been found to dilute the possibilities that young adults have in their educational careers. However, during the last few decades, education has become increasingly important for employment and overall life satisfaction. In the present study, we were interested in the effects of mathematical and reading difficulties and so...
Article
In previous research, the Finnish version of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 has demonstrated adequate internal consistency, factor structure and convergent validity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term test-retest reliability of the Finnish BERS-2. Youth, parent and teacher BERS-2 ratings were collected once a...
Article
Disruptive behaviours in classrooms pose a significant challenge for learning in schools and are, at the same time, a risk factor for students’ academic achievement and a major source for work-related stress among teachers. Earlier research suggests that clarifying the classroom rules and behavioural expectations, monitoring students’ adherence to...
Article
This study compares the socio-emotional problems experienced by deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students with those of hearing students in Ethiopia. The research involved a sample of 103 grade 4 students attending a special school for the deaf, a special class for the deaf and a regular school. Socio-emotional problems were measured using Goodman's...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined how depressive symptoms change in late adolescence and whether reading disabilities (RD) affect the level or change of the symptoms. The sample consisted of 293 Finnish adolescents (150 girls, 143 boys; 58 with RD). Participants completed a screening test for reading and spelling skills in ninth grade (age 15), and a depr...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the cross-informant agreement among student self-report, teacher report, and parent report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire translated into Finnish (SDQ-Fin) and estimated mean convergent and divergent correlations with a sample of fifth-grade Finnish students (N = 588) and the cross-informant agreement among...
Article
Full-text available
When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results suggeste...
Article
This paper reports on the first phase of an international comparative mixed methods research project that is based within a cultural historical framework in order to pay stronger attention to the implications of differences and similarities within the unique and complex educational contexts in China, South Africa and Finland. Data collection method...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the role of word reading and mathematical difficulties measured in 9th grade as factors for receiving educational support for learning in upper secondary education in Grades 10 to 12 (from ages 16 to 19) and furthermore as predictors of dropout from upper secondary education within 5 years after compulsor...
Article
Full-text available
In previous research the Finnish version of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (Epstein, 2004) has demonstrated adequate internal consistency and reliability. The purpose of the present study was to examine the convergent validity of the Finnish BERS-2 by comparing it with the Finnish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
Article
Full-text available
Five hundred fifty mainland Chinese university students were given a questionnaire that contained a Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) scale. The purpose of the study was a) to test the factor structure of teacher self-efficacy for inclusive practices, b) to investigate the relationship between teacher self-efficacy for inclusive pract...
Article
Full-text available
Complex cultural and historical forces are often neglected when the development of inclusive education in international comparative research projects are discussed. The purpose of this study was to analyse teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education by examining the ways in which culturalhistorical factors in South Africa and Finland may impact...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of teachers is one of the most frequently cited factors explaining the quality of an education system. This article discusses the nature and role teacher education plays as a part of the Finnish education system. Teacher education in Finland is a highly competitive field of masters' degree university studies and is provided in universit...
Article
Multiple informants such as teachers, students, and parents are commonly used as sources of information when assessing students' behaviors and emotions. However, there are few studies about cross informant agreement of strength-based assessment. The purpose of this study was to extend the international research on the Behavioral and Emotional Ratin...
Article
Information from multiple sources is recommended when assessing students’ emotions and behaviors. Relatively few studies about cross informant agreement of behavioral and emotional strengths exist, especially for students with special education needs. The purpose of this study was to extend the cross informant agreement research of the Behavioral a...
Article
Full-text available
Although there are clear differences in national policies regarding inclusive education, the international debate has not fully considered their impact on implementation within different countries, for example on teacher education. This paper reports on results from a comparative study of in-service teachers’ attitudes and self-efficacy in implemen...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether mathematical and reading difficulties and self-reported learning problems predicted school achievement in the ninth grade, at the age of 16, and how these difficulties further explained the transition either to upper secondary academic education or to vocational education. The sample of the present study comprised on...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since 1990’s, special education has continued its expansion in Finland and it is evident that it has been used as a tool to respond to the increased diversity of learning needs in compulsory education classrooms. During the last few years, however, there has been a systematic attempt to change both the rhetoric and services of additional learning s...
Article
The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of compre...
Article
During a 15‐year longitudinal study, 31 Finnish students (risk group) who had been identified as having deficiencies in reading and writing readiness at pre‐school through the German Breuer–Weuffen Differentiation Test were compared with their peers (n = 62) in order to study long‐term differences that emerged at the starting point of the study. In...
Article
Full-text available
International and comparative study of inclusive education.
Article
The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed...
Article
The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths between...
Article
The implementation of inclusive education has become an internationally accepted goal. In this process a substantial challenge is to simultaneously increase both equality and quality in inclusive education. This article discusses ways of achieving this goal in light of recent research findings which indicate that it is possible to meet both goals a...
Article
The main aim of this study was to find out what kind of factor model of written language skills could be created on the basis of tests of reading accuracy and fluency, spelling and reading comprehension, and how the written language skills factor and school achievement predict choice of secondary education and what effects gender, special education...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the relat...
Article
A survey assessed the perceptions of 1350 Zambian teachers and parents and 512 Finnish teachers regarding inclusive education and consequently the best placement for children with different disabilities. On the whole, perceptions varied but were quite critical. On inclusion in general, the regular (also termed "ordinary") Finnish teachers were the...
Article
Apart from Iceland, Finland is the northernmost country in the world. Geographically it is one of the largest countries in Europe, but with only five million people it is one of the most sparsely populated. Like most other western countries, Finland has undergone a rapid process of urbanisation and change in occupational structure, although this di...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
The "Building School-Wide Inclusive, Positive and Equitable Learning Environments Through A Systems-Change Approach" (SWPBS) is an ERASMUS+ Key Action 3 Policy Experimentation program, which aims to establish an inclusive non-discriminatory social culture and necessary socio-emotional and behavioral supports for all children in a school across four EU countries (Cyprus, Finland, Greece, Romania). The SWPBS is based on Positive Behavior Support (PBS), a scientific approach that provides the organizational framework to school staff to act preventively with the support of external coaches. The SWPBS project aims to promote the problem-solving model, where school administration and staff try to identify their school needs, design and execute an action plan and assess its implementation. The SWPBS problem-solving framework provides teachers with evidence-based instructional practices and classroom management skills to create inclusive, positive classroom environments for all students. Read more about the project: https://www.pbiseurope.org/en/
Project
An international comparative research project lead by professor Petra Engelbrecht (Faculty of Education Sciences, North West University-Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa) and professor Hannu Savolainen (University of Jyväskylä, Finland). The project stems from realization that inclusive education is understood in various ways in different contexts. Many countries seem committed to inclusive education in rhetoric, and even in legislation and policies but practices often fall short. Although there are clear differences in national policies, the international debate has not fully considered the impact of these policies and its implementation within different countries, for example, on the way teachers experience their work and the way in which context and culture interact. The main purpose of this comparative research project is to produce a knowledge base that sheds light on how the development of inclusive education looks from a teacher’s perspective in different countries including Finland, South Africa, Slovenia, Lithuania, China, England and Japan and how teachers perceive their roles in this regard.