Hannes Rusch

Hannes Rusch
Maastricht University | UM · Department of Economics

Dr. rer. pol. Dr. rer. nat.

About

60
Publications
35,965
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Introduction
Hannes Rusch currently works at the MPE Department of the School of Business & Economics at Maastricht University. Hannes does research in Behavioral and Experimental Economics and Game Theory.
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - May 2022
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2016 - September 2019
Philipps University Marburg
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2015 - August 2016
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 2016 - October 2019
Philipps University of Marburg
Field of study
  • Economics
September 2013 - February 2020
Technische Universität München
Field of study
  • Economics
April 2010 - May 2014

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
We review the literature on various approaches to modeling animal intergroup conflict behavior in theoretical biology, highlight the intricacies emerging in the process of adding due biological realism to such models, and point out recent empirical findings that can inspire future theorizing.
Article
Full-text available
Violent intergroup conflicts cause widespread harm; yet, throughout human history, destructive hostilities occur time and time again. Benefits obtainable by victorious parties include territorial expansion, deterrence, and ascendency in between-group resource competition. Many of these are non-excludable goods available to all group members, wherea...
Article
Full-text available
Recent political instabilities and conflicts around the world have drastically increased the number of people seeking refuge. The challenges associated with the large number of arriving refugees have revealed a deep divide among the citizens of host countries: one group welcomes refugees, whereas another rejects them. Our research aim is to identif...
Article
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A recent series of papers has introduced a fresh perspective on the problem of the evolution of human cooperation by suggesting an amendment to the concept of cooperation itself: instead of thinking of cooperation as playing a particular strategy in a given game, usually C in the prisoner's dilemma, we could also think of cooperation as collaborati...
Preprint
Full-text available
We examine scientific quality and editorial favoritism in the field of experimental economics. We use a novel data set containing all original research papers (N=569) that exclusively used laboratory experiments for data generation and were published in the American Economic Review (AER), Experimental Economics (EE), or the Journal of the European...
Article
Full-text available
Humans often favour ingroup members over others, a bias that drives discrimination and intergroup conflicts. Hostile relations between groups and homogeneity within groups may affect such ingroup bias. In an experiment with members of three natural groups in Ethiopia, we vary intergroup relations (neutral versus enmity) and exploit the natural vari...
Article
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Microeconomic modelling offers a powerful formal toolbox for analysing the complexities of real-world intergroup relations and conflicts. One important class of models scrutinizes individuals’ valuations of different group memberships, attitudes towards members of different groups and preferences for resource distribution in group contexts. A secon...
Article
This review compiles and contextualizes the available empirical literature on natural occurrences of high-stakes altruism among non-relatives, i.e., behaviors often called ‘heroic’. Four domains are covered: exceptional bravery and self-sacrifice in war, heroism in civilian life, undirected organ donations, and rescues of persecuted persons during...
Article
Full-text available
We review psychological research on intergroup conflict. First, we outline psychological perspectives on forms and functions of groups. Second, we present the most influential psychological theories of intergroup conflict and describe their similarities and differences in predicting individual prejudice, discrimination, and conflict engagement. Thi...
Chapter
Full-text available
In diesem Aufsatz behandeln wir ausschnitthaft drei Zugriffe auf den Forschungsgegenstand der sozialen Kohäsion, wie sie typischerweise in der Evolutionären Anthropologie eine Rolle spielen. Mit ihrem Blick auf die Bedeutung der evolvierten Natur des Menschen für die soziale Praxis von Homo sapiens ist zunächst eine naturgeschichtliche Betrachtung...
Article
Full-text available
Five studies test the relationship between overconfidence and perceived leadership suitability. Study 1, a field study wherein HR consultants assessed candidates for an advertised leadership position, finds that overconfidence positively predicts hiring recommendations. Study 2, in which participants delivered a five-minute job talk to an expert pa...
Article
Full-text available
We argue that the roles of attacker and defender in asymmetric intergroup conflict are structurally ambiguous and their perception likely to be subjectively biased. While this allows for endogenous selection into each role, we argue that claiming the role of the defender likely is more advantageous for conflict participants.
Article
We examine whether rule compliance predicts prosocial behavior. We proxy rule compliance by compliance with parking regulations and prosocial behavior via response rates to surveys. We find that surveys attached to legally parked cars are returned more often.
Article
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This paper provides an empirical investigation of misconducts in contests based on data from European football. We extend previous studies by differentiating between dissents with the referee and misconducts directly aimed at sabotaging the competitor. We find that sabotage is more likely committed by teams with lower ability. Dissent is more likel...
Article
Full-text available
Ethics is a field in which the gap between words and actions looms large. Game theory and the empirical methods it inspires look at behavior instead of the lip service people sometimes pay to norms. We believe that this special issue comprises several illustrations of the fruitful application of this approach to ethics.
Preprint
This paper provides an empirical investigation of severe misconducts in contests based on data from European football championships. We differentiate between two types of severe misconducts both resulting in a yellow card, namely dissents with the referee and other misconducts, and between sanctioned behaviour of team captains and other players. Co...
Chapter
Why is it that ordinary people voluntarily take tremendous risks to their own well-being in order to help others? This entry reviews potential answers to this question in light of the available empirical evidence. The first section focuses particularly on theories that can explain the preservation and propagation of prosocial behavioral traits that...
Chapter
In this chapter, we present supporting arguments for the claim that Order Ethics is a school of thought within ethics which is especially open to empirical evidence. With its focus on order frameworks, i.e., incentive structures, Order Ethical advice automatically raises questions on implementability, efficacy, and efficiency of such recommended in...
Article
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This mini-review identifies and briefly describes a total of 12 published studies investigating aspects of war and civil heroism by analyzing larger data sets on documented historical cases of such behavior. Eleven of these studies focus on either Carnegie Medal or Medal of Honor recipients. These two most prominent data sources are briefly charact...
Article
Although humans qualify as one of the most cooperative animal species, the scale of violent intergroup conflict among them is unparalleled. Explanations of the underlying motivations to participate in an intergroup conflict, however, remain unsatisfactory. While previous research shows that intergroup conflict increases individually costly behavior...
Article
It has recently been proposed that the evolution of human cooperativeness might, at least in part, have started as the cooptation of behavioral strategies evolved for solving problems of coordination to solve problems with higher incentives to defect, i.e. problems of cooperation. Following this line of thought, we systematically tested human subje...
Article
Full-text available
Commentary on J. Gowdy & L. Krall "The economic origins of ultrasociality": We question the sequence of evolutionary transitions leading to ultrasociality in humans proposed by Gowdy & Krall. Evidence indicates that families are, and likely always have been, the primary productive units in human agricultural economies, suggesting that genetic relat...
Article
Full-text available
Phenomena like meat sharing in hunter-gatherers, self-sacrifice in intergroup conflicts, and voluntary contribution to public goods provision in laboratory experiments have led to the development of numerous theories on the evolution of altruistic in-group beneficial behavior in humans. Many of these theories abstract away from the effects of kinsh...
Article
Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts or wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group hostility might have co-evolved. Groups with more co...
Article
We report three studies which test a sexual selection hypothesis for male war heroism. Based on evolutionary theories of mate choice we hypothesize that men signal their fitness through displaying heroism in combat. First, we report the results of an archival study on US-American soldiers who fought in World War II. We compare proxies for reproduct...
Article
Full-text available
Bankers have a reputation for deviating from standard morals. It is an open question, though, if this claim can be substantiated. Here, it is tested directly if bankers respond differently to moral dilemmas. Evaluations of the moral acceptableness of behavioural options in two trolley cases by bankers (n = 23) are compared to those of ordinary peop...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesized that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed ‘parochial altruism’, is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against out-groups and coo...
Book
Academic philosophy has experienced a major upheaval in the last decade. Venturous young philosophers, psychologists, and economists have begun to challenge the traditional stance that philosophy is an undertaking best pursued from the safety and calm of an arm-chair. Instead, they took the gloves off and brought philosophical questions to the expe...
Chapter
This chapter discusses future directions which the current developments within philosophy might take. It does so on the background of historical parallels to the controversy around experimental philosophy. Historical debates in psychology and economics contain astonishing similarities to today’s discussions in philosophy. After a brief historical o...
Chapter
Recent years have seen a continual rise of interest in the empirical study of questions traditionally located in moral philosophy, i.e., studies in Experimental Ethics. In this chapter we briefly outline the recent history of this field. To do so we have to cross disciplinary borders to quite some extent. Tracing the beginnings of Experimental Ethi...
Article
Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention...
Article
Full-text available
Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following dist...
Article
In diesem Artikel stellen wir die Evolutionäre Erkenntnistheorie kurz vor. Wir gehen dazu in zwei Schritten vor: In Schritt 1 charakterisieren wir die Evolutionäre Erkenntnistheorie anhand ihrer Antworten auf die Grundfragen an jede Erkenntnistheorie. In Schritt 2 stellen wir all jene philosophischen Positionen dar, mit denen die Evolutionäre Erken...
Article
Full-text available
"Possible success factors in CPR-situations have been well researched. Most authors agree on a set of about 30-40 factors like group size or clear boundaries. However, there is no comprehensive model to integrate these factors yet. Difficulties in finding such a model include the incomparability of results, the absence of large-N-studies, interdepe...
Article
Diese Arbeit untersucht die Frage, welche möglichen Auslöser für emotional bedingte Voreingenommenheit es auf Seiten der Kritiker des heutigen philosophischen Naturalismus gibt. Sie findet diese zum einen in bestimmten Ergebnissen einzelner wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen, den sogenannten ›Kränkungen‹, die fälschlicherweise dem philosophischen Natur...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Darstellung des systematischen Zusammenhangs des mit dem Aufkommen der Experimentellen Philosophie neu entstandenen Teilbereichs der Experimentellen Ethik mit der spätestens seit den 1980er Jahren wieder populär gewordenen Evolutionären Ethik, einer Teildisziplin des philosophischen Naturalismus. Nach einer kurzen Cha...
Chapter
The chapters assembled in this volume, we think, show that Experimental Ethics is well on its way. We have seen that Experimental Ethics has quite a clear mission, that is, the empirical research of human moral reasoning in its relationship to classical philosophical ethics, and a historical foundation to build on (Part I of this volume). It is con...
Chapter
Numerous instances of branchings of new independent disciplines from philosophy can be found in the history of science and scholarship. Standard examples include biology, physics, economics, and psychology, whose pioneers always also were influential philosophers. All of these four sciences possess methodologies of their own now, which always also...
Chapter
Academic philosophy has experienced a major upheaval in the last decade. Venturous young philosophers, psychologists, and economists have begun to challenge the traditional stance that philosophy is an undertaking best pursued from the safety and calm of an arm-chair. Instead, they took the gloves off and tried to bring philosophical ques-tions to...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we try to give a philosophically reflected introductory overview of the current theoretical developments in the field of evolutionary aesthetics. Our aim is not completeness. Rather, we try to depict some of the central assumptions and explanatory tools frequently used in evolutionary accounts of human aesthetical preferences and ad...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of altruistic behavior in intergroup conflict in humans frequently make use of the assumption that warfare can be modeled as a symmetrical n-person prisoner's dilemma, abstracting away the strategic differences between attack and defense. In contrast, some empirical studies on intergroup conflict i...
Article
Comment on Armin Falk & Nora Szech "Morals and Markets", Science 340(6133), 707-711, 2013.
Article
Full-text available
The literature on common pool resource (CPR) governance lists numerous factors that influence whether a given CPR system achieves ecological long-term sustainability. Up to now there is no comprehensive model to integrate these factors or to explain success within or across cases and sectors. Difficulties include the absence of large-N studies, the...
Chapter
The question how the diverse forms of cooperative behavior in humans and nonhuman animals could have evolved under the pressure of natural selection has been a challenge for evolutionary biology ever since Darwin himself. In this chapter, we briefly review and summarize results from the last 50 years of research on human and nonhuman cooperativenes...
Article
Full-text available
The Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) is widely used to model social interaction between unrelated individuals in the study of the evolution of cooperative behaviour in humans and other species. Many effective mechanisms and promotive scenarios have been studied which allow for small founding groups of cooperative individuals to prevail even when all social...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies show that punishment, although able to stabilize cooperation at high levels, destroys gains which makes it less efficient than alternatives with no punishment. Standard public goods games (PGGs) in fact show exactly these patterns. However, both evolutionary theory and real world institutions give reason to expect institutions with pun...
Chapter
This article investigates the question of why there is emotional resistance to research results such as the theory of evolution and to philosophical naturalism. A depiction of how this emotional resistance expresses itself is followed by a brief account of the core theses of philosophical naturalism. The emotional reactions to research results then...
Book
Sind Sie Naturalist, Metaphysikerin oder Rationalist? Existentialistin, Materialist oder Deterministin? Sie wissen es nicht? Der Philomat ist ein Apparat für weltanschauliche Diagnostik. Er sagt Ihnen, wie Sie denken, wenn Sie denken. Er stellt Ihnen Fragen aus ganz alltäglichen Zusammenhängen und ermittelt anhand Ihrer Antworten, welche philosophi...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Experimental research on ethical topics with methods from experimental economics and psychology.