Hannah Katherine Long

Hannah Katherine Long
The University of Edinburgh | UoE · MRC Human Genetics Unit

MA, DPhil

About

18
Publications
3,527
Reads
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2,434
Citations
Introduction
In my research group at the Human Genetics Unit, we are investigating how gene expression is regulated during development, and how this can go awry in human disease. We focus on congenital craniofacial abnormalities, and understanding how non-coding genetic mutations can drive these disorders.
Additional affiliations
November 2014 - August 2021
Stanford Medicine
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • For my Sir Henry Wellcome postdoctoral fellowship, I worked in the lab of Professor Joanna Wysocka investigating non-coding mutations at the SOX9 locus that cause human craniofacial dysmorphology. I identified and characterised non-coding regulatory regions or enhancers that are ablated in human patients. I provided evidence that enhancer loss leads to misregulation of SOX9 expression and recapitulated facial malformation in animal models of the human disease.
October 2013 - August 2014
University of Oxford
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2009 - September 2013
University of Oxford
Position
  • DPhil student
Description
  • Joint supervised with Professor Roger Patient at the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, UK

Publications

Publications (18)
Article
Full-text available
Non-coding mutations at the far end of a large gene desert surrounding the SOX9 gene result in a human craniofacial disorder called Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Leveraging a human stem cell differentiation model, we identify two clusters of enhancers within the PRS-associated region that regulate SOX9 expression during a restricted window of facial...
Article
The FaceBase Consortium was established by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research in 2009 as a 'big data' resource for the craniofacial research community. Over the past decade, researchers have deposited hundreds of annotated and curated datasets on both normal and disordered craniofacial development in FaceBase, all freely ava...
Article
Full-text available
The developmental disorder Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is caused by heterozygous truncating mutations in SRCAP, a gene encoding a chromatin remodeler mediating incorporation of histone variant H2A.Z. Here, we demonstrate that FHS-associated mutations result in loss of SRCAP nuclear localization, alter neural crest gene programs in human in vitro...
Article
Inappropriate activation of the p53 transcription factor contributes to numerous developmental syndromes characterized by distinct constellations of phenotypes. How p53 drives exquisitely specific sets of symptoms in diverse syndromes, however, remains enigmatic. Here, we deconvolute the basis of p53-driven developmental syndromes by leveraging an...
Chapter
Full-text available
CpG islands are regions of vertebrate genomes that often function as gene regulatory elements and are associated with most gene promoters. CpG island elements usually contain nonmethylated CpG dinucleotides, while the remainder of the genome is pervasively methylated. We developed a biochemical approach called biotinylated CxxC affinity purificatio...
Article
Full-text available
Chromatin modifications and the promoter-associated epigenome are important for the regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which chromatin-modifying complexes are targeted to the appropriate gene promoters in vertebrates and how they influence gene expression have remained poorly defined. Here, using a combination of live-cell im...
Article
Full-text available
Most human aneuploidies originate maternally, due in part to the presence of highly stringent checkpoints during male meiosis. Indeed, male sterility is common among aneuploid mice used to study chromosomal abnormalities, and male germline transmission of exogenous DNA has been rarely reported. Here we show that, despite aberrant testis architectur...
Article
A class of cis-regulatory elements, called enhancers, play a central role in orchestrating spatiotemporally precise gene-expression programs during development. Consequently, divergence in enhancer sequence and activity is thought to be an important mediator of inter- and intra-species phenotypic variation. Here, we give an overview of emerging pri...
Article
Full-text available
DNA methylation is a repressive epigenetic modification that covers vertebrate genomes. Regions known as CpG islands (CGIs), which are refractory to DNA methylation, are often associated with gene promoters and play central roles in gene regulation. Yet how CGIs in their normal genomic context evade the DNA methylation machinery and whether these m...
Article
Full-text available
Chromatin modifying activities inherent to polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 play an essential role in gene regulation, cellular differentiation, and development. However, the mechanisms by which these complexes recognize their target sites and function together to form repressive chromatin domains remain poorly understood. Recruitment of...
Article
Full-text available
Vertebrate DNA can be chemically modified by methylation of the 5 position of the cytosine base in the context of CpG dinucleotides. This modification creates a binding site for MBD (methyl-CpG-binding domain) proteins which target chromatin-modifying activities that are thought to contribute to transcriptional repression and maintain heterochromat...
Article
Full-text available
Two-thirds of gene promoters in mammals are associated with regions of non-methylated DNA, called CpG islands (CGIs), which counteract the repressive effects of DNA methylation on chromatin. In cold-blooded vertebrates, computational CGI predictions often reside away from gene promoters, suggesting a major divergence in gene promoter architecture a...
Article
Full-text available
CpG islands (CGIs) are associated with most mammalian gene promoters. A subset of CGIs act as polycomb response elements (PREs) and are recognized by the polycomb silencing systems to regulate expression of genes involved in early development. How CGIs function mechanistically as nucleation sites for polycomb repressive complexes remains unknown. H...
Article
Full-text available
Across vertebrate genomes methylation of cytosine residues within the context of CpG dinucleotides is a pervasive epigenetic mark that can impact gene expression and has been implicated in various developmental and disease-associated processes. Several biochemical approaches exist to profile DNA methylation, but recently an alternative approach bas...
Article
Full-text available
Melanoma is a tumour of transformed melanocytes, which are originally derived from the embryonic neural crest. It is unknown to what extent the programs that regulate neural crest development interact with mutations in the BRAF oncogene, which is the most commonly mutated gene in human melanoma. We have used zebrafish embryos to identify the initia...

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