Hannah Clapham

Hannah Clapham
National University of Singapore | NUS

PhD

About

99
Publications
9,164
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,549
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2016 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Mathematical Epidemiologist
November 2013 - April 2016
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Position
  • PostDoc Position
November 2012 - November 2013
Imperial College London
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
We present a country specific method to calculate the COVID-19 vaccination coverage needed for herd immunity by considering age structure, age group-specific contact patterns, relative infectivity and susceptibility of children to adults, vaccination effectiveness and seroprevalence prior to vaccination. We find that across all six countries, vacci...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 disease models have aided policymakers in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with many critical decisions. Many challenges remain surrounding their use, from inappropriate model selection and adoption, inadequate and untimely reporting of evidence, to the lack of iterative stakeholder engagement in policy formulation and deliberation....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Ten years of conflict has displaced more than half of Northwest Syria's (NWS) population and decimated the health system, water and sanitation, and public health infrastructure vital for infectious disease control. The first NWS COVID-19 case was declared 9 July 2020, but impact estimations in this region are minimal. With the rollout...
Article
Full-text available
Background We studied humoral and cellular responses against SARS-CoV-2 longitudinally in a homogeneous population of healthy young/middle-aged men of South Asian ethnicity with mild COVID-19. Methods In total, we recruited 994 men (median age: 34 years) post-COVID-19 diagnosis. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted between May 2020 and...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Several treatment options are available for COVID-19 to date. However, the use of a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is necessary for jurisdictions to contain its spread. Although the implementation cost of NPIs may be low from the healthcare system perspective, it can be costly when considering the indirect costs...
Article
With vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being introduced in countries across the world, policy makers are facing many practical considerations about how best to implement a vaccination programme. The supply of vaccines is insufficient for the global population, so decisions must be made as to which groups are prioritised for any vacci...
Article
The most severe consequences of dengue virus infection include shock, haemorrhage, and major organ failure; however, the frequency of these manifestations varies, and the relative contribution of pre-existing anti-dengue virus antibodies, virus characteristics, and host factors (including age and comorbidities) are not well understood. Reliable cha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mathematical models have been used throughout the COVID-19 pandemic to inform policymaking decisions. The COVID-19 Multi-Model Comparison Collaboration (CMCC) was established to provide country governments, particularly low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and other model users with an overview of the aims, capabilities and limits...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in substantial mortality worldwide. However, to date, countries in the Middle East and Africa have reported considerably lower mortality rates than in Europe and the Americas. Motivated by reports of an overwhelmed health system, we estimate the likely under-ascertainment of COVID-19 mortality in Damascus, Syria....
Preprint
Full-text available
From January 2020, Singapore implemented comprehensive measures to suppress SARS-CoV-2. Community transmission has been limited, although explosive outbreaks have occurred in migrant worker dormitories. We conducted longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 serology studies among 478 residents of a SARS-CoV-2 affected migrant worker dormitory between May and July 20...
Preprint
Full-text available
Thailand is facing the dilemma of which groups to prioritise for the limited first tranche of vaccinations in 2021. A mathematical modelling analysis was performed to compare the potential short-term impact of allocating the available doses to either the high-risk group (over 65-year-olds) or the high incidence group (aged 20-39). Vaccinating the h...
Article
Full-text available
Background The past two decades have seen expansion of childhood vaccination programmes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We quantify the health impact of these programmes by estimating the deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by vaccination against ten pathogens in 98 LMICs between 2000 and 2030. Methods 16 i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The relationship between age and seroprevalence provides the simplest and least expensive approach to computing the annual attack rate of an infectious disease. However, many pathogens circulate as multiple serologically distinct strains, with no single assay able to determine seropositivity or seronegativity to an entire clade or family of co-circ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Since its re-emergence in 2005, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been documented in most Indian states. Information is scarce regarding the seroprevalence of CHIKV in India. We aimed to estimate the age-specific seroprevalence, force of infection (FOI), and proportion of the population susceptible to CHIKV infection. Methods W...
Preprint
Full-text available
In Southeast Asia, endemic dengue follows strong spatio-temporal patterns with major epidemics occurring every 2-5 years. However, important spatio-temporal variation in seasonal dengue epidemics remains poorly understood. Using 13 years (2003-2015) of dengue surveillance data from 926 districts in Thailand and wavelet analysis, we show that rural...
Article
Full-text available
Combinations of intense non-pharmaceutical interventions (lockdowns) were introduced worldwide to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Many governments have begun to implement exit strategies that relax restrictions while attempting to control the risk of a surge in cases. Mathematical modelling has played a central role in guiding interventions, but th...
Article
A number of countries are planning the use of 'immunity passports' as a way to ease restrictive measures and allow infected and recovered people to return to work during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper brings together key scientific uncertainties regarding the use of serological tests to assure immune status and a public health ethics perspective...
Preprint
Full-text available
Combinations of intense non-pharmaceutical interventions (lockdowns) were introduced in countries worldwide to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Many governments have begun to implement lockdown exit strategies that allow restrictions to be relaxed while attempting to control the risk of a surge in cases. Mathematical modelling has played a central r...
Article
Full-text available
Serologic studies are crucial for clarifying dynamics of the coronavirus disease pandemic. Past work on serologic studies (e.g., during influenza pandemics) has made relevant contributions, but specific conditions of the current situation require adaptation. Although detection of antibodies to measure exposure, immunity, or both seems straightforwa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection which has been estimated to cause a global economic burden of US$8.9 billion per year. 40% of this estimate was due to what are known as productivity costs (the costs associated with productivity loss from both paid and unpaid work that results from illness, treatment or premature death). Alth...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease, known for its high mortality and disability rate among symptomatic cases. Many effective vaccines are available for JE, and the use of a recently developed and inexpensive vaccine, SA 14-14-2, has been increasing over the recent years particularly with Gavi support. Estimates of the local burd...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease, known for its high mortality and disability rate among symptomatic cases. Many effective vaccines are available for JE, and the use of a recently developed and inexpensive vaccine, SA 14-14-2, has been increasing over the recent years particularly with Gavi support. Estimates of the local burd...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease, known for its high mortality and disability rate among symptomatic cases. Many effective vaccines are available for JE, and the use of a recently developed and inexpensive vaccine, SA 14-14-2, has been increasing over the recent years particularly with Gavi support. Estimates of the local burd...
Article
Full-text available
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an emerging infection with pandemic potential. Knowledge of neutralizing antibody responses among its pathogens is essential to inform vaccine development and epidemiologic research. We used 120 paired-plasma samples collected at enrollment and >7 days after the onset of illness from HFMD patients infected wit...
Article
Full-text available
Background In recent years, researchers have had an increased focus on multiplex microarray assays, in which antibodies are measured against multiple related antigens, for use in seroepidemiological studies to infer past transmission. Methods We assess the performance of a flavivirus microarray assay for determining past dengue virus (DENV) infect...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, serosurveillance has gained momentum as a way of determining disease transmission and immunity in populations, particularly with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. At the end of 2017, the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit and the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology held a meeting in Vietnam with national pol...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of research has promised new tools for forecasting infectious disease dynamics, but little of that research is currently being applied in practice, because tools do not address key public health needs, do not produce probabilistic forecasts, have not been evaluated on external data, or do not provide sufficient forecast skill to be use...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. Virus neutralizing antibodies are likely to be critical for clinical immunity after vaccination or natural infection. A number of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have previously been characterized as able to neutralize the infectivity of dengue virus (DENV) for mammalian cells...
Preprint
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease, known for its high death and disability rate among symptomatic cases. Many effective vaccines are available for JE, and the use of a recently developed and inexpensive vaccine has been increasing over the recent years particularly with Gavi support. Estimates of the local burden and the past i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The last two decades have seen substantial expansion of childhood vaccination programmes in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Here we quantify the health impact of these programmes by estimating the deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted by vaccination with ten antigens in 98 LMICs between 2000 and 2030. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is known about the prevalence or incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in settings affected by the 2015–2016 Zika pandemic and associated risk factors. We assessed these factors among household contacts of patients with ZIKV disease enrolled in a cohort study in Puerto Rico during 2016–2017. Methods Household contacts of index...
Article
Owing to the finding that Dengvaxia® (the only licensed dengue vaccine to date) increases the risk of severe illness among seronegative recipients, the World Health Organization has recommended screening individuals for their serostatus prior to vaccination. To decide whether and how to carry out screening, it is necessary to estimate the transmiss...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preterm infants are at risk of neurodevelopmental delay, but data on long-term outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries remain scarce. Objectives To examine neurodevelopment using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd edition (Bayley-III) and neurological findings in 2-year-old preterm infants, and to compare wit...
Article
Full-text available
Post-acute consequences currently form a significant component of the dengue disability-adjusted life year (DALY) burden estimates. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the incidence, duration, and severity of these symptoms. Further research is needed to more accurately estimate the health and economic burden of these dengue manife...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease, for which neither effective vaccines nor antivirals are available. Clinical trials with Dengvaxia, the first licensed dengue vaccine, show the conventional in vitro plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) failed to discriminate between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies. A num...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The depletion of CD4 cell is the underlying reason for TB hyper-susceptibility among people with HIV. Consequently, the trend of TB dynamics is usually hidden by the HIV outbreak. Methods: Here, we aim to evaluate the trend of TB dynamics quantitatively by a simple mathematical model using the known prevalence of hyper-susceptible in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dengue virus infection results in a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection through to severe dengue. Although prior infection with another viral serotype, i.e. secondary dengue, is known to be an important factor influencing disease severity, current methods to determine primary versus secondary immune...
Article
Full-text available
Dengue has been estimated to cause a substantial health and economic burden in Vietnam. The most recent studies have estimated that it is responsible for 39 884 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) annually, representing an economic burden of US$94.87 million per year (in 2016 prices). However, there are alternative burden estimates that are nota...
Article
Full-text available
The complex interaction between dengue viruses and the human immune system means that development of a safe, effective dengue vaccine was never going to be simple. The only currently licenced dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia®) does, indeed, have a complex immune profile depending on recipients' immune status, meaning that use of this vaccine is not straig...
Article
Full-text available
Background: After new analysis, Sanofi Pasteur now recommends their dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) should only be given to individuals previously infected with dengue and the World Health Organization's recommendations regarding its use are currently being revised. As a result, the potential costs of performing large-scale individual dengue screening a...
Article
Full-text available
Despite estimates that, each year, as many as 300 million dengue virus (DENV) infections result in either no perceptible symptoms (asymptomatic) or symptoms that are sufficiently mild to go undetected by surveillance systems (inapparent), it has been assumed that these infections contribute little to onward transmission. However, recent blood-feedi...
Data
Cohort studies addressing (As+IS): AS ratios in primary (1°), secondary (2°) infections, and post-2° infections. Studies for 1° and 2° were collated in [23]. Studies used for post-2° [22,28] were derived from [7]. N.S. = not stated. (XLSX)
Data
Data from direct feeding experiment [16] used to inform viremia to infectiousness relationship. (XLSX)
Data
Mean contribution of infection classes to total force of infection (FoI) for Thailand. The contribution to the total FoI of a class is derived from the ratio between FoI attributable to this class and total FoI, as in Eq (1). The respective net infectiousness is derived from the 3,000 random samples displayed in Fig 3. The infections are further di...
Data
Variance-based sensitivity analysis. The contribution to the variance represents the total effect index, denoting the contribution of each source of uncertainty to the total variance, including its interactions. (IIP = intrinsic incubation period). (PDF)
Data
Pre-exposure profile as a function of the force of infection for (a) Brazil, (b) Thailand. The seroprevalence of the population is estimated using a system of ordinary differential equations with state variables denoting the proportion of the population pre-exposed to 0–4 serotypes. Transition to pre-exposure state i occurs at a rate (4-i)FoI. Indi...
Data
Mean contribution of infection classes to total FoI in an emerging setting. The contribution to the total FoI of a class is derived from the ratio between FoI attributable to this class and total FoI, as in Eq (1). The respective net infectiousness is derived from the 3,000 random samples displayed in Fig 3. The infections are further distributed a...
Data
Assessment of model assumptions and limitations. (PDF)
Data
Assessment of infectiousness data. (PDF)
Data
Probabilistic comparison of net infectiousness uncertainty distributions. (PDF)
Data
Mean contribution of infection classes to total force of infection (FoI) when accounting for the contribution of post-secondary infections to transmission. The contribution to the total FoI of a class is derived from the ratio between FoI attributable to this class and total FoI, as in Eq (1). The respective net infectiousness is derived from the 3...