Hannah Badland

Hannah Badland
RMIT University | RMIT · Centre for Urban Research

PhD

About

217
Publications
65,734
Reads
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7,498
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - present
RMIT University
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Dr Badland examines how the built environment, through the social determinants of health, is connected to health, wellbeing, and inequities in diverse population groups internationally.

Publications

Publications (217)
Article
Full-text available
Employment is an important social determinant of health and wellbeing. People with disability experience labour market disadvantage and have low labour force participation rates, high unemployment rates, and poor work conditions. Environmental factors are crucial as facilitators of or barriers to participation for people with disability. Understand...
Article
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Neighbourhood-level interventions offer a promising opportunity to promote child mental health at a population level; however, neighbourhood effects are still regarded as a 'black box' and a better understanding of the specific design elements, such as public open space, is needed to inform actionable policy interventions. Methods: This study lev...
Article
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Healthy development in the early years lays the foundations for children’s ongoing physical, emotional, and social development. Children develop in multiple contexts, including their local neighbourhood. Neighbourhood-built environment characteristics, such as housing, walkability, traffic exposure, availability of services, facilities, and parks,...
Article
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Aims/hypothesis We aimed to study the association between the availability of exercise facilities and the likelihood of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the adult population of Madrid, Spain. Methods We analysed the electronic medical records of all 1,270,512 residents of Madrid aged 40–75 years in 2017. Exercise facility availability was defined as...
Article
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Recognition is increasing globally that urban planning interventions to improve neighbourhood liveability enable healthy sustainable lifestyles and assist in the prevention and management of chronic disease. We present the spatial urban liveability index (ULI) as a tool to inform localised interventions that would create healthier, more sustainable...
Article
Background Mental health inequities are shaped by the environments where children develop, including neighbourhoods. Children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods tend to have poorer development outcomes, yet little evidence has examined positive mental health outcomes, like competence, in young children. Methods We examined associations between...
Article
Background Mental health inequities can emerge early in life and are shaped by the daily conditions and environments where children develop, including neighbourhoods. Synthesizing evidence around neighbourhoods, disadvantage, and early childhood mental health can advance understandings of neighbourhood features (e.g. housing, parks) associated with...
Article
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Focus of Presentation This poster outlines a partnership framework for developing a web-based liveability indicators monitoring system for Bangkok, Thailand, as a mechanism for translating urban health research into urban planning and policy. We reflect on our partnership with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, including its critical success...
Article
Focus of Presentation People with disability experience inequality in relation to social determinants of health such as employment, education and housing. Under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Australia must collect data to assess fulfilment of its Convention obligations and to identify and address barriers faced by pe...
Article
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Focus of presentation Through the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is a major commitment from cities to prioritise health and wellbeing, reduce poverty, support environmental resilience, and increase liveability. Existing tools for tracking progress towards liveable, equitable cities have been developed primarily for high-income cou...
Article
Background The influence of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on Body Mass Index (BMI) and adiposity is well known. There is an unequal distribution of exercise facilities (EF), which is dependent on area-level SES. However, is unclear whether EF intervenes on the relationship between SES and BMI. Methods BMI data were obtained from baseline o...
Article
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Cities are widely recognised as important settings for promoting health. Nonetheless, making cities more liveable and supportive of health and wellbeing remains a challenge. Decision-makers’ capacity to use urban health evidence to create more liveable cities is fundamental to achieving these goals. This paper describes an international partnership...
Article
Objective : Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer learning outcomes. These inequities are a significant public health issue, tracking forward to adverse health outcomes in adulthood. We examined the potential to reduce socioeconomic gaps in children's reading skills through increasing home reading and preschool atten...
Article
Introduction Public transport (PT) availability may be more important for people with disabilities (PWD), as typically they have greater healthcare needs and mobility barriers compared with people without disabilities. This paper investigates how PT availability is associated with healthcare use for people aged 18–60 years, with and without disabil...
Article
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The importance of health-promoting neighborhoods has long been recognized, and characteristics of local built environments are among the social determinants of health. People with disability are more likely than other population groups to experience geographic mobility and cost restrictions, and to be reliant on ‘opportunity structures’ available l...
Article
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Globally there is increasing interest in making cities more liveable for all, a concept which aligns strongly with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. However, existing tools for tracking progress towards more liveable, equitable cities have been developed primarily for cities in high-income country contexts, while there is little guidance for ci...
Article
Gender-based violence can include, but is not limited to, domestic violence, intimate partner violence, rape, and intimate partner homicide. It is well-established that gender inequality is the main driver of gender-based violence. However, little work has attempted to unpack how gender-based violence perpetuates within the neighbourhood context, a...
Article
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Objective: To develop a framework and indicators to monitor inequalities in health and the social determinants of health for Australians with disability. Methods: The development drew on existing frameworks and input from people with lived experience of disability. Results: The Disability and Wellbeing Monitoring Framework has 19 domains. Australia...
Article
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Good public transport accessibility is associated with active travel, but this is under-researched among adolescents. We tested associations between public transport accessibility and active travel among school-going adolescents (12–18 years; n = 1329) from Melbourne, Australia analysing Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity data. Outc...
Article
Aim The inverse care law suggests that those with the greatest need for services are least likely to receive them. Our aim of this study was to test the inverse care law in relation to the use of health services by children aged 4–5 years in Australia who were developmentally vulnerable and socioeconomically disadvantaged. Method Cross-sectional d...
Article
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Background: The RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) project is a unique longitudinal natural experiment designed to evaluate the health impacts of the "Liveable Neighbourhoods" planning policy, which was introduced by the Western Australian government to create more walkable suburbs. Objectives: To summarize the RESIDE evidence of the impact of th...
Article
The UN Global Compact – Cities Programme sponsors cross-sectoral partnerships to further the Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda at the local level. The paper situates urban liveability and action on it at the local level through the Sustainable Development Goals. It describes a City Partnerships Australia project (Ballarat) and...
Chapter
This paper introduces an online spatial data portal with advanced data access, analytical and visualisation capabilities which can be used for evidence based city planning and supporting data driven research. Through a case study approach, focused in the city of Melbourne, the authors show how the Australian Urban Infrastructure Network (AURIN) por...
Article
Background: Most research on walking for transport has focused on the walkability of residential neighborhoods, overlooking the contribution of places of work/study and the ease with which destinations outside the immediate neighborhood can be accessed, referred to as regional accessibility. Objectives: We aimed to examine if local accessibility...
Article
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Background Creating ‘liveable’ cities has become a priority for various sectors, including those tasked with improving population health and reducing inequities. Two-thirds of the world’s population will live in cities by 2050, with the most rapid urbanisation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, there is limited guidance about what...
Article
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Background: Identifying socioeconomic determinants that are associated with access to and availability of exercise facilities is fundamental to supporting physical activity engagement in urban populations, which in turn, may reduce health inequities. This study analysed the relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and access to, a...
Preprint
Aim. Children who are developmentally vulnerable have greater health needs. Socioeconomic disadvantage not only increases this risk of developmental vulnerability but can be associated with less access to health services. Our aim was to compare health services use in children aged 4-5 years in Australia with and without developmentally vulnerabilit...
Article
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Background: Designing healthy, liveable cities is a global priority. Current liveability indices are aggregated at the city-level, do not reflect spatial variation within cities, and are often not aligned to policy or health. Objectives: To combine policy-relevant liveability indicators associated with health into a spatial Urban Liveability Ind...
Article
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Disadvantaged communities tend to have poorer early childhood development outcomes. Access to safe, secure, and stable housing is a well-known social determinant of health but there is a need to examine key features of neighbourhood housing that reduce early childhood development inequities. The 2012 Australian Early Development Census (AEDC), a po...
Article
The aspiration of liveable cities, underpinned by the New Urban Agenda, is gaining popularity as a mechanism to enhance population health and wellbeing. However, less attention has been given to understanding how urban liveability may provide an opportunity to redress health inequities. Using an environmental justice lens, this paper investigates w...
Article
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Background: Optimal mental health in early childhood is key to later mental health, physical health, education, and social outcomes; yet, children facing disadvantage tend to have worse mental health and fewer opportunities to develop this foundation. An emerging body of research shows that neighborhoods provide important opportunities for the dev...
Article
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A current challenge in physical activity research is engaging citizens with co-creating policies that support physical activity participation. Using Photovoice, a participatory action research method, the objectives of this study were to: 1) Identify community perceptions of urban built, social, and political/economic environment factors associated...
Article
Background: Children's active transport (AT) is a potential source of habitual physical activity with established health benefits. We aimed to examine built environment and household travel characteristics as predictors of AT to school and total daily duration of physical activity accumulated via AT. Methods: Cross-sectional household travel survey...
Article
Access to adequate, safe, secure, accessible and affordable housing is a fundamental human right and one stipulated in the United Nations Conventions on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Australian adults with disabilities experience housing disadvantage including homelessness, poor-quality housing and housing unaffordability; however, we la...
Article
The etiology of motor neuron disease (MND) is still unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) analyze MND mortality at a fine-grained level; and (2) explore associations of MND and heavy metals released into Spanish river basins. MND deaths were extracted from the Spanish nationwide mortality registry (2007-2016). Standardized mortality ratios (...
Article
Urban planning policy has the potential to improve population health outcomes and reduce health inequities within cities. In Australia, however, the pathways for implementing policy approaches are unclear, and responsibilities are contested and dispersed across sectors, portfolios and levels of government. This study investigated government, non-go...
Article
Walkability indices can guide planning and policy for more sustainable and liveble cities. Land-use mix is an important component of walkability that can be measured in a number of ways. Many land-use mix measures require fine-scaled land-use data that are not always available, especially when analyzing walkability across larger geographic extents....
Article
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More than half the world’s population now live in urban settlements. Worldwide, cities are expanding at their fringe to accommodate population growth. Low-density residential development, urban sprawl and car-dependency are common, contributing to physical inactivity and obesity. However, urban design and planning can modify urban form and enhance...
Article
Background: Disadvantage rarely manifests as a single event, but rather is the enduring context in which a child's development unfolds. We aimed to characterize patterns of stability and change in multiple aspects of disadvantage over the childhood period, in order to inform more precise and nuanced policy development. Methods: Participants were...
Article
Background: Understanding the relationship between different aspects of disadvantage over time and domains of child development will facilitate the formulation of more precise policy responses. We examined the association between exposure to aspects of disadvantage over the childhood period (from 0-9 years) and child development at 10-11 years. M...
Article
Planning Support Systems are spatially enabled computer based analytical tools. They are designed to process spatial data and model “what if” scenarios in support of planning analyses. This paper presents how an existing land-use planning software was customised to create the Walkability Planning Support System. The paper describes the tool feature...
Article
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Background: Melbourne, Australia is experiencing rapid population growth, with much of this occurring in metropolitan outer suburban areas, also known as urban growth areas. Currently little is known about differences in travel times when using private and public transport to access primary and secondary services across Melbourne's urban growth ar...
Article
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CITY KNOW-HOW Human health and planetary health are both influenced by city lifestyles, city leadership, and city development. For both, worrying trends are leading to increasing concern. It is imperative that both become core foci in urban policy. Changing the trajectory will require concerted action. The journal Cities & Health journal is dedicat...
Article
Social infrastructure requires a consistent and measurable definition and more evidence is needed to demonstrate why it is important to health, wellbeing and the liveability of a community. In this paper, social infrastructure is defined as life-long social service needs related to health, education, early childhood, community support, community de...
Article
Background Child health and developmental inequities exist in all countries. Comprehensive and robust concepts of disadvantage are fundamental to growing an evidence base that can reveal the extent of inequities in childhood, and identify modifiable leverage points for change. We conceptualise and test a multidimensional framework of child disadvan...
Article
Green public open spaces (POS) are an important component of healthy, liveable, and sustainable urban environments. Planning policies for POS provision however tend to be evidence-free. A review of Australian state-level POS planning policies and standards was conducted and policy-specific spatial measures generated in GIS. These were linked with h...
Article
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Public open spaces (POS) are key neighbourhood destinations shown to confer numerous physical and mental health benefits. The amount and spatial distribution of POS throughout cities are guided by urban planning policies and standards. However, empirical evidence is not generally used to create POS standards. Developing and testing POS indices asso...
Article
CITY KNOW-HOW Human health and planetary health are both influenced by city lifestyles, city leadership, and city development. For both, worrying trends are leading to increasing concern. It is imperative that both become core foci in urban policy. Changing the trajectory will require concerted action. The journal Cities & Health journal is dedicat...
Article
Food purchasing decisions are made within the context of the range of options available, yet most epidemiological studies focus upon single outlet types. Ratios of fast food outlets to supermarkets and green grocers were linked to addresses of 15,229 adults in the 45 and Up Study at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010). Compared to having...
Article
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Collaboration between physical activity (PA) researchers and transport planners is a recommended strategy to combat the physical inactivity epidemic. Data collected by PA researchers could be used to identify, implement and evaluate active transport (AT) projects. However, despite aligned interests, researchers and transport planners rarely collabo...
Article
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Background: There is accumulating evidence supporting the association between neighborhood built environments and adults' physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST); however, few studies have investigated these associations in adolescents. A better understanding of the features of the built environment that encourage PA or ST is therefore of c...
Article
Public open spaces (POS) are key neighbourhood destinations for children, providing opportunities for meaningful experiences (i.e. affordances) and independence. This study aimed to explore children’s experiences and perceptions of neighbourhood POS in order to understand POS affordances for children’s independent mobility (CIM). This study utilise...
Article
Full-text available
Accessible employment suited to residents’ needs is an important equity issue and social determinant of health and wellbeing, and a balanced jobs-housing ratio within a region has the potential to provide health benefits. This paper aims to provide evidence on the associations between employment and health, and the potential pathways, as well as id...
Article
Globally, concerns about population growth, urbanisation, traffic congestion, climate change and rising chronic disease are prompting policy-makers and governments to prioritise policies that support local walking and increase access to public transport. These are of particular relevance for those more likely to experience transport disadvantage, s...
Article
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Objectives We estimated associations between objectively determined neighbourhood ‘walkability’ attributes and accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST) by sex, city or type of day. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The URBAN (Understanding the Relationship between Activity and Neighbourhoods) study was conducted in 48 neighbourhoods across...
Conference Paper
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Introduction. In Australia all school children in metro areas must have access to a public school. The norms regulating their accessibility are vague. Given current issues on school zone allocation and expected population growth, new and more performing methods to draw catchments are needed. It is necessary to better understand and plan these zones...
Article
Background: There is growing urgency for higher quality evidence to inform policy. This study developed geographic information systems (GIS) spatial measures based on land use and transport policies currently used in selected Australian states to assess which, if any, of these measures were associated with walking for transport. Methods: Overall...
Article
Objective: Many research papers examine the relationship of the built environment on transport behaviour using only one mode of transport. Yet to inform policy makers, a broader examination of transport mode choice across different transport modes is required. Here, associations between urban design attributes and transport mode choices including t...
Article
Objective: To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scale and transport mode across areas of socioeconomic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Design: Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations t...
Article
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Background Previous studies found a complex relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability. These studies did not include neighborhood dynamics. Our aim was to study the association between area-level SES and walkability in the city of Madrid (Spain) evaluating the potential effect modification of neighborhood dynamics....