Hamid Arazi

Hamid Arazi
University of Guilan · Department of Exercise Physiology

Professor

About

212
Publications
113,260
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1,725
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Introduction
Hamid Arazi, Ph.D. serves as a professor at the faculty of sport sciences, University of Guilan (Iran), is specialized in resistance training, nutritional supplements, physical performance and health. His research interests involve athlete conditioning, health promotion and strength sports. He recently has focused on research projects in scope of resistance exercise variables specially frequency, rest intervals and ergogenic supplements on muscle function, hormonal and oxidative stress status.

Publications

Publications (212)
Article
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Objective: This study examined the effects of short-term betaine supplementation on muscle endurance, plasma lactate, testosterone and cortisol levels, and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio in response to acute resistance exercise (RE). Method: Using a double-blind, crossover study design, 10 handball players (age ± SD = 16 ± 1 yrs) witho...
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Background Studies examining associations of socio-eco-demographic characteristics with physical activity (PA) participation of older adults have produced inconsistent results. Perceived PA barriers may be a possible explanation for the mixed findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of socio-eco-demographic (SED...
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Background The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been calculated for individual athletes and sports, but it has not been investigated in futsal performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate any relationships between 2D:4D of the dominant and non-dominant hands and physical capacity performances, selected functional variabl...
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The present study aimed to propose a new multidimensional taekwondo-specific test to estimate aerobic power, anaerobic fitness, and agility. Out of sixty-five male volunteers, forty-six, forty-eight, and fifty athletes (18-35 years; black-and red-belt level) were included in the final analysis for aerobic, anaerobic, and agility assessments, respec...
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The effects of exercise on kidney function have been studied for more than three decades. One of the most common health issues among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a lack of physical activity, which leads to a low exercise capacity in these patients. The majority of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients do not exercise at all. At e...
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Study aim : It is generally accepted that methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant which copies functions of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, and emits dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Frequent abuse of methamphetamine damages dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve endings at different sites of brain and also increases the...
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This study examined the effects of a resistance-type high-intensity interval training (RHIIT) matched with the lowest velocity that elicited V.O2peak (100% vV.O2peak) in well-trained kayak sprint athletes. Responses in cardiac structure and function, cardiorespiratory fitness, anaerobic power, exercise performance, muscular strength, and hormonal a...
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Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most prevalent cancer and the sixth cancer leading to death in men worldwide. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of eight weeks of combined training on specific markers of prostate cancer in older adults. Methods: Twenty older adults (62 ± 7 years) with prostate cancer were...
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The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2, it has a strong interaction with the renin angiotensin system (RAS). Experimental studies have shown that the hig...
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are strongly reactive chemical entities that include oxygen regulated by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. ROS contribute significantly to cell homeostasis in the heart by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and excitation-contraction coupling. When ROS generation surpasses the abi...
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One of the essential injuries caused by moderate to high-intensity and short-duration physical activities is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), damaging various body tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM). However, ROS is easily controlled by antioxidant defense systems during low to moderate intensity and long-term exercises. In st...
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Background: Caffeine enhances muscle glycogen re-synthesis post exercise; however, the next-day effects on recovery are unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation with or without caffeine (CAF) 24-h following exhaustive exercise on time trial performance in elite paddling athletes. Methods: Nine...
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The present study aimed to consider the influence of aerobic exercise intensity on GLP-1and IR in obese rats. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is characterized as incretion hormones secreted from the intestine upon ingestion of food to maximize insulin secretion, regulate blood sugar and enhance insulin resistance (IR). It was an in vitro study. The...
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Objective:This study aims to evaluate the effects of melatonin supplementation on the physical and physiological performance following total night sleep deprivation in trained young males.Materials and Methods:Ten trained young males (23.4±1.71 years, 23.96±1.63 kg/m2) participated in four sessions (sessions 1 and 2, nightly habitual sleep; session...
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Athletes often seek to use dietary supplements to increase performance during exercise. Among various supplements, much attention has been paid to beetroot in recent years. Beetroot is a source of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, minerals, and vitamins; also, it is a natural source of nitrate and associated with improved sports performance. Nitrates...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different set configurations on strength and muscular performance adaptations after an 8-week resistance training program. Twenty-four male powerlifters participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of two resistance training groups: (1) cluster sets (CS: n = 8), (2), traditio...
Article
Evidence suggests that anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse induces adverse effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unclear whether different training methods are effective in reducing these consequences. This study aims to compare the effects of aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), and combined training (CT) on CVD r...
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Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidant mechanisms. ROS degrade biogenic substances such as deoxyribonucleic acid, lipids, and proteins, which in turn may lead to oxidative tissue damage. One of the physiological conditions currently associated with...
Chapter
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hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a bioactive metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine, is a popular dietary supplement among different athletes who participate in regular resistance training for muscle gain and strength. However, HMB has received less attention concerning its impact on changes in inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) and ca...
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This study aimed to investigate the chronic effects of green tea (GT) extract and resistance training (RT) on ambulatory and office blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate‐pressure product (RPP) in a sample of Iranian women with high‐normal/stage 1 hypertension. Forty‐four middle‐aged sedentary women participated in this randomized, double‐b...
Article
Pain is one of the major problems in haemodialysis patients. Regular resistance exercise (RE), as an effective lifestyle modification, may play a role in reducing pain through changes in blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of RE training on pain, BP, and heart rate. In a randomised controlled trial, eighteen sedentary wo...
Article
Background: Providing accommodating resistance with the use of chains (CRT) is a programming technique that may enhance muscle size, strength, and power. However, there is a paucity of studies comparing the responses to CRT and traditional resistance training (TRT) approaches. This study aimed to examine the effects of 8 weeks of CRT and TRT on mu...
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Background Regarding an important effects of physical exercise on brain function in elders, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of strength and endurance exercise on brain neurobiological factors in older men. Methods Thirty older men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to strength, endurance and contro...
Article
Background: Intensity resistance training and ursolic acid (UA) supplementation may be effective against metabolic disorders. Introduction: In this study, we explored the impacts of a moderate-to-high intensity resistance circuit training (MHRCT) and UA supplementation to improve these pathological changes in young older obese women (women between...
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Introduction. Some athletes and non-athletes use peptide hormones to increase lean body mass and fat loss, but those effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant markers are unknown. The aim of this study was to show the physiological profile of oxidative stress and antioxidant markers in athletes and non-athletes following long-term self-administra...
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Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks resistance training (RT) with two sessions versus four sessions per week under volume load-equated conditions on body composition, maximal strength, and explosive actions performance in recreationally trained men. Methods: Thirty-five healthy young men participated in the stud...
Article
Background: Obesity and decreased physical activity are the most important factors in the development of type 2 diabetes, which in recent decades has led to an increase in the number of people with this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit resistance training (CRT) on serum glucose, insulin resistance and health r...
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The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), which is also known as ghalyan, shisha or hookah, is increasing rapidly around the world, especially among youth. Growing interest in this form of tobacco smoking can be traced, in part, to the use of flavored tobacco products, social acceptability as a safer option than cigarettes, and its conside...
Article
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Introduction: Resistance exercise (RE) may lead to a post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response. Previous studies showed that green tea (GT) and its polyphenols, especially Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may have a favorable effect on blood pressure (BP). Aim: We investigated the green tea extract (GTE) effects on BP, heart rate (HR), and rate pre...
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PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the (i) cardiac biomarker (cTnI and NT-proBNP) responses to moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in the middle-aged and young groups, (ii) relationship of post-exercise cardiac biomarker release between these two age groups, and (iii) investigate...
Article
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Background: Variable resistance has been shown to induce greater total work and muscle activation when compared to constant resistance. However, little is known regarding the effects of chronic exposure to variable resistance training in comparison with constant resistance training. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects...
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR), based upon participant session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), using two models [(1) rolling averages (ACWR RA); and (2) exponentially weighted moving averages (ACWR EWMA)] and the injury rate in young male team soccer players aged 17.1 ± 0.7 y...
Article
BACKGROUND: Soccer players’ leg muscular strength and power have been shown to be significant due to their association with soccer-specific performance including jumps, sprints, tackles and kicks. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the effects of an in-season in- field variable resistance training (VRT) program on strength, power, and...
Article
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Study aim : The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of resistance training (RT) with three vs. four sessions per week and equated training volume on muscular adaptations in men. Materials and methods : Thirty-three healthy young men volunteered to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to three times per week whole-...
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Study aim : The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week circuit-type resistance training program on performance changes and neurotransmitter disruptions induced by industrial opiate in previously addicted men. Materials and methods : Thirty industrial opiate addicted men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly a...
Article
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Background The insertion (I) rather than deletion (D) of human angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) is associated with lower circulating ACE activity and with endurance performance among Caucasians. The frequency of the ACE gene I/D allele in Iranian sample seems to be more similar to the Caucasians. To assess the possible relationship between...
Article
Objectives The production and sale of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) with annual increase in number and diversity have now become a beneficial industry. At present, there is a kind of creatine supplement, called as creatine hydrochloride (CHCL), which is claimed to have a much higher absorption compared to creatine monohydrate (CRM) supplementa...
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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of peptide hormone use on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to a single session of resistance exercise in male bodybuilders. Forty-five male bodybuilders were divided into three groups: bodybuilders using growth hormone for at least 1 year (i.e., 3 to 4 times in the year) (GH-user, n = 15)...
Article
Background Reduction in recovery time may prevent physiological variables from returning to pre exercise levels; therefore, it is likely that the athletes will have a decrease in immune response and experience increased stress. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether two consecutive or non-consecutive days of circuit resistance exer...
Article
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Background: Changes in blood pressure (BP) may affect pain. However, the interaction effect of resistance training and green tea on BP and pain has not been studied. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of resistance training and green tea extract (GTE) on pain variables in hypertensive patients. Secondary aim included determin...
Article
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Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in stressful conditions. We, therefore, compared the responses of salivary flow ra...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) ingestion on oxidative stress and leukocyte responses to plyometric exercise. Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, physically active males were assigned to the HMB-FA (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) groups that con...
Article
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Objective: Sleep and awakening are a biological cycle that is affected by physiological function, light and darkness, work programs, and other activities. The vital role of sleep in body function and appetite is essential, and this is especially important for athletes. Meanwhile, the conditions of soccer players are such that they are deprived of s...
Article
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Background and Objectives: Although the effects of physical exercise on brain functions are well studied, the influence of mental activity is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a session of mental activity on brain neurobiological factors in chess players. Materials and Methods: Ten elite and novice chess players were rec...
Article
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Background. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may affect acylated ghrelin (AG) through changes in body composition. Objectives. The present study was designed to investigate and compare the effects of two different orders of wrestling-based HIIT on AG levels and body composition in highly trained wrestlers. Methods. Forty-two male wrestlers (...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic versus resistance training programs on serum fetuin-A, fetuin-B, and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) levels in males with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants (n = 34) were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RTG; n = 12), an aerobic training group (ATG; n =...
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Introduction Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many health benefits. The ubiquitous nature of vitamin D receptor (VDR) suggests widespread effect. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and muscle strength, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body...
Article
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2D:4D ratio is determined by balance between androgens and estrogens. Low level estrogen reduces bone mineral density (BMD) and incurs negative changes to bone microarchitecture, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and, as a consequence, fracture risk in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 2D:4D, muscle stre...
Article
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Study aim: The aim of this study to determine whether creatine ethyl ester (CEE) supplementation combined with resistance training (RT) is effective for improving hormonal changes, body composition and muscle strength in underweight non-athlete men. Materials and methods: Sixteen underweight non-athlete men participated in this double-blind study a...
Article
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Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the Short-term effect of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of non-athlete girls following an exhaustive aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods Sixteen non-athletes female students were randomly assigned into 2 groups of grape seed extract (three capsul...
Article
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Background: Osteoporosis is a skeletal metabolic disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced bone strength leading to higher bone fractures risk. The present study attempted to investigate the effects of concurrent training (aerobic-resistance) and milk consumption on some markers of BMD in women with osteoporosis. Method...
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Background: Menstrual cycles are affected by the concentration of estrogen and progesterone hormones affecting the individual's functional and physical factors. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference (and relationship) toward strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic power and hormonal changes between the three (follicular,...
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week aerobic training in mineral geothermal water on hemodynamic variables, VO2max, and body composition in sedentary hypertensive women. Twenty postmenopausal women (58.55 ± 3.28 years) were divided into an exercise group (2 days/week, 30-40 minutes, 60%-75% of HRmax) and control group. Comp...
Article
Full-text available
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid, leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who participate in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplem...
Research
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The present research aimed to evaluate the physical activity and exercise level plus barriers toward being physically active among elderlies from Guilan province. A sample of 384 citizens over the age of 60 were recruited from public places and houses using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Demographic characteristics, satisfaction with life (using S...
Preprint
Full-text available
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation t...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and bone mineral density (BMD) in Iranian young women. Methods: Iranian young women (n = 127), aged 24-36 years, participated in this study. Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. VO2 max was de...
Article
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Regarding the muscular weakness in patients with Multiple and the importance of the 2nd digit to 4th digit (2D:4D) ratio as a representative of the androgen level in women, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between level of physical activity, handgrip strength and 2D:4D ratio with the incidence of multiple sclerosis. This cr...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical variables in responses to resistance training. Sixteen healthy young males participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a HMB-FA supplementation group (n = 8) or a placebo...
Article
Background and Aim: Fitness is one of the most important factor in military health and a positive attitude towards fitness it could have major effects on job performance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness and its perceived estimation in military forces. Methods: In this descriptive...
Article
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The aim of this study was to monitor role of insomnia on some physiological variables in a man who had 13 years insomnia. In this case report, we had a case with 27 years old, 64 kg body mass index, 167 cm height and 13 years insomnia that participated voluntarily, and performed several physiological and performance variable tests. The major result...
Article
Osteosarcopenia syndrome has recently been identified as a conditionencompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Osteosarcopenia is especially deleterious inolder adults. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis have common risk factors and biological pathways, and are significantly associated with physical disabilities and major threats to the loss...
Article
Osteosarcopenia syndrome has recently been identified as a conditionencompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Osteosarcopenia is especially deleterious inolder adults. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis have common risk factors and biological pathways, and are significantly associated with physical disabilities and major threats to the loss...