Hallgeir Halvari

Hallgeir Halvari
University of South-Eastern Norway | USN · School of Business and Social Sciences

Dr. Philos.

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55
Publications
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2,117
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Publications

Publications (55)
Article
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The purpose of the study was to test the role of the personal desire for excitement and its links to autonomy support, harmonious and obsessive passion, and longitudinal intrinsic motivation, and effort in students’ favorite outdoor activity. 675 students at Norwegian folk high schools [folkehøgskole] attending a one-year study of their favorite ou...
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Demographic changes indicate that the number of people aged 60 years and above will double in the next 30 years, and politicians around the world have an interest in delaying retirement in order to benefit national economies by lowering the burden on public pension systems. In this study, it is examined whether and how combinations of multiple type...
Article
Given the centrality of sleep and work in most individuals’ lives, it is interesting to note that an empirical understanding of the association between what happens in the workplace and how well people sleep is in an early stage of development, at least relative to other topics that are of interest in the literature on stress and health. Using self...
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Objectives: Self-Determination Theory posits that managers' autonomy-supportive behavior and employees' autonomy causality orientation, are motivation constructs to explain internalization of values, functioning, and wellness at work. Hypothesis 1 tested whether profiles comprising perceived dental clinic managers' autonomy-supportive, as opposed...
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The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale within self-determination theory (SDT) within the work domain. Confirmatory factor analyses of three Norwegian samples and one English sample as well as multi-group analyses to examine measurement invariance were performed. The res...
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According to the job demands–resources model, job demands (or hindrances) can drain energy and yield physiological and psychological costs by requiring sustained physical and/or mental effort at work. Using self‐determination theory, the current study examined the associations among role conflict (as a proxy for job demands), frustration of the bas...
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Curiosity has a powerful influence on consumer behaviour, and previous research has tended to focus on how curiosity affects the desire to obtain curiosity-relevant, unknown information. Yet an interesting question, which was the focus of the present research, concerns the effect of incidental curiosity on intention to obtain curiosity-irrelevant,...
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Advances in technologies (e.g. smartphones, wearables) have resulted in the concept of ‘self-tracking’, and the use of self-tracking technologies in physical activity (i.e. fitness tracking) is on the rise. For example, many people track and monitor their fitness-related metrics (e.g. steps walked, distance ran, and calories burned) to change their...
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This study uses Self-Determination Theory as a theoretical framework to test the hypotheses that students self-reports of their motivational regulations would predict teachers’perception of students’ motivational regulations, even after controlling for performance. An additional aim was to test a process model in which students’ perceived autonomy...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to test a self-determination theory (SDT) process model of the "bright" and the "dark" motivational pathways through dental attendance or avoidance to oral health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 students from all study disciplines at the University of Oslo. Participants responded to...
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This study tested a physical activity intervention and the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health-behavior change and health among 108 adult patients with both diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomly assigned to an organized physical activity intervention group (led by instructors) o...
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The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this stud...
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The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially so in organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there has been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to address t...
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Somatic symptom burden, or the experience of physical symptomatology without a medical explanation, is related to functional disability and poor quality of life. The consequences of somatic symptom burden extend beyond the individual and affect society, as manifested in higher medical utilization and lower job productivity. Using self-determination...
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Self-determination theory proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation comprising autonomous and controlled forms. Whereas autonomous motivation relates positively to individuals’ optimal functioning (e.g., well-being, performance), controlled motivation is less beneficial. To be able to use self-determination theory in the field of...
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Grounded in self‐determination theory, this study sought to examine the antecedents and outcomes of part‐time working nurses' (n = 404) motives for searching and not searching for full‐time employment. After controlling for various background variables, autonomous motivation and economic motivation to search for a full‐time job related positively t...
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A self-determination theory process model of change in well-being was tested among older adults in a 16-week randomized exercise-trial (n = 118, M = 74.3 years, SD = 4.6, 68% females). The exercise intervention increased participants' autonomous motivation and perceived competence over the first 7 weeks. Moreover, autonomous orientation gave rise t...
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We tested a self-determination theory (SDT) process model during a 3 week physical activity rehabilitation stay among young adults with a physical disability (N=44, Mage=24.7, SD=5.1). As hypothesized, perceived autonomy support positively predicted needs satisfaction at the end of the stay (r=.38, p<.01). Further, needs satisfaction was positively...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of three types of training on wellbeing and frequency of physical activity and to determine whether preintervention motivation moderates the effects. Methods: Sixty-two older adults (M = 75 years old, SD = 5; 61% women) completed 4-mo programs of endurance, functional or...
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Objectives To investigate effects of endurance, functional and strength training on subjective vitality in older adults. Using the self-determination theory (SDT) framework we tested the moderating effects of autonomy support and mediating effects of need satisfaction on participants’ changes in vitality.DesignParallel-groups randomized controlled...
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Objective: The present study tested the hypotheses that: (a) a dental intervention designed to promote dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict perceived clinician autonomy support and patient autonomous motivation for the project, increases in autonomous motivation for dental home c...
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The present research: (1) developed a Self-Regulation for Dental Home Care Questionnaire (SRDHCQ) based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), and (2) used it in a SDT process model of dental health behaviors and self-rated oral health. In this model, patients’ perceptions of autonomy supportive (relative to controlling) dental prof...
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The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school‐year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students’ mastery goals measured early in the...
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Poor muscle strength and physical function have been associated with higher risk of hospitalisation and lower well-being among the elderly. Physical training increases muscle strength, endurance and physical function as well as psychological outcomes. Exercise among older adults is often used to improve these variables, but few have compared the ef...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite fo...
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The present study tested a trans-contextual model based on self-determination theory of the relations between motivation in physical education, motivation in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and psychological well-being. Participants were 329 Norwegian upper secondary school students (M age = 16.5 yr., SD = 0.7). Students' percept...
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The present study: (1) developed a Self-Regulation Questionnaire for Dental Treatment (SRQDT) based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inq 11:227–268, 2000), and (2) used it to test a SDT process model of oral self-care behaviours and dental clinic attendance. Patients’ perceptions of autonomy supportive (relative to controll...
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Based on self-determination theory, this study proposes an extended information systems continuance theory in the context of teachers’ utilization of e-learning technology in connection with on-site courses. In the proposed model teachers’ extrinsic motivation (i.e. perceived usefulness), confirmation of pre-acceptance expectations and intrinsic mo...
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The purpose of the present study was to test a Self‐Determination Theory (SDT) process model in relation to involvement in physical activity and competitive performance among students (N = 190). In this model, perceived autonomy support from teachers and coaches was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation, perceived competence, h...
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The relations between perceived support of autonomy from coaches, characteristics of personal goals, and emotional well-being from the perspective of self-determination theory was examined among 95 elite athletes (59% men; M = 21.6 yr., SD = 6.1) from Track and Field, Greco-Roman Wrestling, Taekwondo, and Power Lifting. Elite athletes were those re...
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Research indicates that effort close to the lactate threshold during a soccer match is of importance to succeed, so a prospective study was conducted and a hierarchical achievement motivation approach model tested in relation to effort reglation among 55 male high level soccer players (M=23.6 yr., SD=4.3). The motive to chieve success was expected...
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We tested the hypothesis that a psychosocial dental intervention formulated in terms of self-determination theory would increase patients’ perceived competence and autonomous motivation for dental care and would decrease their plaque and gingivitis over a seven month period, compared to standard dental treatment. We also tested a process model in w...
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Students (N=231) were tested on involvement in physical activity, motivational climate, perceived sport competence, and goal orientations. Multiple regression, partial correlation, and LISREL analyses indicated that mastery goal adoption is positively correlated with a mastery climate. Performance-approach goal adoption is positively correlated wit...
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Students in upper secondary school (N = 231, M = 16.6 yr., SD = 1.6) were tested on involvement in physical activity, perceived sport competence, using the Perceived Competence Scale of Harter, and motivational regulation on the Self-regulation Questionnaire of Ryan and Connell. Correlations were positive among involvement in physical activity, aut...
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We studied the relationship of burnout with environmental and personal characteristics such as lack of time for being with significant others outside sport, cohesion in training groups, role conflict, and self-confidence among 136 elite athletes. Analysis indicated that the mean Burnout scores were in the low range. Cohesion in training groups and...
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A model tested among 136 Norwegian Olympic-level athletes yielded two paths related to performance. The first path indicated that self-confidence, modeled as an antecedent of competitive anxiety, is negatively correlated with anxiety. Competitive anxiety in turn is negatively correlated with performance. The second path indicated that group cohesio...
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A structural model of achievement motives, performance approach and avoidance goals, and performance was applied and tested among 136 Norwegian Olympic level athletes. Achievement motives, competitive behavior over time, performance approach goal-clarity, and performance-avoidance goals were assessed, and elite performance observed. Analysis indica...
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A motivational model of newspaper consumption was elaborated. In this model, reading motives are supposed to generate certain beliefs in newspapers. The belief in the satisfying properties of a newspaper is based on an evaluation of how well the attributes of a newspaper are expected to match the motives of individuals. Once a match between the mot...
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The hypothesis that the motive–performance relation is moderated by age and by type of performance measure (i.e., effort or ability) is tested. Individual differences in achievement motives were assessed using the Achievement Motives Scale in 53 male wrestlers, who then performed a competitive motor task. The motor task required precise coordinatio...
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213 pupils (M = 17.2 yr.) were tested on the motive to achieve success, the motive to avoid failure, future time orientation, perceived instrumentality of cognitive and physical tasks at school, and the involvement in sport competitions. Analysis shows a significant positive correlation between the scores on motive to achieve success and the amount...
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45 subjects were assessed for cognitive anxiety on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Two months later they observed a person performing a new motor task which required high cognitive processing to be performed well. After this observation, 22 subjects were randomly assigned to a Mental Practice and 23 to a Control group. The former performed a co...
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Achievement motives, future time orientation, and perceived instrumentality of theoretical subjects were investigated in relation to educational choice of general versus vocational studies at secondary school. Among 257 students, multivariate regression of educational choice showed that the higher the scores on the motive to achieve success, the lo...
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33 subjects were tested on competitive trait and state anxiety immediately before and after a competitive motor task of short duration (average performance time of 25 seconds). It required precise coordination of correct muscular activity, timing as well as speed, and physical strength that included explosive shifts in direction of movement. Two ty...
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128 male high school students were tested for achievement motives, future-time orientation and perceived intrinsic instrumentality, and answered several questions related to future goals or tests at different distances in time. Success-oriented individuals and individuals with high future-time orientation perceived the goals as closer, planned to i...
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The study is based on responses among 128 male high school students who were tested for achievement motives, randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, i.e., goal and training conditions 1 mo. and 1 yr. from goal, and performed a task of 1500 m running on a treadmill. Based on Miller's and Gjesme's theoretical models and research, it was p...
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Among the 348 pupils 11 to 13 years old, 148 girls and 158 boys participated in this study. Among success-oriented individuals, girls increased all types of performance responses (i.e., tasks attempted, attempts with score, quality score, and force), and boys increased their quality score and force as the goal distance in time decreased. Among the...
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-The following results, based on responses of 128 high school boys, were found: (i) Motive for success affects maximal aerobic power indirectly positively through motive for failure and perceived intrinsic instrumentality. According to the indirect effects, increased strength of motive for success is accompanied by a decreased motive for failure wh...
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An earlier study of main effects of achievement motives on performance amongst boy wrestlers was repeated with girls. The 1970 Achievement Motives Scale of Gjesme and Nygård was administered to 29 girls, and subjects' scores were sampled for three different wrestling championships at a national level. Oxygen uptake, speed of movement. four muscular...
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78 adolescent and more mature wrestlers who started to train between the ages of 7 and 12 yrs answered questions about content of training and competitions during that time and completed a scale measuring achievement motivation (ACM). Early emphasis on achievement training contributed to development of ACM. Ss who started training early and succeed...
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In this study was tested the prediction that approach-oriented wrestlers should perform better than indifferent- and avoidance-oriented ones. The 1970 Achievement Motives Scale of Gjesme and Nygård was administered to 47 boys, and subjects' scores were sampled for four different wrestling championships on international and national level. Measured...

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