Hal B Gregersen

Hal B Gregersen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | MIT · MIT Sloan School of Management

PhD

About

62
Publications
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8,400
Citations

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
"How do I find innovative people for my organization? And how can I become more innovative myself?" These are questions that stump most senior executives, who know that the ability to innovate is the "secret sauce" of business success. Perhaps for this reason most of us stand in awe of the work of visionary entrepreneurs such as Apple's Steve Jobs,...
Article
This study traces the origins of innovative strategies by examining the attributes of ‘innovative entrepreneurs.’ In an inductive grounded theory study of innovative entrepreneurs, we develop a theory that innovative entrepreneurs differ from executives on four behavioral patterns through which they acquire information: (1) questioning; (2) observi...
Article
When expatriate managers return home from international assignments and re-cross cultural boundaries, they are required not only to exhibit commitment to their parent company, but also to develop commitment to a new local work unit. Accordingly, this study, the first of its kind, examines the extent to which theorized individual, job, organizationa...
Article
Full-text available
The authors report the collaborative efforts of 2 research teams that independently investigated the effects of stable personality traits (the Big Five) and specific behavioral competencies (cultural flexibility, task and people orientations, and ethnocentrism) on key dimensions of expatriate effectiveness: psychological adjustment, assignment with...
Article
Executive Overview Lockheed Martin Corporation was formed in 1995 with the merger of two of the world's premier technology companies, Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta Corporation. In 1996 Lockheed Martin completed its strategic combination with the defense electronics and systems integration businesses of Loral. Lockheed Martin currently em...
Article
Marriott International celebrates its 75th anniversary in 2002. The company now has over 2,400 hotels, 156 senior living services communities, 60 vacation resorts worldwide, 7,500 ExecuStay apartments, 13 Marriott Conference Centers in the USA, 140,000 employees, and operations in 65 countries. It has under its umbrella 18 brands, including hotels...
Article
Marriott International celebrates its 75th anniversary in 2002. The company now has over 2,400 hotels, 156 senior living services communities, 60 vacation resorts worldwide, 7,500 ExecuStay apartments, 13 Marriott Conference Centers in the USA, 140,000 employees, and operations in 65 countries. It has under its umbrella 18 brands, including hotels...
Article
Global leaders can be "made", but it takes a training approach that is as serious and sophisticated as the global world these individuals are being asked to lead in. Fundamentally, global leaders require training programs that will help them radically redraw their provincial mental maps into global ones. In this article, we outline the key ingredie...
Article
Full-text available
We develop resource- and dynamic capability-based arguments that CEOs with international assignment experience create value for their firms and themselves through their control of a valuable, rare, and inimitable resource. Supporting this view, U.S. multinationals performed better with CEOs with international assignment experience at their helms, e...
Article
Building on and extending the literature on organizational commitment, this study examines the relationship between repatriates' work and non-work-related expectations and their commitment to their parent companies and new local work units after completing international assignments. The results, based on a sample of 174 repatriates and 92 partners...
Article
This article addresses the question of whether international assignment experience in the top management team makes a bottom-line difference. Based on the premise and observations that executive international assignment experience is rare, valuable, and hard to imitate, we suggest that in the right organizational context, it can create competitive...
Article
Global leaders can be "made", but it takes a training approach that is as serious and sophisticated as the global world these individuals are being asked to lead in. Fundamentally, global leaders require training programs that will help them radically redraw their provincial mental maps into global ones. In this article, we outline the key ingredie...
Article
Although the Resource-Based View of the firm (RBV) continues to gain centrality in the conversation of strategic management, several unanswered questions remain within the emerging paradigm. This article focuses on one of those questions. We propose a causal model of resource generation built around three central constructs: entrepreneurial ability...
Article
Global business today requires leaders to be like explorers, guiding their organizations through unfamiliar and turbulent environments. With markets, suppliers, competitors, technology, and customers around the world constantly shifting, traditional leadership models no longer work. The authors' three-year study across Europe, North America, and As...
Article
After working abroad for extended periods, managers returning to their parent companies and communities are more likely to resign and seek outside employment than executives with comparable experience. Based on a sample of 174 repatriates and 92 spouses with five U.S. multinationals, our research indicates that gaps often exist between the expatria...
Article
This article discusses how the field of IHRM will be influenced in the next century by paradigmatic changes that are taking place in the social sciences. The article delineates the essential constructs of nonlinear dynamical systems, a vying paradigm to logical positivism, and discusses the implications of this paradigm on the domains of IHRM resea...
Article
Building on repatriation adjustment research for U.S. managers and spouses, this study is one of the first to identify potential cross-cultural differences by assessing these processes theoretically and empirically in a non-U.S. sample. Focusing on Finnish expatriates and spouses, this study examined anticipatory and in-country variables related to...
Article
This article focuses on an important Resource-based question: Where do resources come from? We model resource generation using three central constructs. Entrepreneurial ability generates new asset combinations which are valuable and unique, while market and/or organizational contexts preserve the value in these new asset combinations by providing b...
Article
Few topics have resulted in as much theory, empirical study, controversy, and practical application as participative decision-making (PDM). Although most past empirical research has assumed that the decision-making process in PDM was unidimensional, this paper explores a multidimensional view and examines the integration of degree of participation...
Article
Building on the domestic multiple commitment literature, recent international research found that upon repatriation, U.S. expatriates exhibited dual commitments to the parent corporation and local work unit. These results, however, may have been a function of specific cultural values of American managers and may not be generalizable to other sample...
Article
The exploratory study examines empirically expatriate performance appraisal(EPA) practices for U.S. multinational firms and assesses how such practices relate to the perceived accuracy of EPAs. From a sample of U.S. multinationals, the results suggest that a balanced set of raters from host and home countries and more frequent appraisals relate pos...
Article
Building on the domestic multiple commitment literature, recent international research found that upon repatriation, U.S. expatriates exhibited dual commitments to the parent corporation and local work unit. These results, however, may have been a function of specific cultural values of American managers and may not be generalizable to other sample...
Article
To formulate and implement global strategies, multinational firms need to develop and retain executives with global perspectives and skills. From a sample of U.S., Japanese, and Finnish repatriates, this study addresses the strategic development of international executives by examining the retention of high-performing expatriates after repatriation...
Article
Based on theoretical and mathematical principles of chaos theory, we argue that the customary social science goals of "prediction" and "control" of systems behavior are sometimes, if not usually, unobtainable. Specifically, chaos theory shows how it is possible for nearly identical entities embedded in identical environments to exhibit radically di...
Article
A paradox occurs as students acquire today's content knowledge and think that they are prepared for "tomorrow." However, their future reliance on "yesterday's" knowledge can present the challenge of either using irrelevant ideas or acquiring new information. The degree to which students overcome tomorrow's challenge of knowledge obsolescence depend...
Article
This study examines the relationships among multiple commitments at work and extrarole behavior during three stages of organizational tenure. Initially, factor analysis identified four facets of commitment: top management, supervisors, co-workers, and customers. Utilizing these four facets of commitment and the Organizational Commitment Questionnai...
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Full-text available
Although the increased internationalization of business has brought greater scholarly attention to the issue of adjustment to overseas assignments, comparatively little research activity has been paid to the topic of adjustment back to the home country and home office—repatriation adjustment. In this article we argue that repatriation adjustment is...
Article
This study of 321 American managers on international assignment in Pacific Rim or European countries assessed theoretically and empirically the extent to which various personal, job, organizational, and nonjob factors accounted for commitment to their parent companies and foreign operations. Regression analyses found both common and unique antecede...
Article
Tested a model hypothesizing that task interdependence affects supervisor-reported extrarole behavior indirectly through employee felt responsibility. The model was supported by path analysis in a sample of 290 health-care and administrative employees in 2 hospitals. The results (1) demonstrate the importance of asymmetric felt responsibility to ex...
Article
A model hypothesizing that task interdependence affects supervisor-reported extrarole behavior indirectly through employee felt responsibility was tested in this study. The model was supported by path analysis in a sample of 290 health-care and administrative employees in two hospitals. The results (a) demonstrate the importance of asymmetric felt...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined anticipatory and in-country individual, job, organizational, and non-work variables and their relationship with work, interaction, and general repatriation adjustment for U.S. managers. The study also examined anticipatory and in-country individual and non-work variables and their relationship with interaction and general repatr...
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Full-text available
Scholars have argued that the adjustment of the expatriate's spouse is an important factor in the success or failure of expatriates in overseas assignments; however, they have not empirically examined which factors are related to spouse adjustment. This study is the first to systematically examine the antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment...
Article
This is the first study to examine the extent to which individual, job, organizational, and nonjob factors account for the commitment patterns of 174 American expatriates during repatriation. Discriminant analysis found that job and organizational factors were positively associated with dual commitment to the parent firm and the local work unit. Ad...
Article
Although past studies of expatriate adjustment have asked human resource executives their opinions about important antecedents of cross-cultural adjustment (e.g., Tung, 1981, 1988), very few studies have attempted to empirically determine which factors significantly affect cross-cultural adjustment based on data collected from actual expatriate man...
Article
Many multinational corporations experience high and costly rates of expatriates returning prematurely from overseas assignments. Extending the general turnover literature, we test the specific relationships between expectations, satisfaction, and intent to leave for a sample of American expatriates in Japan. In a path analysis, work role clarity an...
Article
Building on the commitment and adjustment literature, this article examines the degree to which dual organizational commitments and multiple facets of cross-cultural adjustment relate to expatriate retention in international assignments. In this study of 321 American expatriates assigned to four countries in the Pacific Rim and four countries in We...
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Full-text available
Ownership and management for urban mass transit organizations have taken many forms over the years, with publicly‐owned and managed systems now dominant. In recent years, however, strong economic and political forces have increased pressures for privatizing urban mass transit services. This review analyses 20 studies from three countries (predomina...

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