Håkan Jönsson

Håkan Jönsson
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Department of Energy and Technology

Professor

About

111
Publications
43,592
Reads
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4,600
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2006 - October 2009
Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 1981 - present
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Over a period of 12 months, the fate of three hormones, 12 antibiotics and 30 pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) was investigated during open-air storage without and with composting of anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludge. The effect of better oxidation conditions during storage on degradation of hormones and PhACs in the slud...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to present a structured approach for comparing possible nutrient-recovery fecal sludge (FS) treatment systems in order to support transparent decision-making. The approach uses a multi-dimensional sustainability assessment of treatment technologies for nutrient recovery from FS, using a typical case of Kampala City, Uganda....
Article
This study investigated, for the first time, the occurrence and fate of 29 multiple-class pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in two source separated sanitation systems based on: (i) batch experiments for the anaerobic digestion (AD) of fecal sludge under mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (52 °C) conditions, and (ii) a full-scale blackwater treatment plant u...
Article
Globally, waste generation is continually increasing, with landfill as the main destination for biological waste. Composting is a simple alternative for handling waste, but when poorly managed poses a risk of greenhouse gas emissions. The moisture content of substrate affects emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting, but t...
Article
Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia...
Article
A paradigm shift to waste reuse has started in the wastewater sector with many experts calling for greater resource recovery, often facilitated by alternative solutions such as source separation. Source separation has been shown to be advantageous for improving treatment capacity, food security, and efficiency; yet these systems are still immature,...
Article
Source separation of urine for recycling has been applied in small-scale and decentralized wastewater systems in Sweden for the past 25 years and for blackwater for pollution control even longer. The Swedish experience with source separating nutrient recycling systems is relatively well documented; however, few reports have specifically studied the...
Article
This study investigated the effect on greenhouse gas emissions during storage of digested sewage sludge by using a cover during storage or applying sanitisation measures such as thermophilic digestion or ammonia addition. In a pilot-scale storage facility, nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured on average twice monthly for a year, using...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This study evaluated treatment of greywater (GW) by a biochar filter in Jordan and assessed the annual risks of infection (Pi-annual ), annual risk of disease (Pd-annual ) and disease burden (in disability-adjusted life years; DALYs) of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella typhi and rotavirus due to ingestion of GW during system maintenance a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose By recycling sewage sludge (SS) to productive land, its plant nutrients can be utilised. However, the use of organic fertilisers carries health risks and causes emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3). One measure to sanitise SS from human pathogens is addition of NH3. Methods Mesophilically digested and dewatered...
Article
Emissions of methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) from composting of source-sorted food waste were studied at set temperatures of 40, 55 and 67°C in 10 trials performed in a controlled environment 200L compost reactor. CH₄ and N₂O concentrations were generally low. In trials with 16% O₂, the mean total CH₄ emission at all temperatures was 0.007% o...
Article
Most of the waste collected in sub-Saharan African cities is biodegradable but it is usually dumped in landfills, creating environmental and health challenges for residents. However, there are biodegradable waste treatment methods that could mitigate these challenges. This study analysed anaerobic digestion, composting, vermicomposting and fly larv...
Article
To evaluate the treatment performance of vertical flow sand filters, the HYDRUS wetland module was used to simulate treatment in an experimental set-up. The laboratory filters were intermittently dosed with artificial greywater at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.032 m(3) m(-2) day(-1) and an organic loading rate of 0.014 kg BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). The hy...
Article
Full-text available
Grey water constitutes the largest fraction of domestic wastewater. It causes environmental sanitation and pollution problems if it is not managed well. If treated, grey water can be a resource for a variety of uses. A pilot system was constructed in February 2013 to treat grey water from a four-member household for sub-surface irrigation of local...
Article
Full-text available
Human excreta are potential sources of plant nutrients, but are today usually considered a waste to be disposed of. The requirements on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to remove nitrogen and phosphorus are increasing and to meet these requirements, more energy and chemicals are needed by WWTPs. Separating the nutrient-rich wastewater fractions...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, a...
Article
Full-text available
Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6m×0.2m (height×diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nit...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%)....
Article
In Sweden, 16% of all biologically treated food waste is home composted. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O and emissions of NH3 from home composts were measured and factors affecting these emissions were examined. Gas and substrate in the compost bins were sampled and the composting conditions assessed 13 times during a 1-year period in...
Article
Full-text available
With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filte...
Article
Faecal sludge has the potential to be used as a sustainable fertiliser in agriculture, but the sludge must be sanitised due to its content of pathogenic microorganisms. The intrinsic ammonia from the urine may be sufficient for sanitisation of the sludge if it is not too diluted by flush water or lost by ventilation. To evaluate the potential for t...
Article
Source-separated household organics were composted in a reactor at three oxygen levels, 16%, 2.5% and 1% in the compost gas. Short-chained fatty acids were initially present in the compost material, and were also produced during the mesophilic phase at all three oxygen levels. This indicated that partial anaerobic conditions existed. No NH3 emissio...
Article
Mussels can be used as fertiliser in organic farming, particularly on stockless farms, which need external nutrients but have limited access to fertiliser products. Mussels are filter feeders and accumulate nutrients bound in e.g. phytoplankton. When harvested and used onshore, their accumulated nutrients are removed from the water, thus decreasing...
Article
Source-separation of urine enables energy-efficient recycling of large quantities of high quality plant nutrients from the wastewater system to food production. To manage the risk of diseases transmission the urine should be sanitised, which is commonly done by storage. The sanitisation of urine at three ambient exposures, resulting in fluctuating...
Article
The treatment with ammonia of organic substrate potentially content pathogens (faeces, sewage, sludge) is becoming a spread technology for their sanitation, aiming to recycle their nutrient contents. In the present work spatial gradients of total ammonia (NH4+ plus NH3) has been measured at different times in pure water and in a faecal suspension o...
Article
Full-text available
A major problem for composting plants is odour emission. Slow decomposition during prolonged low-pH conditions is a frequent process problem in food waste composting. The aim was to investigate correlations between low pH, odour and microbial composition during food waste composting. Samples from laboratory composting experiments and two large scal...
Article
Full-text available
Greywater is a potential resource of water that can be improved to meet the quality needed for irrigation. This study evaluated the performance of bark, activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and sand filters in removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), surfactants, phosphorus, nitrogen and microbial indicators from greywater during start-up and st...
Article
Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a m...
Article
Composting is the most widely used biological treatment method for recovering the plant nutrients of organic waste. Composting is an aerobic process and it is well known that mismanagement, e.g. insufficient ventilation, can seriously affect the turnover and performance of the process. The turnover is also strongly inhibited if the operation temper...
Conference Paper
Composting is the most widely used biological treatment method for recovering the plant nutrients of organic waste. Composting is an aerobic process and it is well known that mismanagement, e.g. insufficient ventilation, can seriously affect the turnover and performance of the process. The turnover is also strongly inhibited if the operation temper...
Article
Animal by-products (ABP) are rich in nutrients and energy. This LCA study assessed and compared the environmental impact of using meat meal as fertilizer with that of using chemical fertilizer. In one system the nutrient content of ABP Category 2 was recovered and used as a meat meal fertilizer on arable land, replacing chemical fertilizers. In the...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this literature review were to: (i) evaluate the impact of greywater generated in rural communities, with the emphasis on Jordanian conditions, on soil, plant and public health and assess the need for treatment of this greywater before it is used for irrigation, and (ii) assess the potential of different types of organic by-produc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Hemkompostering representerar ett behandlingsalternativ för en ansenlig del av komposterbart hushållsavfall och trädgårdsavfall i Sverige. Enligt rapporten ”Svensk Avfallshantering 2010” från Avfall Sverige, var 2009 hemkomposteringens del av den totala mängden hushållsavfall som behandlades biologiskt 10 %. Det finns både positiva och negativa sid...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale composting of source-separated household waste has expanded in recent years in the Nordic countries. One problem can be low pH at the start of the process. Incoming biowaste at four composting plants was characterised chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of food waste ranged from 4.7 to 6.1 and organic acid concentration...
Chapter
Full-text available
The nutrient flow with excreta is one of the major plant nutrient flows in society. If these nutrients are recycled to arable soil in a safe and resource efficient way, the sustainability of the sanitation system can be increased. To achieve this, farmers using the excreta nutrients as fertilizers are just as essential as the toilet users. To get t...
Article
In a urine diversion dry toilet (UDDT), the urine and faeces are collected separately in order to recycle their nutrient content unmixed. In a UDDT, an additive e.g. lime, wood ash, dry soil or sawdust, depending on which one is easily accessed by the users, is usually sprinkled to the faeces after each defecation. The purpose of the additive is pr...
Article
The composting of a faeces/ash mixture and food waste in relative proportions of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:3 was studied in three successive experiments conducted in Kampala, Uganda in 216 L reactors insulated with 75 mm styrofoam or not insulated. The faeces/ash mixture alone exceeded 50 degrees C for < or = 12 days in insulated reactors, but did not reach o...
Article
Composting of source separated municipal biowaste has at several plants in Scandinavia been hampered by low pH. In this study the hypothesis that increased aeration would improve the process was tested in full-scale experiments at two large composting plants. The O2 concentrations were high (>15%) even at the low aeration rates, so the prevailing l...
Article
In urine-diverting toilets, urine and faeces are collected separately so that nutrient content can be recycled unmixed. Faeces should be sanitized before use in agriculture fields due to the presence of possible enteric pathogens. Composting of human faeces with food waste was evaluated as a possible method for this treatment. Temperatures were mon...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis of the environmental effects and resource consumption by four systems for management of wastewater and organic household waste in a new city area have been performed, as follows: (1) conventional system complemented with advanced sludge treatment for phosphorus recovery, (2) blackwater system with urine diversion and food waste disposer...
Article
Life cycle assessment methodology was used to compare conventional wheat production with a scenario where source-separated human urine replaced mineral fertilisers. A change-orientated perspective was used, including differences in capital goods between the scenarios. An optimal fertilising strategy regarding application time, technique and substit...
Article
This study collects experiences from existing systems with urine diversion and dry handling of faecal matter and presents design recommendations for improved function of new systems. Urine collection and piping systems were studied in four large residential areas in Scandinavia and South Africa where urine had been collected separately for 5-9 year...
Article
The effects of different process temperatures (40, 55, and 67 degrees C) during composting of source-separated household waste were studied in a 200 L compost reactor at an oxygen concentration of 16%. The overall decomposition measured as carbon mineralization, decomposition of different carbon constituents, and the dynamics of nitrogen mineraliza...
Article
Reducing the negative impact from on-site systems and promoting recycling are important tasks for municipal authorities, especially as regards phosphorus. The objective of this scenario study was to compare energy turnover in a life cycle perspective, recycling potential and expected reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions for three upgraded...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The second most nutrient-containing fraction from households, faecal matter, is highly likely to con- tain pathogens and thus requires some form of sanitising treatment. Two alternatives for this treatment, composting and urea treatment, were evaluated and compared to storage for 50 days. Thermal composting of faeces together with food was...
Article
Recycling of plant nutrients in sewage products to arable land is considered to be a step towards a more sustainable society. Sewage sludge is the predominant sewage fertiliser product available today, but the use of sewage sludge in agriculture has been questioned as regards hazardous substances. In this respect, blackwater from separating systems...
Article
The present Swedish design values (DV) for urine, faeces, greywater and biodegradable solid waste were scrutinised and compared to the composition of these fractions in two blocks of flats, Gebers and Ekoporten. For evaluation of the greywater composition, two additional areas were included: the housing area Vibyåsen and a calculation based upon th...
Article
Inhibition of the degradation during low pH conditions has been observed in fed-batch composting systems. To analyse this phenomenon, fed-batch composting of food waste with different amounts of starting culture was examined in laboratory reactor experiments. Changes in temperature, carbon dioxide evolution, pH, solids, ash and short chain organic...
Article
During composting of household waste, the acidity of the material affects the process during the initial phase of rising temperature. In this study, the effects of temperature (36-46 degrees C) and pH (4.6-9.2) on the respiration rate during the early phase of composting were investigated in two different composts. A respiration method where small...
Article
Food in general has a high nutrient content, which essentially passes through the human organism and ends up in the sewage system. This high nutrient content in sewage, however, is rarely included in environmental systems analyses of food products or production systems. At the same time, several studies on sewage systems have shown the significance...
Article
Full-text available
International guidelines have been presented within the Sida financed EcoSanRes programme for the use of human urine and faeces in crop production based on the current knowledge on use of urine and fae- ces in small and large-scale cultivation. Urine and faeces are each a complete fertiliser of high quality with low levels of contaminants such as h...
Article
No efficient, reliable, and scale independent disinfection methods for toilet waste are available today for safe recycling of plant nutrients. Therefore, two chemical treatment methods, addition of urea or of PAA (a quaternary mixture of 15% peracetic acid, 15% hydrogen peroxide and 30% acetic acid), were evaluated for disinfection of faecal matter...
Article
When using toilets where the urine and faeces are collected separately for reuse as nutrients in agriculture, the collected matter should be disinfected. One way to do this is by thermal composting. Composting of different material mixes was investigated in a laboratory-scale experiment. This showed that the best mixture for dry thermal composting...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of different separation techniques for local recovery of faecal nutrients. Separation by Aquatron, filtration, flotation and sedimentation was tested in the laboratory. Only the separation of faecal matter from flushwater was investigated. For efficient nutrient capture, the system has to be combi...
Article
Earlier studies indicated that the activity in the initial phase of composting may be reduced when the temperature rises too fast under low pH conditions. A compost reactor experiment on household waste was designed to test whether the degradation time could be reduced by actively preventing the temperature from rising until the pH had reached a ce...
Article
In household wastewater and biodegradable solid waste, the main proportion of the plant nutrients are found in the toilet water (i.e. in urine and faeces). In order to recover most of these nutrients, with the purpose of decreasing the emission of eutrophicating agents and of increasing their recycling, present waste and wastewater systems have to...
Article
Effects of urine separation on the environment and resource usage were estimated using the simulation package ORWARE. Measurements on the urine-separating system in the housing district Palsternackan in Stockholm and on the fertilising effect of the urine were used in the simulations. The tenants were at home 65% of the time and separated 65% of th...
Article
Full-text available
Urine is the urban waste fraction containing the largest amounts of nutrients. It contains approximately 70% of the nitrogen and 50% of the phosphorus and potassium in all household waste and wastewater fractions. During the 1990-ies, urine separation has been thoroughly investigated in several research projects in Sweden. In these measurement betw...
Article
Oxygen depletion of lake and seawater is a serious condition with large implications for biodiversity. Therefore, in LCA, the potential oxygen demand of water emissions is estimated under the label eutrophication impact category. This impact category should contain the impact of water emissions on the total oxygen consumption in the receiving water...
Article
An advanced experimental composting reactor was constructed for systematic simulation studies of the effects of oxygen levels and temperature on carbon and nitrogen turnover in the composting process. The reactor was thermally insulated and equipped with a fan to mix the compost gases in order to eliminate possible gradients in temperature and gas...
Article
Gaseous emissions and the biological turnover of organic household wastes were studied under controlled conditions in a compost reactor (55°C, moisture content 65% w/w, O2concentration 16% in compost off-gas). During the first experiments, the temperature was increased to 55°C within 6 h using external heating. These experiments resulted in low emi...