Hajo Eicken

Hajo Eicken
University of Alaska Fairbanks · International Arctic Research Center

About

377
Publications
42,099
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
12,518
Citations
Introduction
My main research interests are in the field of sea-ice geophysics. In particular, I am interested in how small-scale properties and (micro)structure of sea ice impact processes on a larger scale, from ecosystems to the climate system. Our group here at the University of Alaska Fairbanks studies the multiple uses of sea ice, the services it provides - from cooling the planet to serving as a platform for animals and people, and its broader relevance in planning for Arctic futures.
Additional affiliations
March 1998 - March 2015
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Position
  • Professor of Geophysics

Publications

Publications (377)
Article
Full-text available
Ice-albedo feedback due to the albedo contrast between water and ice is a major factor in seasonal sea ice retreat, and has received increasing attention with the Arctic Ocean shifting to a seasonal ice cover. However, quantitative evaluation of such feedbacks is still insufficient. Here we provide quantitative evidence that heat input through the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rain-on-snow (ROS) events can accelerate the surface ablation of sea ice, thus greatly influencing the ice-albedo feedback. However, the variability of ROS events over the Arctic Ocean is poorly understood due to limited historical station data in this region. In this study early melt season ROS events were investigated based on four widely-used re...
Article
The Arctic Ocean is overwhelmingly forced by its lateral boundaries, and interacts with, the global system. For the development of nested conceptual models of the Arctic Ocean ecosystem we here choose the full pan-Arctic as our focal scale. Understanding the pan-Arctic scale, however, requires that we look at the underlying scales of its major comp...
Article
Full-text available
Cryopeg is a layer within permafrost containing a significant amount of cryotic unfrozen water due to dissolved salts. To explore the origin and development of cryopeg and associated brines found near Utqiaġvik, we sampled extensively within the Barrow Permafrost Tunnel. We found two types of cryopeg brines based on their distinctive locations: (a)...
Article
Full-text available
Effective responses to rapid environmental change rely on observations to inform planning and decision-making. Reviewing literature from 124 programs across the globe and analyzing survey data for 30 Arctic community-based monitoring programs, we compare top-down, large-scale program driven approaches with bottom-up approaches initiated and steered...
Chapter
Confronted with the complex environmental crises of the Anthropocene, scientists have moved towards an interdisciplinary approach to address challenges that are both social and ecological. Several arenas are now calling for co-production of new transdisciplinary knowledge by combining Indigenous knowledge and science. This book revisits epistemolog...
Article
Landfast ice along the Arctic coasts plays an important role in supporting ecosystem services, local communities and offshore activities by industry. Seasonal predictions of landfast ice conditions are generally lacking in current seasonal forecasting products but are needed especially for planning of on-ice activities such as the construction of i...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment-laden sea ice is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas. This study presents a satellite-based approach at quantifying the distribution of sediment-laden ice that allows for more extensive observations in both time and space to monitor spatiotemporal variations in sediment-laden ice. A structural-optical model co...
Article
From 2009 to the present, continuous mooring observations have been conducted within the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP) on the northeastern Chukchi Shelf. With a 10-year mooring record (2009–2019), satellite-derived sea-ice production (SIP) data, and atmospheric reanalysis, we confirm that the BCP is a wind-driven hybrid latent and sensible heat poly...
Article
Full-text available
Sea-ice pore microstructure constrains ice transport properties, affecting fluid flow relevant to oil-in-ice transport and biogeochemical processes. Motivated by a lack of pore microstructural data, in particular for granular ice and across the seasonal cycle, throat size, tortuosity, connectivity, and other microstructural variables were derived f...
Preprint
Arctic coastal waters are characterized by seasonal retreat and advance of sea ice. The timing of advance and retreat varies substantially from year to year. Various activities, ranging from marine transport to the use of sea ice as a platform for industrial activity or winter travel, are affected by variations in the timing of break-up and freeze-...
Article
Full-text available
In this perspective on the future of the Arctic, we explore actions taken to mitigate warming and adapt to change since the Paris agreement on the temperature threshold that should not be exceeded in order to avoid dangerous interference with the climate system. Although 5 years may seem too short a time for implementation of major interventions, i...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic observing and data systems have been widely recognized as critical infrastructures to support decision making and understanding across sectors in the Arctic and globally. Yet due to broad and persistent issues related to coordination, deployment infrastructure and technology gaps, the Arctic remains among the most poorly observed regions on...
Article
Rapid Arctic environmental change requires improved collaboration across observing activities that support adaptation and response from local to pan-Arctic scales. The Research Networking Activities in Support of Sustained Coordinated Observations of Arctic Change (RNA CoOBs), in partnership with the Food Security Working Group (FSWG), supports an...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is experiencing rapid changes in sea-ice seasonality and extent, with significant consequences for primary production. With the importance of accurate monitoring of spring phytoplankton dynamics in a changing Arctic, this study further examines the previously established critical relationship between spring phytoplankton bloom types and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document presents a basis for alignment of polar data policies, notably the policies and statements of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) initiative, the Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure, and the Southern Ocean Observing Sys...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Unusually stormy winter weather occurred in the southern Beaufort Sea during February and March 2020, affecting the U.S. Navy's Ice Exercise (ICEX) operations. Instead of the typical Beaufort High pressure pattern and associated easterly winds, frequent and at times intense storms moved across the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, u...
Article
Full-text available
Oil production in Arctic ice-covered areas poses a risk for pollution of the ecosystem including that within the brine channel network of sea ice. Sea-ice autotrophs contribute substantially to Arctic primary production, but are inherently difficult to test for oil exposure responses in situ. This study had two objectives, first, we developed a sui...
Article
Full-text available
Rain-on-snow (ROS) events can accelerate the surface ablation of sea ice, thus greatly influencing the ice-albedo feedback. However, the variability of ROS events over the Arctic Ocean is poorly understood due to limited historical station data in this region. In this study early melt season ROS events were investigated based on four widely used re...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Platelet ice is a particular type of ice that consists of decimeter sized thin ice plates that grow and collect on the underside of sea ice. It is most often related to Antarctic ice shelves and forms from supercooled water with a temperature below the local freezing point. Here we present the first comprehensive observation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Validation of sea-ice models, representation of sea-ice processes in large-scale models, and regional planning around ice use and hazards requires climatological ice property data. We summarize key ice properties, in particular temperature and salinity, representative of broader Arctic conditions, from long-term observations near Utqiaġvi...
Article
Improving situational awareness and crisis response are key priorities in reducing potential risks associated with sea ice and environmental-related hazards in the Arctic. This research explores the opportunities and challenges associated with leveraging arctic system science research to coproduce sea ice decision support tools. The research is bas...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic sea ice incorporates and transports sediment, releasing it back into the water column during the melting season. This process constitutes an important aspect of marine sediment transport and biogeochemical cycling. Sediment incorporation into sea ice is considered to occur mainly through underwater interaction between frazil ice and resuspen...
Article
Rising Arctic maritime activities and hydrocarbon development increase the risk of an oil spill in and under Arctic sea-ice. Oil spilled under growing sea ice would be encapsulated within the ice cover. During spring and early summer, such trapped oil would migrate upwards, pervading the ice volume and ultimately pooling at the surface. Current gap...
Article
Full-text available
Hypersaline aqueous environments at subzero temperatures are known to be inhabited by microorganisms, yet information on community structure in subzero brines is very limited. Near Utqiaġvik, Alaska, we sampled subzero brines (–6°C, 115–140 ppt) from cryopegs, i.e. unfrozen sediments within permafrost that contain relic (late Pleistocene) seawater...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid Arctic warming drives profound change in the marine environment that have significant socio-economic impacts within the Arctic and beyond, including climate and weather hazards, food security, transportation, infrastructure planning and resource extraction. These concerns drive efforts to understand and predict Arctic environmental change and...
Article
Full-text available
We combine Eulerian ice draft observations from moored ice‐profiling sonars with buoy‐ and satellite‐derived ice drift data to obtain Lagrangian observations of changes in the thickness distribution of sea ice circulating the Beaufort Sea. We examine repeat measurements of ice draft by identifying events where buoys or pseudobuoys made repeat overp...
Article
Full-text available
The drift of sea ice is an important geophysical process with widespread implications for the ocean energy budget and ecosystems. Drifting sea ice can also threaten marine operations and present a hazard for ocean vessels and installations. Here, we evaluate single-pass along-track synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (S-ATI) as a tool to...
Article
Full-text available
Snow plays an important role in the Arctic climate system, modulating heat transfer in terrestrial and marine environments and controlling feedbacks. Changes in snow depth over Arctic sea ice, particularly in spring, have a strong impact on the surface energy budget, influencing ocean heat loss, ice growth and surface ponding. Snow conditions are s...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic landfast sea ice has undergone substantial changes in recent decades, affecting ice stability and including potential impacts on ice travel by coastal populations and on industry ice roads. We present a novel approach for evaluating landfast sea ice stability on a pan-Arctic scale using Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR). Using...
Article
Full-text available
The drift of sea ice is an important geophysical process with widespread implications for the ocean energy budget, ecosystems, and marine operations. Drifting sea ice can threaten navigation routes and present a hazard for ocean vessels and maritime installations. Here, we evaluate single-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) a...
Article
Full-text available
Snow plays an important role in the Arctic climate system, modulating heat transfer in terrestrial and marine environments and controlling feedbacks. Changes in snow depth over Arctic sea ice, particularly in spring, have a strong impact on the surface energy budget, influencing ocean heat loss, ice growth and surface ponding. Snow conditions are s...
Article
Water properties and formation processes of Alaskan Coastal Winter Water (ACWW) over the eastern Chukchi shelf along the Alaska coast, the so-called Barrow Canyon pathway, are examined using data from moorings, atmospheric reanalysis, satellite-derived sea-ice production (SIP), and a numerical tracer experiment. Along this pathway, Pacific Winter W...
Article
Full-text available
Assimilation of remote-sensing products of sea ice thickness (SIT) into sea ice–ocean models has been shown to improve the quality of sea ice forecasts. Key open questions are whether assimilation of lower-level data products such as radar freeboard (RFB) can further improve model performance and what performance gains can be achieved through joint...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic landfast sea ice has undergone substantial changes in recent decades affecting ice stability with potential impacts on ice travel by coastal populations and industry ice roads. The role of landfast ice as an important habitat has also evolved. We present a novel approach to evaluate sea ice stability on a pan-Arctic scale using Synthetic Ape...
Article
Full-text available
Bottomfast sea ice is an integral part of many near-coastal Arctic ecosystems with implications for subsea permafrost, coastal stability and morphology. Bottomfast sea ice is also of great relevance to over-ice travel by coastal communities, industrial ice roads, and marine habitats. There are currently large uncertainties around where and how much...
Article
Cambridge Core - Computational Science and Modelling - Planets and Life - edited by Woodruff T. Sullivan, III
Article
Full-text available
Increased maritime activities and rapid environmental change pose significant hazards, both natural and technological, to Arctic maritime operators and coastal communities. Hazard assessment and emergency response are hampered by a lack of dedicated hazard monitoring installations in the Arctic. Currently, U.S. and foreign research activities accou...
Article
Arctic sea ice has undergone rapid changes during the last few decades, with negative implications for over-ice travel and on-ice operations, which benefit from services provided by the sea ice. A Parameter-based Trafficability Hierarchy (PATH) is presented here as a framework for developing quantitative assessment strategies that can guide plannin...
Article
Recent Arctic warming has led to reduced sea-ice thickness and a more dynamic landfast ice cover with potential widespread consequences for ice users. Here, we develop an approach to assess the small-scale deformation of landfast ice critical to on-ice operations using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR). InSAR has previously proven suc...
Article
Arctic landfast sea ice is widely utilized for transportation by local communities and industry, with trafficability largely governed by ice roughness. Here, we introduce an approach to evaluate ice roughness that can aid in routing of ice roads and assessment of spatial variability and long-term changes in trafficability. Drawing on synthetic aper...
Article
Full-text available
Assimilation of remote sensing products of sea ice thickness (SIT) into sea ice-ocean models has been shown to improve the quality of sea ice forecasts. Open questions are whether the assimilation of rawer products such as radar freeboard (RFB) can achieve yet a better performance and what performance gain can be achieved by the joint assimilation...
Article
Full-text available
Time series ice-draft data were obtained from moored ice-profiling sonar (IPS), in the coastal northeastern Chukchi Sea during 2009/10. Time series data show seasonal growth of sea-ice draft, occasionally interrupted by coastal polynya. The sea-ice draft distribution indicates a slightly lower abundance of thick, deformed ice compared with the east...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report on a Workshop held at the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks during the Arctic Council Week of the Arctic in May 2017. More than 70 participants from communities throughout the Arctic, researchers, and tribal and government agencies met to exchange information on community-based monitoring as relevant to tra...
Article
Full-text available
Impacts of a warming climate are amplified in the Arctic. One notorious impact is recent and record-breaking summertime sea-ice loss. Expanding areas of open water and a prolonged ice-free season create opportunity for some industries, but challenge indigenous peoples relying on sea ice for transportation and access to food. The observed and projec...
Article
Some coastal communities in western Alaska have observed the occurrence of “slush-ice berms.” These features typically form during freeze-up, when ice crystal – laden water accumulates in piles on the shore. Slush-ice berms can protect towns from storm surge, and they can limit access to the water. Local observations from the communities of Gambell...
Article
Full-text available
(2017-147) In 2014, researchers from ten organizations came to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in New Hampshire to conduct a first of its kind large-scale experiment aimed at determining current sensor capabilities for detecting oil in and under sea ice. This project was the second phase of...
Chapter
Many of the processes that make sea ice such an important aspect of the polar oceans occur at small scales, ranging from the sub-millimetre to the metre scale. An understanding of how large-scale behaviour of sea ice monitored by satellite relates to and depends on the processes driving ice growth and decay requires an understanding of the evolutio...
Article
Rapid environmental change and increases in use of shorefast ice by industry and coastal communities highlight the need for an approach to accurately assess landfast sea-ice stability on seasonal timescales. While stability can sometimes be inferred from field measurements, current methods are lacking robustness and the ability to be automated and...
Article
Full-text available
The seasonal evolution of sea-ice microstructure controls key ice properties, including those governing ocean–atmosphere heat and gas exchange, remote-sensing signatures, and the role of the ice cover as a habitat. Non-destructive in situ monitoring of sea-ice microstructure is of value for sea-ice research and operations but remains elusive to dat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Columbia Climate Center, in partnership with World Wildlife Fund, Woods Hole Research Center, and Arctic 21, held a workshop titled A 5 C Arctic in a 2 C World on July 20 and 21, 2016. The workshop was co-sponsored by the International Arctic Research Center (University of Alaska Fairbanks), the Arctic Institute of North America (Canada), the M...
Conference Paper
A rapidly changing Arctic challenges government agencies and the research community to provide data products that address stakeholder and citizens' information needs as well as scientific priorities. Observations and data co-management can help achieve this goal by linking scientific research to services the Arctic system provides, which in turn af...
Article
Full-text available
1. Abstract The recognized importance of the annual cycle of sea ice in the Arctic to heat budgets, human behavior, and ecosystem functions, requires consistent definitions of such key events in the ice cycle as break-up and freeze-up. An internally consistent and reproducible approach to characterize the timing of these events in the annual sea-ic...