Hajo G. Boomgaarden

Hajo G. Boomgaarden
University of Vienna | UniWien · Institut für Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaft

PhD

About

169
Publications
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6,432
Citations

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
We present Meteor, a new inventory for European news sources (i.e. EU + UK, CH, NO, IL): https://wp3.opted.eu/ . This inventory will facilitate researchers’ efforts to select sources across platforms and gather related textual data. It contains the names of print and online news sources, social media accounts, news blogs, and alternative news media...
Article
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Political actors play an increasingly important role in the dissemination of political information on social media. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms why specific news items are shared with the support base instead of others. For a timespan between December 2017 and the end of 2018, we combine the analysis of Facebook content...
Article
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Societally salient issues, like migration, stimulate user engagement with political parties on social media. This user engagement, in turn, is associated with political behavior, such as voting. Nonetheless, few studies so far have investigated the interaction between these factors. We examine how anti-immigration attitudes are associated with user...
Article
Migration has become increasingly discussed as intangible and uncontrollable and hence as a risk to receiving societies. In the past years, strong public concern and negative attitudes toward immigration have been seen across European countries. The mass media are oftentimes suggested to contribute to such concerns. But mediated risks of immigratio...
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Empirical research on the differences between digital and print reading has recently increased, mainly concentrating on informational texts while disregarding literary texts. Concerning narrative fiction, the existing quantitative studies have found no or very few differences between reading printed books and e-books. In our focus group study, we a...
Technical Report
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This deliverable discusses gender differences in the role of mobile media for migrants and diverging EU perceptions. In particular, the deliverable shows that female migrants and refugees cannot be reduced to being passive companions to men. Rather they take on an active role in staying informed, finding creative ways of coping with unforeseen diff...
Article
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The EU is diagnosed with a participation deficit, rooted in a lack of public communication. While news media are the primary source of information about EU politics, social media have become an important channel for political information. Importantly, social media platforms offer unique opportunities for citizens to engage with information about th...
Article
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We investigate user engagement with politicians’ migration discourses on social media. In particular, we study the effects of message framing and support base attitudes on interactions on Facebook and Twitter in five European countries. Enriching automated analysis of social media content with survey data in a multilevel negative binomial regressio...
Article
A plethora of accumulating crises, and the public frustration with how they were tackled, have provided fertile ground for growing public scepticism towards the European Union (EU). The way in which political leaders manage these crises may well decide the future of the EU. Research has addressed these developments comprehensively. However, it has...
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The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unparalleled global crisis impacting both public and private life. In the situation of uncertainty, emotions run high and might compromise the public acceptance of and compliance with countermeasures tackling the crisis. Mass media play an integral part in communicating crisis measures and provide an institutionali...
Technical Report
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This deliverable discusses the migrants’ and refugees’ perceptions of the EU and its migration policies. In particular, the deliverable shows that migrants’ and refugees’ perceptions are diverse and so are the sources of these perceptions. The analyses are built on the invaluable insights of 124 migrants and refugees (62% men and 38% women) as well...
Article
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This paper focuses on the content features of intentional deceptive information in the news (i.e., fake news) and on social media. Based on an extensive review of relevant literature (i.e., political journalism and communication, computational linguistics), we take stock of existing knowledge and present an overview of the structural characteristic...
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In communication research, topic modeling is primarily used for discovering systematic patterns in monolingual text corpora. To advance the usage, we provide an overview of recently presented strategies to extract topics from multilingual text collections for the purpose of comparative research. Moreover, we discuss, demonstrate, and facilitate the...
Technical Report
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This deliverable discusses the importance and role of mobile media during the migration process of refugees and migrants that wish to travel to Europe. In particular, the deliverable shows that the smartphone became a “migration essential” in migration movements of the digital age that fulfils the most diverse functions at different stages of the m...
Article
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While increasing scholarly attention has been devoted to news avoidance, there are only few studies taking the distinction between intentional and unintentional news avoidance into consideration, and none that has investigated the linkage between the two types of news avoidance and knowledge about politics and society. To fill this void, this study...
Book
This comparative volume provides a comprehensive cross-national account of media coverage and public attitudes toward migration both within and into the European Union. Using empirical research from across Germany, Hunary, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, Media and Public Attitudes Toward Migration in Europe offers an in-depth explor...
Chapter
As the issue of immigration has become more politicised over the last decade in European countries it is important to understand immigration attitudes in the public. Although the academic literature has produced many studies and surveys on immigration attitudes it can be argued that increasing complexities of immigration realities are overlooked. B...
Article
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The policy of free movement—one of the core principles of the European Union—has become increasingly politicized. This makes it more important to understand how attitudes toward free movement are shaped, and the role of the media. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate how news frames affect attitudes toward free movement, and whethe...
Article
How does a political text’s complexity – as a crucial characteristic of a text – uniquely affect readers’ political information processing? Based on a metacognitive response framework and extant discussions based on the Heuristic-Systematic Model vs. the Elaboration Likelihood Model, we tested whether a reader’s initial expectation of a message cha...
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Background: The digitalisation of literature is proliferating, and the increasing spread of digital reading devices and the availability of digital texts is likely to make books on screen a lasting phenomenon, but little attention has been paid to the consequences of digitalisation for the experience of narrative fiction. While on the one hand, re...
Technical Report
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Die österreichische Bevölkerung stellt der Krisenkommunikation der Regierung ein durchwachsenes Zeugnis aus. Es wird vor allem kritisiert, dass die Bundesregierung zu wenig auf Kritik von anderen eingeht und zu viel Wert auf das eigene Auftreten legt. Kritische Einschätzungen zur Regierungskommunikation kommen erwartungsgemäß vor allem von Wähler*i...
Article
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Research designs require flexibility, and adjustments made to the designs do not always have to lead exclusively to disadvantages. In this research note, we would like to share our reflections on the impact of COVID-19 on the conduct of qualitative interviews with irregular migrants. Since these considerations were developed in close connection wit...
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Systematic and openly accessible data are vital to the scientific understanding of the social, political, and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article introduces the Austrian Corona Panel Project (ACPP), which has generated a unique, publicly available data set from late March 2020 onwards. ACPP has been designed to capture the...
Article
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Relying on a multimethod approach with eye tracking, cued retrospective reporting, and a memory test, this experimental study (N = 45) shows how individuals engage with static, interactive, and interactive-animated data visualizations embedded in online science news. The results suggest that interactivity and animation engage participants most stro...
Article
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Die Digitalisierung des Lesens nimmt mit der Verbreitung digitaler Lesegeräte und der Verfügbarkeit digitaler Texte zu, so dass das Lesen von Büchern auf dem Bildschirm zu einem dauerhaften Phänomen werden könnte. Nach zentralen Thesen kulturwissenschaftlicher ebenso wie kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Theoriebildung gehen unterschiedliche Lesemed...
Article
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In a time when freedom of movement is being challenged by an increasing number of European Union member states, and where immigration has been dominating public debate for years, this study investigates the effects (i.e. frame salience and frame sentiment) of migration news on individuals’ attitudes about free movement. We are taking into account r...
Chapter
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Since 1970 televised debates have been a continuous feature of Austrian parliamentary election campaigns. Understood as Chancellor’s debates until the 1990s, an increasing number of parties and television channels led to a growth in the number of debates and formats. The 2019 election witnessed a historic peak of 43 one-on-one and group debates on...
Article
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Research indicates that the reach of fake news websites is limited to small parts of the population. On the other hand, data demonstrate that large proportions of the public know about notable fake news stories and believe them. These findings imply the possibility that most people hear about fake news stories not from fake news websites but throug...
Technical Report
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Alte und Neue Medien: Desinformation in Zeiten der Corona-Krise  Wir haben unsere Befragten fünf Falschaussagen auf ihren Wahrheitsgehalt prüfen lassen: Weniger als die Hälfte haben alle Falschaussagen korrekt erkannt.  Fast jeder achte Befragte konnte keine einzige der Falschaussagen als Desinformation aufdecken.  Obgleich die Unsicherheit ü...
Article
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In contemporary high-choice media environments, the issue of media trust and its impact on people's media use has taken on new importance. At the same time, the extent to which people trust the news media and how much it matters for their use of different types of media is not clear. To lay the groundwork for future research, in this article we off...
Technical Report
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Alte und neue Medien: Informationsverhalten in Zeiten der Corona-Krise  Der öffentlich-rechtliche Rundfunk ist die meistgenutzte Informationsquelle zur Corona-Krise.  11% der Bevölkerung werden weder durch traditionelle noch durch soziale Medien erreicht.  Sowohl Hoch- als auch Niedrigrisikogruppen informieren sich eher über traditionelle Nac...
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Political communication has become one of the central arenas of innovation in the application of automated analysis approaches to ever-growing quantities of digitized texts. However, although researchers routinely and conveniently resort to certain forms of human coding to validate the results derived from automated procedures, in practice the actu...
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We investigate the effects of sentiment and issue salience on emotionally labeled responses to posts from political actors on Facebook (i.e., Reactions). We use an automated content analysis of Facebook posts and voter survey data in a multilevel negative binomial regression approach. Findings show that the sentiment of a post relates to the number...
Article
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The complexity and duration of the so-called 'European refugee crisis' created a climate of uncertainty, which left ample room for mass media to shape citizens' understanding of what the arrival of these refugees meant for their respective country. This study analyses the national media discourses in Hungary, Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom and...
Article
Media coverage of migration and migrants can exert considerable influence on the public’s understanding of and attitudes towards migration. During the peak of what has been called ‘the refugee crisis’ in 2015, heated discussions about immigration and its possible impact filled the media landscape. This study focuses specifically on the news framing...
Article
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This study explores mediated representations of parties’ campaign interactions in multi-party systems. Actors in multi-party systems can engage with different actors on multiple issues. One crucial aspect of such engagement is the element of negativity – voicing criticisms of other actors’ actions and policy proposals. This contribution argues that...
Article
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Migration has been dominating media and political discourses in Europe in recent years. Previous studies have mainly mapped migration discourses in traditional media or conventional channels of party communication, often in a single country. Migration-related party communication on social network sites has been largely neglected. This study analyse...
Article
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Communication scientists have made rapid advances in the computer-assisted analysis of large quantities of media data, but research has focused on monolingual corpora and most often on English-language text. This study works toward the application of computer-assisted analysis in the framework of multilingual media content. Taking the measurement o...
Article
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As citizens inadvertently “encounter” news and political information through digital media and social networking sites, they might perceive themselves to be well informed about politics without actively seeking political information, which has been labeled as the “News Finds Me” (NFM) perception. We attempt to explicate and further advance the conc...
Technical Report
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Executive Summary The aim of this report is to offer a broad overview of migration (both immigration and emigration) discourses in European media for researchers in comparative media and migration studies in the coming years. It also aims at those involved in journalistic news production as well as policy decisions related to European migration in...
Article
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Communication of political information is vital for a well-functioning democratic system, and texts are one of the main mediums of politics. Most studies dealing with political text consider how such texts communicate content, rather than the structural characteristics of texts themselves. The current study focuses on complexity as one of the focal...
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Scholarly attention to the nature and extent of negative campaigning in non-majoritarian multi-party systems is steadily growing. While prior studies have made commendable progress in outlining the conditions and consequences of negative campaigning, they have typically disregarded the complex interdependencies of multi-actor communication environm...
Article
Citizens’ attitudes toward the European Union (EU) are important, changing, and multidimensional. Still comparative studies of the dimensional structure of EU-attitudes are virtually absent. Using an extensive battery of EU attitude-items in a 21-country study, we test the dimensional structure of EU attitudes cross-nationally and assess the variat...
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This article provides a meta-analysis of the knowledge gap hypothesis literature published between 1966 and 2018. We find the basic assumption of a positive education-knowledge relationship to be supported. This result is robust across different geographical settings of the knowledge topics examined, independent of the country of data collection, a...
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This contribution provides a critical reflection on the state-of-the-art of cross-national media use and media effect studies. Increasing availability of data sources, advances in theorizing and facilitation of international research collaboration have contributed to an increasing application of cross-national perspectives in communication research...
Article
The arrival of refugees to Europe increased dramatically in 2015. This situation produced polarized responses across the European Union and caused intensive media attention and public debate. This study investigates claim-making on the so-called refugee crisis in the public sphere in three countries: Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It ask...
Chapter
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In this book, 30 contributions provide a comprehensive overview of theories and findings from research on political attitudes and political behaviour, subdivided into the fields of ‘political communication’, ‘political attitudes’, ‘political participation’, ‘voting behaviour’ and ‘methods’.
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The recent proliferation of online videos captured at the scene of news events begs the question: Do news videos have a meaningful impact on citizens’ political opinions and behaviors that is different than that of news articles? This was examined in an experiment using carefully matched videos and articles about the European refugee crisis. Findin...
Data
ONLINE_APPENDIX_(1) – Supplemental material for Start Spreading the News: A Comparative Experiment on the Effects of Populist Communication on Political Engagement in Sixteen European Countries
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The success of digital longforms in terms of readership and viral spread promotes an optimistic perspective on innovative web journalism with regard to the attention, engagement, and subsequent knowledge acquisition of citizens when consuming news. Since empirical evidence for such effects is scant, this experimental study focuses on visual aesthet...
Article
Although populist communication has become pervasive throughout Europe, many important questions on its political consequences remain unanswered. First, previous research has neglected the differential effects of populist communication on the Left and Right. Second, internationally comparative studies are missing. Finally, previous research mostly...
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To understand public opinion about immigration in Europe, one has to understand the media’s role in it. We present a literature review on research on media discourse on immigration and their effects. Despite differences in the way immigration and migrant groups are represented in European media, we can observe common patterns. Migrants are generall...
Article
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Human reasoning can be characterized by a continuum anchored by two extremes: fast, automatic, and emotional processing on the one side; versus slow, controlled and rational processing on the other. Despite theoretical linkages, no studies have empirically connected these types of information processing with the mechanisms of multimodal (visual and...
Article
This study investigates the causes of fluctuations in public concern about immigration and contends that issues emphasized in media coverage explain these fluctuations. Drawing on agenda-setting research and theories about issue attributes, it is argued that media emphasis on aspects of immigration that are likely to be unobtrusive but with potenti...
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Journalists increasingly fear that their work may be influenced by advertisers’ interests. While studies have found that commercial advertisers exert pressure on news producers, equivalent research on political advertising is scarce. Using a rigorous methodological approach, we investigate whether party advertising led to three different forms of m...