Hagop Akiskal

Hagop Akiskal
University of California, San Diego | UCSD

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493
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Publications

Publications (493)
Article
Background: Previous studies suggest that temperament features of adolescents may be good predictors of the development of future psychopathology in this population. The aim of the study was to adapt the content and validate the psychometric properties of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego - Auto-questionnaire in a s...
Preprint
Background: Previous studies suggest that temperament features of adolescents may be good predictors of the development of future psychopathology in this population. The aim of the study was to adapt the content and validate the psychometric properties of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego - Auto-questionnaire in a sa...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are increasingly concentring in immense cities of millions of inhabitants in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on...
Article
Full-text available
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on ma...
Article
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Introduction: It is our conviction that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation, lie at the psychopathological core of the Addictions. In this vision, we are confident that Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) has a specific psychopathology when compared with other mental disorders. Methods: We compared 972 HUD patients with 504 Major Depression (MD)...
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Background: Real-world practice forces us to deal with polydrug use disorders and addiction trajectories that show considerable heterogeneity. Several studies indicate a specific relationship between bipolar disorder and cocaine use disorder (CUD), whether in heroin use disorder (HUD) or in alcohol use disorder patients (AUD). Aims: This topic requ...
Article
Many studies show high prevalence of affective disorders in obese patients. Affective temperament is a subclinical manifestation of such conditions. The 5-HTT gene encoding the serotonin transporter may be involved in both mood and eating dysregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene on af...
Article
Akiskal proposed the "rule of three" for behavioral indicators with high specificity for bipolarity in patients with major depression episodes. We evaluated these distinctive behaviors in controls and subjects with major depression or bipolar disorder. data was collected in the BRAINSTEP project with questions on general behaviors, style and talent...
Article
Background: To determine if brain damage in Wilson’s Disease (WD) is different in comorbid Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BDs), comorbid Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or without any mood disorders. Methods: An observational study was conducted on consecutive patients from a center for WD care. The study sample was divided by psychiatric assessment...
Article
Background The short version of Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) is a useful instrument to measure affective temperaments. Aims of the present study are to validate the Chinese Version of the Short TEMPS-A, and to explore whether it could be useful to distinguish patients with mood disor...
Article
Objective:The study addressed whether a collaborative model for chronic care, described in part I (this issue), improves outcome for bipolar disorder.Methods:The intervention was designed to improve outcome by enhancing patient self-management skills with group psychoeducation; providing clinician decision support with simplified practice guideline...
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The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was t...
Article
The treatment of bipolar depression is one of the most challenging issues in contemporary psychiatry. Currently only quetiapine, the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination and recently lurasidone are officially FDA-approved against this condition. The neurobiology of bipolar depression and the possible targets of bipolar antidepressant therapy remain el...
Article
So far there is a scarce of studies dealing with the relationship between different aspects of aggressive behaviour and affective temperaments among various mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore in a group of patients with affective mood disorders the relationship between affective temperaments and aggression. 100 consecutive...
Article
Smoking behaviour and its course is influenced by personality factors. Affective temperaments could allow a more specific framework of the role trait affectivity plays in this seriously harmful health-behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate if such an association exists in an ageing population with a special emphasis on gender difference...
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Full-text available
Migraine is a common comorbidity among individuals with bipolar disorder, but the underlying mechanisms for this co-occurrence are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of bipolar patients with and without migraine. We performed a genome-wide association analysis contrasting 460 bipolar migraneurs with 9...
Article
Background The self-rated auto-questionnaire, the Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) is the latest development in the study of temperamental attributes. It has been used and validated in different cultures and countries. The current study aims at validating the Chinese (Cantonese) version of the TEMPS-A and comparing...
Article
Objectives We investigated the effect of co-morbid bipolar disorder and bulimia on temperamental dimensions measured by TEMPS-A, relative to “pure” bulimia and “pure” bipolar disorder, in female patients. Methods The study was performed on 47 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) with a mean age of 36±10 years, 96 patients with bulimia or bulimic ty...
Article
Background: Mood disorders (MD) are disabling conditions throughout the world associated with significant psychosocial impairment. Affective temperaments, as well as hopelessness, may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of MD. The present study was designed to characterize patients with MD for their prevalent affective temperament and l...
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Background Affective temperaments such as cyclothymia, which may be the fundamental substrates for bipolar disorder and bipolar II in particular, have been reported to be associated with abnormalities in the regions that are related to cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. However, few studies have examined the effects of affective temperaments o...
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The present study aimed at investigating the possible changes of some features of loving relationships during long-term treatment of depression with both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclics(TCAs), by means of aspecifically designed test, the so-called “Sex, Attachment, Love” (SALT) questionnaire. The sample was composed b...
Article
The current study evaluates the reliability and factor-structure replicability of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its Greek Version. The TEMPS-A was administered to a convenient sample of 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4% and 298 males; 40.6%). Their me...
Article
Bipolar patients seem to be at high risk of trauma exposure and, when exposed, of PTSD. When comorbid, PTSD has shown a negative impact on the course of the bipolar illness. Conversely, a correlation between even manic symptoms and an increased risk for suicide has also been reported in PTSD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the re...
Article
The purpose of this study is the presentation of the Italian version of TEMPS-A Rome (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire). The instrument was administered from 2005 to 2008, to 1,068 subjects, 539 males and 529 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 57 years. We verified the factor structure and provided t...
Article
The purpose of this study is the presentation of the Italian version of TEMPS-A Rome (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire). The instrument was administered from 2005 to 2008, to 1,068 subjects, 539 males and 529 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 57 years. We verified the factor structure and provided t...
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Full-text available
Introduction. The link between heroin addiction and bipolar disorder is generally accepted, both at the level of full-blown pathology and at the affective, temperamental level. Nevertheless, the nature of this relationship is still far from being elucidated. Aim. To verify whether the use of heroin in bipolar patients could lead to a faster progres...
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Objective: The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder...
Article
Importance: Although symptoms of irritability or anger are not central to the diagnosis of unipolar major depressive episodes (MDEs), these symptoms have been found, in cross-sectional studies, to be highly prevalent and associated with increased comorbidity and depressive illness burden. Objective: To determine the prevalence of overtly express...
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Kraepelin and Kretschmer hypothesized a continuum between full-blown affective pathology and premorbid temperaments. More recently Akiskal proposed a putative adaptive role for the four fundamental temperaments: the hyperthymic one characterized by emotional intensity, the cyclothymic one by emotional instability, the depressive one by a low energy...
Article
Panic attacks are thought to be a result from a dysfunctional coordination of cortical and brainstem sensory information leading to heightened amygdala activity with subsequent neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral activation. Prefrontal areas may be responsible for inhibitory top-down control processes and alpha synchronization seems to reflect...
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BACKGROUND: The many attempts to identify genes for bipolar disorder (BD) have met with limited success, which has generally been attributed to genetic heterogeneity and small gene effects. However, it is also possible that the categorical phenotypes used in genetic studies of BD are not the most informative or biologically relevant. We have explor...
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The frequency of the association between substance use and psychiatric disorders is higher than what might be expected as a result of chance alone; the most frequently associated psychiatric symptoms, syndromes and disorders pertain to the domains of mood, anxiety and impulsivity. There are several reasons for taking these psychiatric manifestation...
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In most cases, interactions between the brain and the external environment are controlled by a system in which external inputs tend to satisfy internal inputs, so leading to the extinction of the behaviours triggered by internal needs. In this way, a loss of interest extinguishes the search for pleasure. In some individuals, however, the tendency t...
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The scientific community has recently examined whether correlations exist between affective temperaments and substance abuse disorders. We will try to summarize what is presently known about the nature of these relationships. After reviewing the theory of affective temperaments of Akiskal and Mallya, we will discuss affective temperaments in heroin...
Article
Background: Affective disorders are highly disabling illnesses constituting a significant burden for the patients, their family and the society. Therefore, it would be very useful to find tools which carefully subtype these conditions and have a strong and reliable predictive power concerning the course of illness and health and social functioning...
Article
Untreated major affective disorders are strongly associated with suicidal behaviour; however, clinical, psychological and psycho-social risk factors also play a contributory role. Personal history and family history of suicide are also important predictors of suicidal behaviours, and are also a powerful marker of current major depressive episode in...
Article
BACKGROUND: The TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego) is a 110-item auto-questionnaire (self-rated) which consists of five temperament scales: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious temperaments. It has been translated into over 25 languages and validated in at least 12, with broad cross-cultura...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the individual pattern of affective temperaments, non-typical symptoms of depression as measured with the Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD), hopelessness and suicidal behavior in major mood disorder patients.Methods Participants were 346 adult inpatients (151 men and 195 women)...
Article
PTSD is one of the most frequently occurring sequelae in earthquake survivors and increasing literature has been focused on its potential risk factors. More recently increasing evidence has highlighted the onset of maladaptive behaviours in the same populations. The aim of the present study was to explore: 1) the role of degree of exposure ("direct...
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A recent survey put forward the hypothesis that the emigration that occurred from Sardinia from the 1960's to the 1980's, selected people with a hypomanic temperament. The paper aims to verify if the people who migrated from Sardinia in that period have shown a high risk of mood disorders in the surveys carried out in their host countries, and if t...
Article
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes are among the most frequently occurring natural disasters affecting the general population and inducing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Thus, increasing effort has been devoted to explore risk factors for PTSD onset after exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of gender, degree of exposur...
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Full-text available
Temperament is the stable core of personality and it may represent the underlying continuity between how the person typically is (trait) and how the person temporarily changes (state). Comorbid depression in patients with Type 2 diabetes is important because of the negative consequences on the prognosis of diabetes. Little research has explored the...
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Studies on the 'self-medication hypothesis' have focused on substance abuse as an attempt to alleviate emotional suffering. We have investigated concomitant substances of abuse in 150 bipolar heroin addicts clustered according to their clinical presentation at treatment entry (depressive episode, hypomanic episode, manic episode and mixed episode)....
Article
Background: The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Questionnaire (TEMPS) has, in its self and rater-wise evaluation form, been designed to evaluate temperamental characteristics in clinical and non-clinical populations. Methods: In this study we aim to extend the field of correlations of TEMPS to include the Occupat...
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Full-text available
Major depression, depressive symptoms, distress with diabetes and psychological adjustment to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are somehow overlapping constructs with shared covariance. Nevertheless, diabetes distress remains the most prevalent long-lasting factor associated with hyperglycemia in T2DM. This ought to be taken on account when treatment is plan...
Article
BACKGROUND: Temperament appears to be a factor involved in professional attitudes. The most impressive findings are those on the importance of cyclothymia in art and of hyperthymia in leadership. AIM: In this study we raise the issue of whether the relationship between hyperthymic temperament and the choice of a military career, previously reported...
Article
BACKGROUND: TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire) is a self-rated instrument that measures five affective temperaments: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious. The aim of our study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovenian TEMPS-A and to ascertain if tem...