Hackwon Do

Hackwon Do
Korea Polar Research Institute | KOPRI · Department of Biology

Ph.D.

About

56
Publications
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659
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Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), originating from Arctic or Antarctic microorganisms, have freeze-inhibiting characteristics, allowing these organisms to survive in polar regions. Despite their significance in polar environments, the mechanism through which IBPs affect the chemical reactions in ice by controlling ice crystal formation has not yet been...
Article
Full-text available
Ester prodrugs can develop novel antibiotics and have potential therapeutic applications against multiple drug-resistant bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of these prodrugs is activated after being cleaved by the esterases produced by the pathogen. Here, novel esterase ScEst originating from Staphylococcus chromogenes NCTC10530, which causes dai...
Article
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are well-characterized proteins responsible for the cold-adaptation mechanisms. Despite extensive structural and biological investigation of IBPs and antifreeze proteins, only a few studies have considered the relationship between protein stabilization and thermal hysteresis (TH) activity as well as the implication of hy...
Article
A gene encoding LgEstI was cloned from a bacterial fish pathogen, Lactococcus garvieae. Sequence and bioinformatic analysis revealed that LgEstI is close to the acetyl esterase family and had maximum similarity to a hydrolase (UniProt: Q5UQ83) from Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). Here, we present the results of LgEstI overexpression and pu...
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Peptidoglycan digestion by murein-degrading enzymes is a critical process in bacterial cell growth and/or cell division. The membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase A (MltA) is a murein-degrading enzyme; it catalyzes the cleavage of the β-1,4-glycosidic linkage between N -acetylmuramic acid and N -acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycans. Although...
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MarR family proteins regulate the transcription of multiple antibiotic-resistance genes and are widely found in bacteria and archaea. Recently, a new MarR family gene was identified by genome analysis of the psychrophilic bacterium Paenisporosarcina sp. TG-14, which was isolated from sediment-laden basal ice in Antarctica. In this study, the crysta...
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The bacterial CYP105 family is involved in secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways and plays essential roles in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. This study investigates the newly identified H2O2-mediated CYP105D18 from Streptomyces laurentii as the first bacterial CYP for N-oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of CYP105D18 for papaverine N-o...
Article
7α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) catalyzes the dehydrogenation of a hydroxyl group at the 7α position in steroid substrates using NAD+ or NADP+ as a co-factor. Although studies have determined the binary and ternary complex structures, detailed structural changes induced by ligand and co-factor binding remain unclear, because ligand-free s...
Article
Citrate synthase (CS) catalyzes the formation of citrate and coenzyme A from acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. CS exists in two forms: type I and type II. We determined the citrate-bound crystal structure of type II CS from the Hymenobacter sp. PAMC 26554 bacterium (HyCS; isolated from Antarctic lichen). Citrate molecules bound to a cleft between the la...
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This report deals with the purification, characterization, and a preliminary crystallographic study of a novel cold-active esterase (HaEst1) from Halocynthiibacter arcticus. Primary sequence analysis reveals that HaEst1 has a catalytic serine in G-x-S-x-G motif. The recombinant HaEst1 was cloned, expressed, and purified. SDS-PAGE and zymographic an...
Article
Humic substances (HS) in soil are widely distributed in cold environments and account for a significant fraction of soil’s organic carbon. Bacterial strains (n = 281) were isolated at 15 °C using medium containing humic acids (HA), a principal component of HS, from a variety of polar soil samples: 217 from the Antarctic and 64 from the Arctic. We i...
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The expression of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes represents a survival strategy of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Aminoglycoside 2′-N-acetyltransferase [AAC(2′)] neutralizes aminoglycoside drugs by acetylation of their 2′ amino groups in an acetyl coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent manner. To understand the structural features and molecular mechanism und...
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Hormone sensitive lipase is a central enzyme in triacylglycerol hydrolysis, lipid modification, and transformation of various lipids. Microbial hormone-sensitive lipases, which are highly similar to a catalytic domain of mammalian equivalents, have attracted strong attention due to their application potentials. Here, characterization and a prelimin...
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Colonization by pathogenic bacteria depends on their ability to overcome host nutritional defenses and acquire nutrients. The human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS) encounters host defense factor calprotectin (CP) during infection. CP inhibits GAS growth in vitro by imposing zinc (Zn) limitation. However, GAS counterstrategies to combat CP-medi...
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Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an abundant component of plants and acts as a strong and active antioxidant. In order to maintain the antioxidative capacity of AsA, the rapid regeneration of AsA is regulated by dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR). To understand how MDHAR functions under extreme temperature conditions...
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Bacteria control gene expression in concert with their population density by a process called quorum sensing, which is modulated by bacterial chemical signals and environmental factors. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, production of secreted virulence factor SpeB is controlled by a quorum-sensing pathway and environmental pH. The quoru...
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Pathogenic bacteria encounter host-imposed manganese (Mn) limitation during infection. Herein we report that in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the adaptive response to Mn limitation is controlled by a DtxR family metalloregulator, MtsR. Genes upregulated by MtsR during Mn limitation include Mn (mtsABC) and Fe acquisition systems (sia op...
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Streptococcus pyogenes causes 700 million human infections annually worldwide, yet, despite a century of intensive effort, there is no licensed vaccine against this bacterium. Although a number of large-scale genomic studies of bacterial pathogens have been published, the relationships among the genome, transcriptome, and virulence in large bacteri...
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Bacterial virulence factor production is a highly coordinated process. The temporal pattern of bacterial gene expression varies in different host anatomic sites to overcome niche-specific challenges. The human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS) produces a potent secreted protease, SpeB, that is crucial for pathogenesis. Recently, we discovered th...
Article
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Enzymes isolated from organisms found in cold habitats generally exhibit higher catalytic activity at low temperatures than their mesophilic homologs and are therefore known as cold-active enzymes. Cold-active proteases are very useful in a variety of biotechnological applications, particularly as active ingredients in laundry and dishwashing deter...
Data
Improvement of Pro21717-CD stability. (PDF)
Data
Effects of the substrate pocket size on Pro21717-CD activity. (PDF)
Data
Box–Behnken optimization of significant enzyme stabilizers. (PDF)
Data
Homodimerization of Pro21717-CD. (PDF)
Data
Kinetic parameters of Pro21717-CD and subtilisin Carlsberg activity against azocasein at various temperatures. (PDF)
Article
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Successful pathogens use complex signaling mechanisms to monitor their environment and reprogram global gene expression during specific stages of infection. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major human pathogen that causes significant disease burden worldwide. A secreted cysteine protease known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is a key...
Article
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There is an urgent need for a human vaccine to protect against diseases caused by human pathogen, group A streptococcus (GAS). Herein, we identified the key molecular players involved in the battle between the host and invading bacteria for the critical nutrient zinc. The host recruits calprotectin at GAS infection sites to limit zinc availability...
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Ascorbic acid (AsA) maintains redox homeostasis by scavenging reactive oxygen species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, especially plants. The enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) regenerates AsA by catalysing the reduction of monodehydroascorbate, using NADH or NADPH as an electron donor. The detailed recycling mechanism of MDHAR remains un...
Article
The members of RRNPP family of bacterial regulators sense population density-specific secreted oligopeptides and modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular processes, such as sporulation, competence, virulence, biofilm formation, conjugative plasmid transfer and antibiotic resistance. Signaling by RRNPP regulators includes several steps:...
Article
The gene product of dddC (Uniprot code G5CZI2), from the Gram-negative marine bacterium Oceanimonas doudoroffii, is a methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (OdoMMSDH) enzyme. MMSDH is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily, and it catalyzes the NADdependent decarboxylation of methylmalonate semialdehyde to propionyl-CoA. We determin...
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Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme involved in the recycling of ascorbate, which catalyses the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of oxidized ascorbate (dehydroascorbate, DHA). As a result, DHAR regenerates a pool of reduced ascorbate and detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS). In previous experiments involving transgenic rice,...
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Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an exclusive human pathogen that causes significant disease burden. Global regulator RopB of GAS controls the expression of several major virulence factors including secreted protease SpeB during high cell density. However, the molecular mechanism for RopB-dependent speB expression remains unclear. To understand the m...
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The psychrophilic organism Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H produces extracellular polysaccharide substances to tolerate cold environments. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) is essential for producing Dglycero-D-mannoheptose 7-phosphate, a key mediator in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. We determined the crystal structure...
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The ubiX gene of Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H encodes a 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxylase (CpsUbiX, UniProtKB code: Q489U8) that is involved in the third step of the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway and harbors a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as a potential cofactor. Here, we report the crystal structures of two forms of CpsUbiX: an F...
Chapter
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Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are proteins that have the ability to bind to ice crystals and inhibit the growth of ice. It is generally accepted that AFPs may protect cell membranes from freezing injury via the inhibition of ice recrystallization, thereby increasing the survival of psychrophilic microorganism at sub-zero temperatures. Screening of ant...
Article
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Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is a key enzyme in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification system of plants. The participation of MDHAR in ascorbate (AsA) recycling in the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is important in the acquired tolerance of crop plants to abiotic environmental stresses. Thus, MDHAR represents a strategi...
Article
Antifreeze proteins (AFP) inhibit ice growth to permit the survival of polar organisms in the cold environments. The recombinant AFP from an Antarctic bacterium, Flavobacterium frigoris PS1, FfIBP (Flavobacterium frigoris ice-binding protein), was produced using Pichia pastoris expression system. The optimum fermentation temperature (30^{\circ}C) a...
Article
Since the antifreeze protein (AFP) super family has low structural identity, classification standard of the AFPs is presently ambiguous. Newly identified ice-binding proteins (IBPs), named so after the function of the AFPs, have similar structural identity and function that interact to the ice. Identification and characterization of IBPs from the e...
Article
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Dehydroascorbate reductase from Oryza sativa L. japonica (OsDHAR), a key enzyme in the regeneration of vitamin C, maintains reduced pools of ascorbic acid to detoxify reactive oxygen species. In previous studies, the overexpression of OsDHAR in transgenic rice increased grain yield and biomass as well as the amount of ascorbate, suggesting that asc...
Article
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Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) inhibit ice growth through direct interaction with ice crystals to permit the survival of polar organisms in extremely cold environments. FfIBP is an ice-binding protein encoded by the Antarctic bacterium Flavobacterium frigoris PS1. The X-ray crystal structure of FfIBP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution to gain insight...
Article
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The ubiX gene (UniProtKB code Q489U8) of Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H has been annotated as a putative flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent aromatic acid decarboxylase. Based on previous studies of homologous proteins, CpsUbiX is thought to catalyze the decarboxylation of 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate to produce 2-polyprenylphenol in the...
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Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6, isolated from a culture of the Antarctic green alga Pyramimonas gelidicola, is a psychrotolerant bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into the mutualistic interaction between microalgae and bacteria in sea ice, as well as the cold adaptation mechanisms of bacteri...
Article
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The putative lipase CpsLip from the psychrophilic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H encodes a 34 538 Da, 308-amino-acid protein. In this study, CpsLip (UniProtKB code Q486T5) was expressed as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. The expression and purificati...
Article
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Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and glycoproteins (AFGPs), collectively called AF(G)Ps, constitute a diverse class of proteins found in various Arctic and Antarctic fish, as well as in amphibians, plants, and insects. These compounds possess the ability to inhibit the formation of ice and are therefore essential to the survival of many marine teleost fi...
Article
Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6, isolated from a culture of the Antarctic green alga Pyramimonas gelidicola, is a psychrotolerant bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into the mutualistic interaction between microalgae and bacteria in sea ice, as well as the cold adaptation mechanisms of bacteri...
Article
Full-text available
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) can bind to the ice crystal and inhibit its growth. Because this property of IBPs can increase the freeze-thaw survival of cells, IBPs have attracted the attention from industries for their potential use in biotechnological applications. However, their use was largely hampered by the lack of the large-scale recombinant p...
Article
The ice binding protein (IBP) is a prerequisite material for organisms to be able to live in a subzero environment. Ice growth in a cold environment is fatal for organisms, is not only due to physical destruction of inner cell organelles, but also chemical damage such an osmotic shock. IBP has the ability to inhibit ice growth by binding to specifi...
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An additional acknowledgement is published for the article by Do et al. [(2012) Acta Cryst. F 68 , 806–809].
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Ice growth in a cold environment is fatal for polar organisms, not only because of the physical destruction of inner cell organelles but also because of the resulting chemical damage owing to processes such as osmotic shock. The properties of ice-binding proteins (IBPs), which include antifreeze proteins (AFPs), have been characterized and IBPs exh...
Article
Previously, we reported the ice-binding protein (LeIBP) from the Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. AY30. In this study we provide physicochemical characterization of this IBP, which belongs to a class of IBPs that exhibited no significant similarity in primary structure to other known antifreeze proteins (AFPs). We compared native, glycosylated and n...
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Arctic yeast Leucosporidium sp. produces a glycosylated ice-binding protein (LeIBP) with a molecular mass of ∼25 kDa, which can lower the freezing point below the melting point once it binds to ice. LeIBP is a member of a large class of ice-binding proteins, the structures of which are unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of non-glycosyl...