Habiba Bougherara

Habiba Bougherara
Ryerson University · Department of Mechanical Engineering

Professor Mechanical Engineering

About

163
Publications
39,733
Reads
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2,765
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2007 - April 2020
Ryerson University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (163)
Article
A finite element model that incorporates a 3D progressive fatigue damage model (3D PFDM) is developed to simulate the fatigue behavior of Flax-epoxy (FE) composites. Input parameters of the model are determined from testing the material properties in all directions. A double-notched shear test is used to characterize the out-of-plane shear properti...
Article
Many engineering applications using composite materials require an assembly of components which can be accomplished using adhesives, welding, or fasteners. The last requires the machining of holes, which are usually done via conventional drilling or abrasive water jet process. The choice of the machining process is important because it has a direct...
Article
Recent research showed that strain-controlled (constant strain-amplitude) cycling may be ideal for natural-fibre-composite (NFC) fatigue testing, since enforcing constant strain-rates eliminate the apparent modulus ‘improvement’ reported by several stress-controlled studies. This article re-examines Flax-reinforcement as an alternative to Glass by...
Article
Aseptic loosening due to the progressive periprosthetic bone resorption following total hip replacement is a crucial concern, that causes complications and failure of the arthroplasty surgery. The mismatch in stiffness between the hip implant and the surrounding femoral bone is one of the key factors leading to bone density resorption. This paper a...
Article
This is a study to quantify damage progression of a new Kevlar/flax/epoxy (KFE) hybrid composite made with 12 layers of pure flax fiber fabric sandwiched between 4 layers of pure Kevlar fiber weave. There were four versions of the composite: 0° unidirectional, 0°/90° cross-ply, ± 45° angle-ply flax fibers, and Kevlar fibers-only as the control. Com...
Article
Full-text available
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most popular and ubiquitous additive manufacturing methods, which uses a layering procedure to build 3D models layers-upon-layers. Since the layers are the constituents of the resulted 3D part, the layering process can directly affect the part’s surface finish and mechanical properties, which are the tw...
Article
The influence of conventional drilling (CD) and abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining on the mechanical behavior of hybrid carbon/flax composites was investigated. The specimens were manufactured using woven carbon fiber (C) and unidirectional flax fiber (F) in three configurations: unidirectional [0-90C2/0F6]S, cross-ply [0-90C2/(0/90)F6]S, and angle...
Article
The influence of the drilling parameters and the stacking sequence of flax/epoxy composite laminate on the cutting force and the damage induced were studied experimentally and numerically. Drilling tests were carried out based on full experimental design and the delamination at the entry and exit of the hole were quantified using an optical microsc...
Article
In this study, we demonstrate a design of a stable bi-layer coating configuration on UHMWPE fibres surface. UHMWPE fibres show abundant promise as load bearing reinforcement in fibre-based composites; however, its inert chemical nature has been a consistent hurdle for developing high performance composites. An efficient and environmentally friendly...
Article
The impact behaviour of woven kevlar fibre/flax fibre/epoxy (WK-F-E) hybrid composites that is made of 12 layers of flax fibres (F) sandwitched in 4 layers of plain-woven Kevlar 49 fibres (WK) is investigated via the use of two configurations: woven Kevlar/unidirectional flax/epoxy [0-902K/06F]S (WK-UDF-E) and woven Kevlar/cross-ply flax/epoxy [0-9...
Article
Full-text available
This paper experimentally examines the influence of abrasive water jet (AWJ) machined holes on the mechanical performance and damage evolution of flax/epoxy and carbon/flax/epoxy hybrid composites. The specimens were made of unidirectional flax fiber (F) and woven carbon fiber (C) in four configurations: unidirectional flax [0 F]16 (UD-F), unidirec...
Article
This is the first study on the fatigue tensile performance of a novel hybrid composite made as Type A (i.e. woven carbon fibers plus unidirectional flax fibers [W C2 /0 F12 /W C2 ]) or Type B (i.e. woven carbon fibers plus oblique flax fibers [W C2 /(±45) F6S /W C2 ]) in epoxy resin. Composite plates were examined under constant strain amplitude us...
Article
This research work presents a comparative study of the tensile properties of polylactic acid (PLA) specimens per ASTM D638-14 fabricated by compression molding and 3D printing. PLA pellets from one batch are used in compression molding and filament extrusion for 3D printing. The compression molding process parameters are optimized to obtain an uppe...
Article
A finite element model that incorporates the progressive fatigue damage model (PFDM) is developed to predict the fatigue life of Flax-epoxy composites with [0]16, [90]16, [0/90]4S, [±45]4S and Quasi-isotropic [0/+45/90/-45]2S layups under strain-controlled conditions. A stochastic distribution method is used to consider the manufacturing-induced va...
Article
This finite element study optimized far cortical locking (FCL) technology for early callus formation in distal femur fracture fixation with a 9-hole plate using FCL screws proximal to, and standard locking screws distal to, the fracture. Analyses were done for 120 possible FCL screw configurations by varying FCL screw distribution and number. A hip...
Article
The use of temporary hip prosthesis made of orthopedic cement (spacer) in conjunction with antibiotics became a widespread method used for treating prosthetic infections despite the fact that this method makes bone cement (PMMA) more fragile. The necessity to incorporate reinforcement is therefore crucial to strengthen the bone cement. In this stud...
Article
Compressive mechanical testing was performed on continuous fiber Flax/Epoxy laminate specimens, capturing, and quantifying its evolving in-plane plasticity and moduli. This non-linear behaviour was simulated using a modified continuum damage mechanics-based model. The standard Mesoscale Damage Theory (MDT) of Ladeveze and Le Dantec was modified to...
Article
This proof-of-concept study designs distal femur fracture plates from semi-rigid materials vs. traditional metals for toe-touch weight-bearing recommended to patients immediately after surgery. The two-fold goal was to (a) reduce stress shielding (SS) by increasing cortical bone stress thereby reducing the risk of bone absorption and plate loosenin...
Article
The mode II interlaminar fracture toughness characteristics of flax/glass/epoxy hybrid laminates were experimentally and numerically examined. Three types of hybrid composites that are made of flax (F) and glass (G) and with different layup sequences (i.e., Hybrid I [0 G/0 F]8S, Hybrid II [04G/04F]S, and Hybrid III [04G/(90/0)2F]S) were investigate...
Article
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber is considered as an ideal reinforcing component due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, good toughness and high chemical and wear resistance. However, poor interfacial adhesion with polymer matrices has hindered the development of UHMWPE-based composites with high performance. This review is...
Article
This study provides the first biomechanical comparison of the fixation constructs that can be created to treat transverse acetabular fractures when using the “gold-standard” posterior versus the anterior approach with and without a total hip arthroplasty in the elderly. Synthetic hemipelvises partially simulating osteoporosis (n = 24) were osteotom...
Article
Natural fibers are inexpensive, biodegradable, and similar specific properties to some synthetic fibers. Hardly any previous investigations exist of a composite made of multiple layers of pure Kevlar fiber fabric and pure Flax fiber fabric in a “sandwich structure”, but it only measured impact properties. The composite was made of 12 Flax/epoxy lay...
Article
Metallic intramedullary nails are the “gold standard” implant for repairing femur shaft fractures. However, their rigidity may eliminate axial micromotion at the fracture (causing delayed healing) and they may carry too much load relative to the femur (causing “stress shielding”). Consequently, some researchers have proposed fiber-reinforced compos...
Article
Fatigue longevity and evolving material properties of Flax-epoxy laminates is examined under constant strain amplitude cycling. Several recent fatigue studies on Flax-composites, all of which were conducted under stress-control, found that certain laminates demonstrate a modulus increase over fatigue life, even while accumulating internal damage an...
Article
Composites reinforced with plant‐based fibers present a high potential for valorization in new industrial applications due to their good specific mechanical characteristics, renewability, and recyclability. In order to accelerate their wide industry adoption, it is critical to assess their behavior and durability in heat and humid environments. Thi...
Article
Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the mechanical characteristics of flax-based laminates to understand their behaviour under different loading conditions; however, doing so required significant investment in time, money and other resources. An alternative solution is to use advanced numerical and computational tools like FEA. In this s...
Article
Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the gold standard biomaterial used as a bearing surface in total joint replacement surgeries. However, osteolysis and subsequent implant failure as a result of the production of wear debris may occur at the contacting surfaces. One potential solution to overcome this problem is to strengthen the...
Article
Damage under progressive load–unload until failure was assessed for a new woven carbon fibre/flax fibre/epoxy hybrid composite via stiffness degradation D, permanent strain ɛp, and crack density ρc. Type A configuration had woven carbon fibres and unidirectional flax fibres (i.e. [0–90C2/0F12/0–90C2]), while Type B configuration had woven carbon fi...
Article
This study characterized the static and fatigue compressive properties of a new hybrid composite material made of synthetic and natural fibers with an epoxy matrix. The glass/flax/epoxy composite material was manufactured as a “sandwich structure” with a Type A configuration (i.e. [0 G2 /0 F12 /0 G2 ] using unidirectional glass (G) and flax (F) fib...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter was aimed to enlighten readers on topics concerning machining natural fiber composites, mainly drilling. This study summarizes the challenges faced during machining natural fiber composites and defects observed. Delamination (both entry and exit), burrs, uncut fibers, fiber matrix debonding and uncut fibers are the predominant damage t...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation assessed the biomechanical performance of the metal plate and bone strut technique for fixing recalcitrant nonunions of femur midshaft segmental defects, which has not been systematically done before. A finite element (FE) model was developed and then validated by experiments with the femur in 15 deg of adduction at a subclinical...
Article
This study is the first to characterize the impact properties of a new hybrid composite made with woven carbon fibres plus unidirectional (i.e. Type A) or cross-ply (i.e. Type B) flax fibres in an epoxy matrix. A pendulum impact tester applied a range of impact energies (5–40 J) to a series composite plates, which were assessed using photographic,...
Article
This study characterized the mechanical, morphological, and water absorption properties of a new hybrid composite material made of a Type A configuration (i.e. [0–90C2/0F12/0–90C2]) of 4 harness satin woven carbon fibres (i.e. alternating fibre bundles in a 3 over/1 under weave with bundles at 0° and 90°) plus commercially designated “unidirectiona...
Article
Purpose: To compare the stresses at bone-arthroplasty interface of constrained and semi-constrained knee prostheses, using the finite element (FE) method as a predictor of the survivorship of the implants. Methods: Three-dimensional FE models of the knee implanted with rotating hinge (RHK) and legacy constrained condylar (LCCK) prostheses were g...
Article
With the resurgence of natural fibers as a viable alternative to synthetic fibers, there is a need to study their mechanical behaviour under different modes of loading. In this research, flax/epoxy composite laminates were manufactured and tested under low velocity impact loading to study the damage development on the laminates and assess their cap...
Article
Full-text available
This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to simultaneously perform a direct comparison of finite element analysis, strain gage measurements, and infrared thermography for stress analysis under both static and dynamics tensile loads of the classic geometry of a composite plate with a center hole. The plate was made from a carbon fiber-rei...
Article
In this paper, the dynamic response of functionally graded nanocomposite beams under the action of a moving load are investigated. Three different types of Carbon NanoTubes (CNT's) distributions in a polymer matrix material are studied; Uniform Distribution (UD), Symmetrically Functionally Graded (SFG) distribution and Unsymmetrically Functionally...
Article
Full-text available
Existing extension–twist coupling in composite tubes can result in undesirable deformations, which may in turn interfere with their normal performance. In this work, a quantitative factor was developed to examine the existence of such coupling in circular composite tubes using the non-classical composite beam theory. The theoretical formulation con...
Article
Full-text available
A novel micromechanical approach is proposed to calculate the effective thermal conductivities of fiber reinforced composite materials. The key advantage of the present formulation is its ability to yield closed form solutions for the effective thermal conductivity of composites in both longitudinal and transverse directions for three dimensional h...
Article
Full-text available
This is the first study to quantify the measurement error due to the physical thickness of Fujifilm for several material combinations relevant to orthopaedics. Theoretical and experimental analyses were conducted for cylinder-on-flat indentation over a series of forces (750 and 3000 N), cylinder diameters (0 to 80 mm), and material combinations (me...
Article
Acetabular fractures potentially account for up to half of all pelvic fractures, while pelvic fractures potentially account for over one-tenth of all human bone fractures. This is the first biomechanical study to assess acetabular fracture fixation using plates versus cables in the presence of a total hip arthroplasty, as done for the elderly. In P...
Article
The influence of conventional drilling (CD) and abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting on the fatigue performance of carbon fabric/epoxy plates was investigated. Observations of machined hole regions revealed more severe damage on the CD hole surfaces with larger damage regions penetrating into the material. For both material systems investigated, the su...
Article
A continuum damage mechanics based mesoscale model is developed within a thermodynamics framework to describe the in-plane tensile response in natural fibre composites. The standard Mesoscale Damage Theory (MDT) is modified to incorporate damage and inelasticity evolution in the fibre-direction, thereby capturing the unique nonlinear fibre-directio...
Chapter
Human articulating joints (e.g., shoulder, hip, knee) are junctions of two cartilage-covered bones moving against each other at a common interface. Joints help transfer loads from bone to bone to permit human movement. However, osteoarthritis is a disease that damages cartilage, resulting in bone-on-bone articulation, which is painful and debilitat...
Chapter
Experimental stress analysis of whole bones, implants, and whole bone–implant constructs is an important approach in orthopaedic biomechanics. High stresses in whole bones and implants may cause mechanical failure, but low stresses in whole bone may cause “stress shielding,” which leads to bone atrophy, bone resorption, and implant loosening. Surfa...
Article
Conservative hip implants preserve healthy bone for revision surgeries and improve physiological loading; however, they have little supporting biomechanical data with respect to their 3D orientation during implantation. This study endeavored to determine the optimal 3D orientation of a straight short stem hip implant within the proximal femur that...
Article
Composite reinforcement by natural fibres like Flax do not enjoy the same popularity in engineering design as Carbon or Glass fibres on account of the relatively immature mechanical data on Flax-composites. Tensile and compressive mechanical properties are determined for Flax-fibre-reinforced-Epoxy composite. Damaged response is followed through SE...
Article
Unstable intertrochanteric fractures are commonly treated with a cephalomedullary nail due to high failure rates with a sliding hip screw. The Omega3 Trochanteric Stabilizing Plate is a relatively new device that functions like a modified sliding hip screw with a proximal extension; however, its mechanical properties have not been evaluated. This s...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical feasibility of a hybrid Glass/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture fixation such as fracture plates. These hybrid composite plates have a sandwich structure in which the outer layers are made of Glass/Epoxy and the core from Flax/Epoxy. This configuration resulted in a unique str...
Article
Short-stem hip implants are increasingly common since they preserve host bone stock and presumably reduce stress shielding by improving load distribution in the proximal femur. Stress shielding may lead to decreased bone density, implant loosening, and fracture. However, few biomechanical studies have examined short-stem hip implants. The purpose o...
Article
This chapter discusses the influence of the machining process and machining parameters during machining of composite materials. In the first time, the chapter summarizes reviews of the machining processes and its impact on the mechanical behavior of composite materials. In the second time, a characterization of the surface defects induced by differ...
Article
Although bone fracture plates can provide appropriate stability at the fracture site and lead to early patient mobilization, they significantly change the loading pattern in the bone after union (Stress shielding). This phenomenon results in a bone density decrease, which may cause premature failure of the implant. This paper presents the first stu...
Article
In this research paper, the influence of two drilling processes on the mechanical behavior of bolted composite joints was investigated. Two stacking sequences were studied namely, [±45°]2S and [90/+45/0/−45]S. The composite specimens were drilled using conventional machining (CM) and abrasive water-jet machining (AWJM). Fatigue tests combined with...
Article
Full-text available
The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-rei...
Article
The present study introduces a progressive fatigue damage model within a multiscale framework by incorporating a Simplified Unit Cell Micromechanical model into a Finite Element program. The use of micromechanics will allow the study of damage at the micro-scale which can therefore identify modes of failure in each of the composite’s constituents,...
Patent
Full-text available
A composition suitable for bone replacement is provided. The composition is a nanocomposite matrix, resembling both the structure and the properties of natural bone, including morphology, composition and mechanical characteristics. The nanocomposite is preferably porous and comprises:(1) micro or nano scale cellulose crystals or fibres;(2) hydr...
Article
Full-text available
Cisplatin (CisPt) is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic dr...
Article
The main objective of this preliminary investigation is to identify and characterize the damage evolution of angle ply ([±45] 16 ) flax-reinforced epoxy composites using an energy-based damage model combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations. The damage model’s parameters for the flax-reinforced epoxy composite were determined fr...
Article
This study is part of an ongoing program to develop a new CF/Flax/Epoxy bone fracture plate to be used in orthopedic trauma applications. The purpose was to determine this new plate's in-vitro effects on the level of bone formation genes, as well as cell viability in comparison with a medical grade metal (i.e. stainless steel) commonly employed for...
Chapter
The main objective of this preliminary investigation is to identify and characterize the damage evolution of angle ply ([±45]16) flax-reinforced epoxy composites using an energy-based damage model combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations. The damage model’s parameters for the flax-reinforced epoxy composite were determined from...
Article
The viscoelastic behavior of a RP46 polyimide resin is characterized at high temperature and the results are used within a micromechanical model to predict the viscoelastic response of a RP46 based carbon fiber composite. The creep master curve of the neat resin is obtained using the time temperature superposition principle (TTSP) from creep tests...
Conference Paper
Periprosthetic bone loss following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a serious concern leading to the premature failure of implant. Based on Wolff's law, a stiff prosthesis induces a huge bone loss at the vicinity of the implant. Therefore, designing flexible implants and investigating its effect on bone remodeling process is of paramount for the pur...
Conference Paper
Intramedullary (IM) nails are the primary choice for treating long bone fractures. Yet, there are still complications following IM nail surgery including non-union, delayed union, and fracture of the bone or the implant. Reducing the stiffness of the nail while maintaining sufficient stability seems to be the ideal solution to overcome the abovemen...
Article
Full-text available
A coating of Nylon 6,6 or 6,12 was used to improve the penetration resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric that would be potentially useful in the manufacture of flexible body armor against spike/knife threats. Quasi-static test results for the spike penetrator showed a 77% and 86% improvement in the puncture resistan...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intramedullary nails are the primary choice for treating long bone fractures. However, complications following nail surgery including non-union, delayed union, and fracture of the bone or the implant still exist. Reducing nail stiffness while still maintaining sufficient stability seems to be the ideal solution to overcome the abovemen...