H. H. W. Velthuis

H. H. W. Velthuis
Utrecht University | UU · retired from Comparative Physiology Dept

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104
Publications
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4,126
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
1113 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
In Apis mellifera mellifera the ovary of a worker bee possesses on the average three to five ovarioles, although the maximum number may be much higher (up to 21). The development of the ovaries is influenced by several environmental factors and by innate factors as well. One of these innate factors is the number of ovarioles. In an experimental pop...
Article
It is claimed that Perizin, a pesticide to control the mite Varroa jacobsoni, acts systemically and is distributed by trophallaxis of the bees. We studied the role of trophallactic interactions in the distribution of coumaphos, the active ingredient, among the colony members and whether coumaphos can reach all mites by systemic activity. Colonies w...
Article
The proportions of males produced by queens or workers of Scaptotrigona depilis, and the sex-ratio in the brood, were estimated. Thirteen young combs were collected; from one half of each comb the cells were opened and the number of eggs per cell was recorded. Later, upon maturation, from the other halves of the combs the individual inside each cel...
Article
The development of about 20 relatively small nests of Xylocopa pubescens was studied. After the first offspring had become adult, these nests reached a social stage in which there was only one egg-layer per nest.Freshly emerged (teneral) adults eat a lot of food, collected by a forager, before they fly out of the nest. This food appears to be of ma...
Article
Observations were made on territoriality of ♂♂ of the Brazilian carpenter bee Xylocopa hirsutissima. These territories are found on mountain tops where the ♂♂ hover from 4–6 p.m. in close vicinity of an optical beacon, being a protruding shrub or little tree. Territories are defended against other ♂♂Production of a pheromone by the mandibular gland...
Article
Full-text available
The collection of pollen, nectar and building materials of five Melipona species from the Amazon forest was studied during the dry and rainy seasons. Pollen collection took place mainly in the dry season and occurred in the early morning. The peak in pollen collection was syn- chronised for four species. The bees collected pollen probably from the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews a century of progress in techniques of bumblebee rearing, starting with those used to encourage bumblebee queens to initiate a colony in artificial domiciles and including those needed for the commercial production of large numbers of colonies for the pollination of agricultural crops. Five species of bumblebees are currently use...
Article
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The stingless bee Melipona bicolor is facultatively polygynous, a unique character among the bees. Polygynous colonies were not more productive than monogynous colonies. During the process of provisioning and oviposition of cells (POP) a queen may be either alone or together with one or two other queens. If together, each queen has on average the s...
Article
Full-text available
The behaviour during the provisioning and oviposition process (POP) of three species of Amazonian Melipona bees, native in Acre, are compared: M. crinita, M. eburnea fuscopilosa and M. grandis. The POP of the stingless bees is considered to contain a number of ritualized behavioural elements. This means that during evolution a functional shift has...
Article
Full-text available
Female behaviour in social Hymenoptera and the queen-worker conflict with respect to male production have been the focus of many studies. Although male production is an investment that is in conflict with investment in colony size, males play a vital role in colony reproduction. This paper reviews the production patterns of male stingless bees, the...
Chapter
Overview of the parasitoid wasp family Bethylidae in The Netherlands. A summary of the present knowledge is given on distribution, habitat, biology and taxonomy of the species found in this country since the end of the Nineteenth Century (Dutch language only).
Book
Full-text available
The aculeate wasps and ants of the Netherlands The wasps en ants (Hymenoptera Aculeata excusive of the Apidae) constitute a significant portion of the Dutch fauna comprising in all some 469 species. This book gives a general account in the Dutch language of the current knowledge of the ecology, behaviour, evolutionary history, diversity, threats an...
Book
Full-text available
THE ACULEATE WASPS AND ANTS OF THE NETHERLANDS The wasps en ants (Hymenoptera Aculeata excusive of the Apidae) constitute a significant portion of the Dutch fauna comprising in all some 469 species. This book gives a general account in the Dutch language of the current knowledge of the ecology, behaviour, evolutionary history, diversity, threats an...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of sex allocation in bumblebees have been enigmatic and difficult to interpret in either a Fisherian context or in a kin-selection perspective. We gathered data on several hundred laboratory-reared colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and analyzed sex allocation as a function of diapause duration and a series of variables describing...
Article
There are >730 species of Xylocopa, mostly found in the tropics or subtropics. This review examines nesting activity, flower associations and natural enemies, and interactions between conspecifics are discussed in relation to mating and sociality. Carpenter bees are viewed as K-selected species that may use a range of intraspecific strategies for m...
Article
Full-text available
Summary. In pollen-storing bumblebees, the rate at which workers nourish larvae has been proposed to be the main factor influencing caste differentiation since workers feed prospective queens more frequently and longer than worker larvae during the last instars. In order to determine how the frequency of feedings is established small groups of Bomb...
Article
Full-text available
Species of the stingless bee genus Melipona have different-sized adults, while their eggs have a rather uniform volume. Since the larvae of these species are probably the same size at the onset of their development, they differ considerably in the amount of food they need to ingest in order to complete the four larval stages. This implies that moul...
Article
Full-text available
This study shows that the eggs of seven species of Melipona, representing the entire range of body sizes found in the genus, have approximately the same volume, while the amount of food inside the brood cells is proportional to the size of the adult workers. It also compares the composition of the larval food of these species. Water content and the...
Article
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Cooperation and competition in a colony of the polygynous stingless bee M e l i p o n a b i c o l o r, illustrated by two kinds of worker eggs and the behaviours of workers laying them This paper describes the egg laying behaviour of workers and queens of M. bicolor. Three kinds of eggs are laid by these bees: reproductive eggs by queens and reprod...
Article
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In this contribution worker egg-laying in a bumblebee, a honeybee and a stingless bee species is compared to sociobiological models concerning reproductive conflict in hymenopteran societies. It is argued that the models offer an incomplete insight in the phenomenon. Without studying the behavioural and physiological mechanisms involved, the biolog...
Article
Queen-laid eggs of Melipona bees stand upright on their larval food, in part because the upper part of the egg is covered with a water-repellent layer of fatty acids and C21 to C29 hydrocarbons. The lower, wettable portion does not have these materials. Trophic eggs laid by workers are essentially devoid of this coating and tend to sink in the food...
Article
As in many other stingless bees, Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponinae) workers lay two morphologically distinct types of eggs: slender ones that have a typical patterned chorion, and larger ones that lack this pattern. In this paper we report on the relation between egg morphology and the behaviour of the workers that lay such e...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms leading to reproductive skew among queens in a polygynous colony of Melipona bicolor were studied. Queens differ in the probability of remaining the sole queen at a cell during the provisioning and oviposition process. Being alone enhances the probability of receiving a trophic egg. When together with another queen egg-laying is rand...
Article
As a preliminary to the use of bumble bee colonies in greenhouse pollination in Turkey, research was initiated on the relevant characteristics of the native bumble bee Bombus terrestris dalmatinus. The same methodology was used that has been successful in the rearing of B. t. terrestris colonies. Queens were collected in four coastal localities (Bo...
Article
The Dufour's gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all female hymenopterans, playing multiple roles among bees. In some species of Bombus the gland may be involved in production of nestmate recognition pheromones, but in B. terrestris its function is not certain yet. The morphology of the Dufour's gland of B. terrestris quee...
Article
The Dufour's gland of Bombus terrestris workers, of different ages and with varying degrees of ovary development, was studied with the aim to verify its involvement in reproduction. Measurements of the diameter and the length of the gland were made using an ocular micrometer adapted to a microscope. Transmission electron microscopy was used to stud...
Article
Full-text available
The Dufour's gland of Bombus terrestris workers, of different ages and with varying degrees of ovary development, was studied with the aim to verify its involvement in reproduction. Measurements of the diameter and the length of the gland were made using an ocular micrometer adapted to a microscope. Transmission electron microscopy was used to stud...
Article
Full-text available
Summary: The mass provisioning carpenter bees comprise two tribes, the Xylocopini and the Ceratinini. Although social nesting occurs in both tribes, no morphological castes have evolved and females are totipotent, which makes the tribe as a whole highly suitable to test predictions of reproductive skew models. We review current information for the...
Article
Full-text available
The prediction that the polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor workers should distinguish physogastric queens to whom they have different degrees of relatedness was tested. One colony with two physogastric queens was monitored for 5 consecutive days for the occurrence of the provision and oviposition processes (POP) of individually marked worker...
Article
Full-text available
The highly eusocial stingless bees (reviewed in [1, 2]) constitute a phylogenetically old group [3] within the Apidae. Probably related to this ancient origin is their mass provisioning of brood cells: they deposit all the food on which the larva will develop into the brood cell, prior to oviposition and subsequent closure of the cell. The other so...
Article
Full-text available
Summary: In several stingless bee species many males aggregate in the vicinity of a nest when a virgin queen is present in the colony and is preparing for the nuptial flight. We report such male assemblage for Tetragonisca angustula. The departure of a virgin queen from the colony and the subsequent mating could be video-recorded, because the queen...
Article
Full-text available
The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a similar frequency. However, during their last phase qu...
Article
Temperatures in the brood nests of Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis cerana indica were compared. Within the centre we found similar temperatures in worker brood cells, at external temperatures between 18°-33°C. At the periphery of the brood nest, where drone brood usually is located, temperature in brood cells of A. cerana was clearly lower compar...
Article
Full-text available
Factors influencing reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni have become a central theme of honey bee pathology. In large parts of the world the mite has made it impossible for colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera to survive if no measures of treatment are applied [1]. Originally a parasite of the Eastern honey bee A. cerana, the mit...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of two kinds of stored pollen (fresh and dried, kept in the freezer) on individuals and colonies of Bombus terrestris were investigated. The pattern of colony development, and the number and biomass of workers and males were similar for colonies fed on fresh-frozen pollen (FFP) and dried-frozen pollen (DFP). However, queens reared on DF...
Article
Xylocopa pubescens is a facultatively social species in which two types of guards can be found: 1) old, formerly reproductive guards and 2) young, pre-reproductive guards that usually guard the nest in which they emerged. In this species it is always the dominant female that forages and lays the eggs. This paper focuses on the young females' reason...
Article
The genusPlebeia has a special significance for the study of social evolution of stingless bees: morphologically primitive, its species display a wealth of behavioural evolution, especially with respect to the oviposition process. We comparePlebeia remota with the few other members of the genus studied so far.Related to its subtropical geographical...
Article
The frequency of colonies that produce diploid males after brother-sister (50%) and nephew-niece (37.5%) matings proves that in B. terrestris the sex is determined by a single multi-allelic sex locus. The diploid males which develop normally into adults make up 50% of the diploid brood. In the laboratory the growth rate of colonies with diploid mal...
Article
The frequency of colonies that produce diploid males after brother-sister (50%) and nephew-niece (37.5%) matings proves that inB. terrestris the sex is determined by a single multi-allelic sex locus. The diploid males which develop normally into adults make up 50% of the diploid brood. In the laboratory the growth rate of colonies with diploid male...
Article
Solitary and social nests of the facultatively social carpenter bee Xyclopa pubescens can be found simultaneously during the major part of the breeding season. Social nests contain a reproductively dominant forager and either her adult offspring or a formerly reproductive, guarding female. The costs and benefits to the dominant animal of allowing a...
Article
Applying a sugar solution by sprinkling a colony was found to cause a faster and more even distribution among the colony members than applying the agent in a feeding-jar, but the effectiveness was lower and the contamination of combs and top bars was higher. Trophallaxis is of minor importance for obtaining an even distribution of a systemic agent...
Article
The distribution of coumaphos (the active component of perizin), fed to individual honeybees, in the honey stomach, haemolymph, midgut and rectum was studied over time. Concurrently, we investigated changes occurring in the haemolymph volume due to the ingestion of perizin, and we examined the influence of a Nosema apisinfection on the survival of...
Article
Since 1986 perizin has been used in many European countries to combat the mite Varma jacobsoni, a parasite of the honeybee. We have studied the long-term presence of coumaphos, the active ingredient of perizin, by analyzing honey and wax for residues. We distinguished between the direct transfer of coumaphos into wax by contamination during treabne...
Chapter
Reproduction in the social insects is governed by physiological factors within the individual organism and by behavioural factors acting at the colony level. The interaction of these two types of factors is the topic of this chapter.
Article
Answers were sought to three questions to the regulation of oogenesis and ovipositions by the bumblebee queen and by her workers: a) Which factors have an effect on oogenesis and subsequent ovipositions at the individual level? b) What impact do social factors and the presence of the queen have on ovary activation and egg laying by workers at colon...
Article
In general, bees are social insects. The best known species, the honeybee, always lives in a tightly organized colony. However, there are a large number of bee species which lead a solitary existence. There are also intermediate types. Certain carpenter bees, for example, exhibit social behaviour, in that a number of young females nest together. Be...
Article
Four important points in colony development are distinguished: 1) start of egg laying by the queen, leading to the beginning of the eusocial phase, the emergence of the first workers; 2) the switch point, at which the queen switches from laying diploid eggs (producing workers or queens) to the laying of haploid eggs (producing males); 3) onset of q...
Article
Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that worker honey bees can recognize the phenotype of larvae and use this information to favor closely related individuals when rearing queens. Three experimental designs were employed. The first required colonies to rear emergency queen cells; this represents a “natural“ context. Queenless bees of o...
Article
Certain carpenter bees (Xylocopa) are characterized by cohabitation of several females in partly common nest structures and/or by the meeting, inside the nest, between adult offspring and their mother. Both conditions are considered to be a basis for social life in bees. In X. pubescens intraspecific competition for nests and nest sites is prominen...
Article
Trophallactic interactions between individual worker bees ofApis mellifera mellifera were studied in groups consisting of 2–5 bees. Less than 5% of these interactions result in food transfer. It is supposed that the majority of trophallactic contacts serve communicational purposes rather than being idle food transfer attempts. Over a fortnight peri...
Article
Honeybee queen attendants disperse queen pheromones to supplement pheromone dispersal by direct queen-worker contacts. With time they lose their dispersal function exponentially due mainly to volatilization of queen pheromones carried on their bodies. The elimination of those airborne pheromones together with the air while ventilating the hive is b...
Article
1. The egg-laying behaviour of Bombus terrestris workers was studied in a captive colony by means of video recordings, in order to determine factors that make workers become egg-laying workers. 2. The size of a worker as a factor determining her to become a laying worker is only important for the workers that are born from the first batch of eggs....
Article
The development of normal Bombus terrestris colonies is compared with the development of colonies in which the queen has been deprived of her mandibular glands at the onset of colony formation and of colonies headed by sham operated queens. It is shown that the mandibular glands of the queen play an important role in preventing or delaying worker o...
Article
A description is given of territorial and mating behaviour of X. sulcatipes, a species living exclusively in the desert area of the Middle East. At two locations about 150 km apart territorial behaviour was very different. At one place males held small individual territories near a flowering bush, at the other place males were aggregated around a f...
Article
In this paper it is shown that the mandibular glands of young bumblebee queens produce a species-specific sex pheromone. From our results it becomes obvious that the pheromone is a releaser for the mating attempts made by the conspecific males.
Article
Territorial behaviour of male X. hirsutissima was studied. Depending on wind direction the male establishes a territory on or near the mountain top where he hovers behind or in a little shrub, protected from the wind and facing away from the shrub. With the aid of the legs, the mandibular gland secretion appears to be distributed over the ventral s...
Article
Some observations are reported suggesting that, in the worker honeybee, a difference in osmotic pressure between the contents of the honey sac and ventriculus causes pollen grains to burst during their passage through the alimentary tract. Neither gnawing nor enzymatic degradation of the hard pollen wall seems to be necessary for pollen digestion....
Article
The material produced in the mandibular glands of queen honey bees can be transported by her attendants and causes an inhibition of oogenesis in the workers who cannot make a direct contact with the queen. It seems that the only substance involved in this procedure is 9-oxo-decenoic acid from the queen's mandibular glands. A worker bee from a queen...
Article
The secretion of the mandibular glands of a honey bee queen enables the worker bees to react to the presence of their queen. Extirpating the mandibular glands of the queen does not prevent that she is accepted by her colony. Hitherto this was attributed to contamination of the queen's body by mandibular gland substances during or preceding the exti...
Article
Full-text available
The history of breeding bumble bees, including the application of Bombus terrestris as a pollinator in greenhouse crops, is briefly reviewed. Much knowledge had to be accumulated before large-scale breeding became possible. In the case of B. terrestris , a bottleneck for commercial breeding has been the production of young queens in sufficient numb...
Article
Full-text available
The neotropical genus Melipona, found from Mexico to Argentina, con- tains about 40 species. Most species live in woodland, some in savan- nahs. Nesting sites are found inside cavities within the trunk and branches of trees. M. quinquefasciata is exceptional in that it lives under- ground, where it occupies abandoned nest cavities dug by other ani-...
Article
Die Versuche vonPapi undPardi 1–6 wurden mitTalitrus saltator wiederholt. Auch unter völligem Lichtabschluss zeigten die Tiere ein noch ähnlich orientiertes Verhalten. Ausschaltung des erdmagnetischen Feldes bis auf 50 γ konnte die Orientierung im Dunkeln nicht aufheben.
Article
IT is known that in the honey bee community the queen has an influence on the behaviour and the physiology of worker bees1–3. It has been shown that the presence of a queen in a group of worker bees inhibits the development of the ovaries in the workers3. The workers, showing a special behaviour (retinue behaviour) towards their queen, recognize he...

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