Guy Cheron

Guy Cheron
Université Libre de Bruxelles | ULB · Laboratoire des Sciences de la Motricité

42.13
 · 
PhD

About

250
Publications
35,465
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6,489
Citations
Introduction
Guy Cheron currently works at the Laboratoire des Sciences de la Motricité, Université Libre de Bruxelles. Guy does research in Neurology, Artificial Neural Network and Neuroscience. Their current projects are related to EEG dynamics, evoked potentials , motor control in human on Earth and in the International Space Station and to cerebellar oscillation in transgenic mice mimicking human neuronal diseases such as Angelman syndrome, FAS, Steinert, Duchenne and Alzheimer.
Research Experience
September 1983 - present
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Position
  • Full Professor

Publications

Publications (250)
Article
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Background Motor deficits in autism have a double aspect: on one side, they are neglected by standard diagnostic procedures, on the other they are very frequent (70%) and promising as early indicator of the syndrome. Their characterization is extremely relevant, as they could impact on social abilities based on the understanding of others’ actions....
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Adequate sleep quantity and quality is required to maintain vigilance, cognitive and learning processes. A decrease of sleep quantity preflight and on the International Space Station (ISS) has been reported. Recent counter-measures have been implemented to better regulate sleep opportunities on ISS. In our study, astronauts were allocated enough ti...
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The tACS only differs from tDCS by the fact that sinusoidal currents are given at a specific frequency in place of continuous and constant currents. tACS directly modulates oscillatory brain activity in such a way that the stimulation frequency can be adapted to the frequency of the specific targeted oscillation of the brain. Although there is an e...
Article
La neurofisiologia del movimento e dell’apprendimento motorio occupa un ampio campo scientifico. Le basi fondamentali dell’elaborazione centrale del movimento si inseriscono in strutture cerebrali molto specifiche sul piano anatomico e funzionale, ma anche riccamente interconnesse, formando insiemi neuronali gerarchici e dinamici. L’obiettivo princ...
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La neurofisiología del movimiento y del aprendizaje motor abarca un campo científico muy amplio. Las bases fundamentales de la elaboración central del movimiento se inscriben en estructuras cerebrales muy específicas desde los puntos de vista anatómico y funcional, pero también profusamente interconectadas, formando conjuntos neuronales jerarquizad...
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Purkinje cells (PC) control deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which in turn inhibit inferior olive nucleus, closing a positive feedback loop via climbing fibers. PC highly express potassium BK channels but their contribution to the olivo-cerebellar loop is not clear. Using multiple-unit recordings in alert mice we found in that selective deletion of BK...
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In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analysed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modelling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adu...
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We examined proactive (early restraint in preparation for stopping) and reactive (late correction to stop ongoing action) motor response inhibition in two groups of participants: professional athletes (n = 28) and nonathletes (n = 25). We recruited the elite athletes from Belgian national taekwondo and fencing teams. We estimated proactive and reac...
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Background: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP) evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TDC). However, the electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely un...
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In order to characterize the neural generators of the brain oscillations related to motor imagery (MI), we investigated the cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar localizations of their respective electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power and phase locking modulations. The MI task consisted in throwing a ball with the dominant upper limb while in a...
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This paper describes a study protocol, which aims to explore and describe the feasibility of a mobile-phone application for initiating intuitive eating and intuitive exercising in patients who are following an ambulatory treatment for obesity. Intuitive eating refers to one’s ability to make food choices based on one’s awareness of his/her body's r...
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The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D v...
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Brain function is compromised in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular pathways primarily affected, we studied a mouse model of DM1 and brains of adult patients. We found pronounced RNA toxicity in the Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, in association w...
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It is not known whether, during the course of ageing, changes occur in the motor strategies used by the CNS for lifting objects of different weights. Here, we analysed the kinematics of object-lifting in two different healthy groups (young and elderly people) plus one well known deafferented patient (GL). The task was to reach and lift onto a shelf...
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Introduction During last years the putative effects of cerebellar transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has attracted the attention of basic and clinical neuroscientist. Nevertheless, the impact of exogenous electric fields on the different components of the cerebellar network is not already elucidated. Objectives The aim of this study wa...
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Human brain adaptation in weightlessness follows the necessity to reshape the dynamic integration of the neural information acquired in the new environment. This basic aspect was here studied by the electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics where oscillatory modulations were measured during a visuo-attentional state preceding a visuo-motor docking task....
Article
The ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate, as well as the mechanisms monitoring the accuracy of actions in order to compensate for errors, is central to human behavior. Neural alterations that prevent stopping an inaccurate response, combined with a decreased ability of error monitoring, are considered to be prominent features of alc...
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Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The noninvasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitione...
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In order to characterize the neural signature of a motor imagery (MI) task, the present study investigates for the first time the oscillation characteristics including both of the time-frequency measurements, event related spectral perturbation and intertrial coherence (ITC) underlying the variations in the temporal measurements (event related pote...
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Brain oscillations are, perhaps paradoxically, crucial for movement stability and high performance. Much of what is known about brain oscillations and their relation to movement, sensation and cognition has been established during the last three decades through an explosion of research ranging from in vitro (Draguhn et al., 1998; Fisahn a al., 1998...
Article
Forty years ago, a consensual definition of the cerebral palsy concept was suggested, delineating it as a disorder of movement and posture secondary to non-progressive pathological processes that affect the immature brain. Because this concept is pragmatic and based on function, it has survived unaltered many changes in pathophysiolgical knowledge,...
Article
This commentary is on the original article by Jongsma et al. on pages 277–284 of this issue.
Conference Paper
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Background: Children born preterm are at risk for developmental cerebral visual impairment. Several modalities of visual evoked potentials recording have been used to approach prognosis. The recent development of high-density EEG protocols allows evaluation of the oscillatory content of cortical activities evoked by specific stimulation. We aimed t...
Conference Paper
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Background: Angelman syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder recognised to show characteristic (non-epileptic) high-amplitude slow rhythmic electroencephalographic patterns. These hypersynchronous neuronal activities have been studied to approach the pathophysiology of the condition. Aim: to analyse these patterns with enhanced recording...
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Careful study of the phenotype can have implications at several levels, namely clinical diagnosis, pathophysiological reasoning, management planning, and outcome measurement. Behavioural phenotypes involve cognition, communication, social skills, and motor control. They can be documented in a host of neurodevelopmental conditions and approached wit...
Article
Efforts to document early changes in the developing brain have resulted in the construction of increasingly accurate structural images based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborn infants. Tractography diagrams obtained through diffusion tensor imaging have focused on white matter microstructure, with particular emphasis on neuronal connect...
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The highly stereotyped, crystal-like architecture of the cerebellum has long served as a basis for hypotheses with regard to the function(s) that it subserves. Historically, most clinical observations and experimental work have focused on the involvement of the cerebellum in motor control, with particular emphasis on coordination and learning. Two...
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Background Regulation of synaptic connectivity, including long-term depression (LTD), allows proper tuning of cellular signalling processes within brain circuitry. In the cerebellum, a key centre for motor coordination, a positive feedback loop that includes mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is required for proper temporal control of LTD at...
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Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder in which cerebellar functioning impairment has been documented despite the absence of gross structural abnormalities. Characteristically, a spontaneous 160 Hz oscillation emerges in the Purkinje cells network of the Ube3a (m-/p+) Angelman mouse model. This abnormal oscillation is induc...
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Powered exoskeletons can empower paraplegics to stand and walk. Actively controlled hip ab/adduction (HAA) is needed for weight shift and for lateral foot placement to support dynamic balance control and to counteract disturbances in the frontal plane. Here, we describe the design, control, and preliminary evaluation of a novel exoskeleton, MINDWAL...
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During human walking, there exists a functional neural coupling between arms and legs, and between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Here, we present a novel approach for associating the electromyographic (EMG) activity from upper limb muscles with leg kinematics. Our methodology takes advantage of the high involvement of shoulder muscle...
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Biological motion observation has been recognized to produce dynamic change in sensorimotor activation according to the observed kinematics. Physical plausibility of the spatial-kinematic relationship of human movement may play a major role in the top-down processing of human motion recognition. Here, we investigated the time course of scalp activa...
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In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane...
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Owing to excellent time resolution and optimized spatial resolution related to increased number of recording electrodes, high-density electroencephalography allows localization of the sources of cortical activities evoked by specific stimulation. Here we evaluate the feasibility of a high-density EEG mismatch negativity of event-related potentials...
Conference Paper
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Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to show theta-beta correlation in rhythmic brain oscillations. We aimed to further analyse scalp activity in order to study global amplitude of activation and topographical stability during a visual-cued task in children with ADHD. Participants and methods: Fourteen ADHD...
Conference Paper
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Angelman syndrome(AS)is a neurogenetic disorder with well-described developmental and behavioural features. Its biophenotype includes rhythmic EEG abnormalities described according to their main frequency and topography. Pattern I is classically reported as runs of frontal high-amplitude (>200-300μV) 2-3/s (delta) activity, and Pattern II as prolon...
Conference Paper
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Non-convulsive status epilepticus is often challenging in paediatric practice. It is a treatable cause of cognitive deterioration and behavioural disturbances in many neurological conditions. It has a high association with Angelman syndrome, where differential electrodiagnosis with the typical non-epileptic rhythmic EEG patterns may be difficult. I...
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Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts, and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report...
Article
The N30 component of the somatosensory evoked potential is known to be modulated by sensory interference, motor action, movement ideation and observation. We introduce a new paradigm in which the observation task of another person's hand movement triggers the somatosensory stimulus, inducing the N30 response in participants. In order to identify th...
Article
Purkinje cell (PC) firing represents the sole output from the cerebellar cortex onto the deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei. Here, we explored the different modes of PC firing in alert mice by extracellular recording. We confirm the existence of a tonic and/or bursting and quiescent modes corresponding to UP and DOWN state, respectively. We demo...
Article
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Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working mem...
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A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the CNS builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the genera...
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The role of cerebellar plasticity has been increasingly recognized in learning. The privileged relationship between the cerebellum and the inferior olive offers an ideal circuit for attempting to integrate the numerous evidences of neuronal plasticity into a translational perspective. The high learning capacity of the Purkinje cells specifically co...
Conference Paper
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It has been recently demonstrated that cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), an interaction between the parallel fibers (PF) and Purkinje cells (PCs) that requires the combined activation of the parallel and climbing fibers, can be induced in the cerebellum of alert mice in response to sensory peripheral input. Ca2+ signalling has been proposed to...
Conference Paper
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The physiological relevance of discrete neuronal states of the cerebellar cortex, namely up-and down-states has been increasingly recognized. Here we explored by extracellular recording the different modes of PC firing in alert mice. We confirm the existence of a tonic and/or bursting and quiescent modes corresponding to the up-and down-state, resp...
Conference Paper
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Electroencephalography (EEG) during motor imagery has been largely studied mainly for Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) purposes. Usually, movements that are used in this way are simple, in the sense that they involve only one segment of the body such as the hand or foot. In our study, we set out to extract EEG features corresponding to motor imagery...
Article
Background: Gender is increasingly recognized as an important influence on brain development, disease susceptibility, and response to pharmacologic and rehabilitative treatments. In re-generative medicine, it remains entirely unknown whether there is an interaction between transplanted stem cells and host gender that might bias efficacy and safety...
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For two decades, EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems have been widely studied in research labs. Now, researchers want to consider out-of-the-lab applications and make this technology available to everybody. However, medical-grade EEG recording devices are still much too expensive for end-users, especially disabled people. Therefore, se...
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The existence of dedicated neuronal modules such as those organized in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, or spinal cord raises the question of how these functional modules are coordinated for appropriate motor behavior. Study of human locomotion offers an interesting field for addressing this central question. The coordinati...
Conference Paper
Although ElectroOculoGraphic (EOG) signals have been intensively used for human-machine interfaces, none of the available eye movement recognition techniques have been objectively compared to each other. In this paper, we propose to compare two widely known techniques (the standard R. Barea (RB) and A. Bulling (AB)'s works) and a Spiking Neural Net...