Gustavo Carvalho Machado

Gustavo Carvalho Machado
The University of Sydney · Institute for Musculoskeletal Health

BPhysio(Hons) PhD

About

71
Publications
35,334
Reads
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2,214
Citations
Introduction
Gustavo is a Physiotherapist and an NHMRC Early Career Fellow at the Institute for Musculoskeletal Health, Sydney. His research focuses on the effectiveness of contemporary interventions for musculoskeletal conditions, such as low back pain. He is also interested in translational research and eHealth. Gustavo is an associate member of the ANZMUSC Clinical Trials Network and an invited member of the low back pain guideline development committee within the European Pain Federation (EFIC).
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Fellow
January 2017 - December 2017
The University of Sydney
Position
  • PhD Student
February 2015 - January 2017
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Postgraduate Teaching Fellow
Education
August 2013 - June 2017
The University of Sydney
Field of study
  • Medicine
March 2006 - August 2011
Federal University of Minas Gerais
Field of study
  • Physiotherapy

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the management of spinal pain and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to Decembe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Hospital charges for lumbar spinal stenosis have increased significantly worldwide in recent times, with great variation in the costs and rates of different surgical procedures. There have also been significant increases in the rate of complex fusion and the use of spinal spacer implants compared to that of traditional decompression su...
Article
Full-text available
Background While it is now clear that paracetamol is ineffective for spinal pain, there is not consensus on the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for this condition. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of NSAIDs for spinal pain. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAH...
Article
Full-text available
Low back pain is a common condition seen in the ED. However, its management in this setting has received relatively little attention and there have been few efforts to develop strategies to improve emergency care of low back pain. In order to ensure that care is appropriately delivered for low back pain patients in the ED, emergency physicians must...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Patients with low back pain often seek care in emergency departments, but the problem is that many patients receive unnecessary or ineffective interventions and at the same time miss out on the basics of care, such as advice on self-management. This pattern of care has important consequences for the healthcare system (expensive and i...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mobile health apps (MHA) have the potential to improve health care. The commercial MHA market is rapidly growing, but the content and quality of available MHA are unknown. Instruments for the assessment of the quality and content of MHA are highly needed. The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used tools to...
Article
Background: Most low back pain trials have limited applicability to the emergency department (ED) because they provide treatment and measure outcomes after discharge from the ED. We investigated the efficacy and safety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions delivered in the ED to patients with non-specific low back pain and/or sc...
Article
Introduction: Low back pain, and especially non-specific low back pain, is a common cause of presentation to the emergency department (ED). Although these patients typically report relatively high pain intensity, the clinical course of their pain and disability remains unclear. Our objective was to review the literature and describe the clinical c...
Article
ED visits for low back pain are increasing, but the lack of specific guidance for emergency physicians impedes evidence‐based care, and adopting primary care recommendations may not be appropriate. The ED sees a different spectrum of low back pain presentations, where physicians are likely to encounter a larger proportion of patients with an underl...
Preprint
Low back pain is the leading cause of years lived with disability in most countries and creates a huge burden for healthcare systems globally. Around the globe, 4.4% of all emergency department attendances are attributed to low back pain, and subsequent admissions to hospital seem to be common. These hospitalisations can result in unnecessary medic...
Preprint
With the widespread uptake of EMRs across the world, massive health-related datasets have been generated and clinicians are often overwhelmed with the complexity in analysing those EMR data. To overcome this, digital health dashboards have been integrated into EMR systems to help clinicians make informed decisions and ensure reliable care delivery....
Preprint
BACKGROUND Mobile health apps (MHA) have the potential to improve health care. The commercial MHA market is rapidly growing, but the content and quality of available MHA are unknown. Consequently, instruments of high psychometric quality for the assessment of the quality and content of MHA are highly needed. The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MAR...
Article
International clinical practice guidelines for low back pain contain consistent recommendations including universal provision of information and advice to remain active, discouraging routine referral for imaging, and limited prescription of opioids. This systematic review describes usual care provided by first-contact physicians to patients with lo...
Preprint
The Sydney Health Partners Emergency Department (SHaPED) trial used a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate an implementation strategy of the Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI) model of care for acute low back pain in emergency departments (ED). This preprint outlines the statistical analysis plan of this study.
Article
Full-text available
Background To describe the diagnoses of people who present to the emergency department (ED) with low back pain (LBP), the proportion of people with a lumbar spine condition who arrived by ambulance, received imaging, opioids and were admitted to hospital; and to explore factors associated with these four outcomes. Methods In this retrospective stu...
Article
Background: Low back pain (LBP) affects millions of people worldwide, and misconceptions about effective treatment options for this condition are very common. Websites sponsored by organizations recognized as trustworthy by the public, such as government agencies, hospitals, universities, professional associations, health care organizations and con...
Article
Full-text available
Background Placebo-controlled trials are an important tool when assessing the efficacy of spinal surgical procedures. The most common spinal surgical procedure in older adults is decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis. Before conducting a placebo-surgical trial on decompression surgery, an investigation of patients’ willingness to participate in...
Article
Background and aims There has been no comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for acute low back pain (LBP). The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of TENS for acute LBP. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL,...
Article
Background: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is vastly recommended as the first-line analgesic for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. However, there has been controversy about this recommendation given recent studies have revealed small effects of paracetamol when compared with placebo. Nonetheless, past studies have not systematically reviewed and app...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Background: Low back pain (LBP) affects millions of people worldwide, and misconceptions about effective treatment options for this condition are very common. As the Internet has become the primary source of health information for many people. OBJECTIVE To determine the credibility, accuracy and comprehensiveness of treatment recommenda...
Conference Paper
Objectives When low back pain is managed in the emergency department overdiagnosis and overtreatment are common. Key problems are overuse of imaging, opioid medicines and hospital admission. The overall aim of the Sydney Health Partners Emergency Department (SHaPED) trial is to implement and evaluate an evidence-based model of care for acute low ba...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Little is known about how to reduce unnecessary imaging for low back pain. Understanding clinician, patient and general public beliefs about imaging is critical to developing strategies to reduce overuse. Objective To synthesise qualitative research that has explored clinician, patient or general public beliefs about diagnostic imagin...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify whether obesity or the regular practice of physical activity are predictors of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data source and eligibility criteria A...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for patients with osteoarthritis. Design An intervention systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although recurrence is common after an acute episode of low back pain, estimates of recurrence rates vary widely and predictors of recurrence remain largely unknown. Objective: The purposes of the study were to determine the 1-year incidence of recurrence in participants who recovered from an acute episode of low back pain and to ide...
Article
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Older adults are largely under-represented in to LBP research. In light of the ageing population, it is crucial to understand the influence of comorbidities and lifestyle factors on the risk and prognosis of LBP in older adults. The aims of this study were to describe the course of LBP in older men; to investigate if comorbidities/ lifestyle factor...
Article
Guidelines for low back pain (LBP) often recommend the use of self-management such as unsupervised exercise, booklets, and online education. Another potentially useful way for patients to self-manage LBP is by using smartphone applications (apps). However, to date, there has been no rigorous evaluation of LBP apps and no guidance for consumers on h...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Population based health record linkage study. Objective: To determine trends in hospital admissions and surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis, as well as complications and resource use in Australia. Summary of background data: In the United States, rates of decompression surgery have declined, whereas those of fusion have increased....
Article
Background context: A previous study has shown that transient physical and psychosocial activities increased the risk of developing low back pain. However, the link between these factors in triggering nonpersistent or persistent episodes remains unclear. Purpose: We aimed to investigate the association of transient exposures to physical and psyc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Analgesic medication is the most frequently prescribed treatment for low back pain (LBP), of which paracetamol (acetaminophen) is recommended as the first choice medication. However, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of paracetamol for LBP. Objectives: To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for non-specific LBP....
Article
Full-text available
Background and objective: The clinical course of patients with sciatica is believed to be favourable, but there is conflicting evidence on the postoperative course of this condition. We aimed to investigate the clinical course of sciatica following surgery. Databases and data treatment: An electronic search was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINA...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To compare autonomic modulation in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (n=20) and healthy control subjects (n=23) using geometric indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) associated with linear domains of time and frequency; and to verify correlations between geometric indexes and those obtained by the time and the frequen...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the contribution of symptoms of depression to future episodes of low back pain (LBP). A search was conducted of AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, H&S, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. We included cohort studies investigating the effect of symptoms of depression on the development of new episodes of LBP, either lif...
Article
Full-text available
We understand Adam and Veal and Thompson’s desire to see a different result,1 2 3 where the status of paracetamol as an effective pain relief could at least be preserved for elderly people or those with chronic conditions. Unfortunately their case is not consistent with the data.Older people were not excluded from these studies and the lack of effe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The management of spinal stenosis by surgery has increased rapidly in the past two decades, however, there is still controversy regarding the efficacy of surgery for this condition. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and comparative effectiveness of surgery in the management of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods: Elec...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of commonly used non-surgical treatments in acute care of adults with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). A systematic approach was used to search eight electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining analgesic medications, passive physical ther...
Article
Full-text available
Balance deficits are frequently observed in individuals with hemiparesis and lead to disabilities in daily activities, such as the ability to walk. The sit-to-stand movement is essential for independent gait, and balance is one of the main requirements for its performance. Objective: To analyse the balance parameters during the sit-to-stand movemen...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Respiratory muscular weakness and associated changes in thoracoabdominal motion have been poorly studied in stroke subjects, since the individuals' functional levels were not previously considered in the investigations. Aim: To investigate the breathing patterns, thoracoabdominal motion, and respiratory muscular strength in chronic s...
Data
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Background: The ability to manage stairs has been recognized as the best predictor of physical activity levels in the community, when compared to walking speed and walking capacity. In addition, one third of stroke survivors require some assistance to manage stairs at six and 12 months post-stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare th...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake has been widely reported as a risk factor for low back pain (LBP), however, the literature is inconclusive about this association. OBJECTIVES: To determine, in a systematic review, the relationship between alcohol intake and LBP. METHODS: A search was conducted in CINAHL, LILACS, Medline, National Research Register and We...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A hemiparesia é o déficit mais comum após o acidente vascular encefálico, que interfere com a capacidade de marcha e com outras atividades motoras executadas por estes pacientes. Dessa forma, entender as sequelas motoras apresentadas por esta população, e as possíveis relações entre elas, pode auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de intervenção fi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose: Low back pain (LBP) causes a great impact on individuals and societies as a whole. Its 1-year prevalence is up to 65%, and around 84% of population will experience one episode of LBP in their lives. Alcohol intake has been widely reported as a risk factor for LBP. However, the literature brings inconclusive data about this association. Thu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose: To evaluate the short-and long-term effects of a home-based constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) on measures of strength, function, and quality of life in individuals with chronic stroke. Relevance: Upper limb impairments are the most common disabling deficits after stroke and have complex relationships with limitations in activities...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose: The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the intra-and inter-rater reliabilities of the lower extremity motor coordination test (LEMOCOT); (2) evaluate the correlations between the LEMOCOT scores with measures of natural and maximum gait speed and lower limb strength, and (3) determine normative values for healthy individuals with a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Contextualização: Apesar das vantagens do teste Timed " Up and Go " (TUG) para a avaliação da mobilidade funcional de indivíduos hemiplégicos devido o acidente vascular encefálico, o único desfecho de medida padronizado para o mesmo é o tempo despendido para desempenhá-lo. Objetivo: Desenvolver um instrumento clínico para a avaliação de característ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Contextualização: Como resultados satisfatórios de validade foram obtidos para o TUG-HABS-Brasil (Timed " Up and Go " – Hemiplegic Assessment of Biomechanical Strategies-versão Português-Brasil), é necessário estabelecer a consistência das suas medidas. Objetivos: Investigar a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores da versão final do TUG-HABS-Bra...