Gustau Camps-Valls

Gustau Camps-Valls
University of Valencia | UV · Laboratorio de Procesado de Imagenes (LPI)

Professor. IEEE Fellow. ELLIS Fellow. Image Processing Lab (IPL). Universitat de València
My research is related to machine learning for modeling and understanding the Earth and climate systems.

About

792
Publications
182,566
Reads
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26,185
Citations
Introduction
Prof. Gustau Camps-Valls currently coordinates the Image Signal Processing (ISP) group at the University of Valencia. We focus on methods able to extract knowledge from empirical data drawn by sensory (mostly imaging) physical systems. These measurements depend on the properties of the scenes and the physics of the acquisition process. Our approach to signal, image, and vision processing combines machine learning theory with the understanding of the underlying physics and biological vision. Applications mainly focus on computational visual neuroscience, image processing, remote sensing data analysis and geosciences. My research is related to statistical learning, mainly kernel machines and neural networks, for Earth Observation and remote sensing data analysis.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
University of Valencia
Position
  • Professor (Full)
May 2013 - October 2013
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Position
  • Invited professor
May 2009 - September 2009
MPI Tubingen
Position
  • Invited researcher
Education
October 1990 - October 1996
University of Valencia
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (792)
Article
The estimation of biophysical variables is at the core of remote sensing science, allowing a close monitoring of crops and forests. Deriving temporally resolved and spatially explicit maps of parameters of interest has been the subject of intense research. However, deriving products from optical sensors is typically hampered by cloud contamination...
Article
Full-text available
Cloud detection is a crucial step in the optical satellite image processing pipeline for Earth observation. Clouds in optical remote sensing images seriously affect the visibility of the background and greatly reduce the usability of images for land applications. Traditional methods based on thresholding, multi-temporal or multi-spectral informatio...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change exacerbates the occurence of extreme droughts and heatwaves, increasing the frequency and intensity of large wildfires across the globe. Forecasting wildfire danger and uncovering the drivers behind fire events become central for understanding relevant climate‐land surface feedback and aiding wildfire management. In this work, we lev...
Poster
Full-text available
iScience (Cell Press multidisciplinary journal, JCR Q1, Impact Factor 6.107) Call for Papers: https://www.cell.com/iscience/special-issues/call-for-papers/geoai-shaping-earth-and-cities Guest Editors: Dr. Yongze Song (Curtin University), Dr. Filip Biljecki (National University of Singapore), Dr. Gustau Camps-Valls (Universitat de Valencia), and Dr...
Article
Current adoption of machine learning in industrial, societal and economical activities has raised concerns about the fairness, equity and ethics of automated decisions. Predictive models are often developed using biased datasets and thus retain or even exacerbate biases in their decisions and recommendations. Removing the sensitive covariates, such...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents the kernelized Taylor diagram, a graphical framework for visualizing similarities between data populations. The kernelized Taylor diagram builds on the widely used Taylor diagram, which is used to visualize similarities between populations. However, the Taylor diagram has several limitations such as not capturing non-linear rela...
Preprint
Full-text available
Clouds play a key role in regulating climate change but are difficult to simulate within Earth system models (ESMs). Improving the representation of clouds is one of the key tasks towards more robust climate change projections. This study introduces a new machine-learning based evaluation method relying on satellite observations to improve understa...
Article
Full-text available
Process understanding and modeling is at the core of scientific reasoning. Principled parametric and mechanistic modeling dominated science and engineering until the recent emergence of machine learning. Despite great success in many areas, machine learning algorithms in the Earth and climate sciences, and more broadly in physical sciences, are not...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anomaly detection is a field of intense research. Identifying low probability events in data/images is a challenging problem given the high-dimensionality of the data, especially when no (or little) information about the anomaly is available a priori. While plenty of methods are available, the vast majority of them do not scale well to large datase...
Preprint
Full-text available
Persistence is an important characteristic of many complex systems in nature, related to how long the system remains at a certain state before changing to a different one. The study of complex systems' persistence involves different definitions and uses different techniques, depending on whether short-term or long-term persistence is considered. In...
Preprint
Full-text available
Earth observation from satellites offers the possibility to monitor our planet with unprecedented accuracy. Radiative transfer models (RTMs) encode the energy transfer through the atmosphere, and are used to model and understand the Earth system, as well as to estimate the parameters that describe the status of the Earth from satellite observations...
Article
Persistence is an important characteristic of many complex systems in nature, related to how long the system remains at a certain state before changing to a different one. The study of complex systems’ persistence involves different definitions and uses different techniques, depending on whether short-term or long-term persistence is considered. In...
Article
Full-text available
Land, atmosphere and climate interact constantly and at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper we rely on causal discovery methods to infer spatial patterns of causal relations between several key variables of the carbon and water cycles: gross primary productivity, latent heat energy flux for evaporation, surface air temperature, pre...
Preprint
Full-text available
The synergistic combination of deep learning models and Earth observation promises significant advances to support the sustainable development goals (SDGs). New developments and a plethora of applications are already changing the way humanity will face the living planet challenges. This paper reviews current deep learning approaches for Earth obser...
Article
Full-text available
A wide variety of methods exist nowadays to address the important problem of estimating crop yields from available remote sensing and climate data. Among the different approaches, machine learning (ML) techniques are being increasingly adopted, since they allow exploiting all the information on crop progress and environmental conditions and their r...
Article
Full-text available
Learning the manifold structure of remote sensing images is of paramount relevance for modeling and understanding processes, as well as encapsulating the high dimensionality in a reduced set of informative features for subsequent classification, regression, or unmixing. Manifold learning methods have shown excellent performance when dealing with hy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Learning the manifold structure of remote sensing images is of paramount relevance for modeling and understanding processes, as well as to encapsulate the high dimensionality in a reduced set of informative features for subsequent classification, regression, or unmixing. Manifold learning methods have shown excellent performance to deal with hypers...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wildfire forecasting is of paramount importance for disaster risk reduction and environmental sustainability. We approach daily fire danger prediction as a machine learning task, using historical Earth observation data from the last decade to predict next-day's fire danger. To that end, we collect, pre-process and harmonize an open-access datacube,...
Article
Anomaly detection (AD) is a field of intense research in remote sensing (RS) image processing. Identifying low probability events in RS images is a challenging problem given the high dimensionality of the data, especially when no (or little) information about the anomaly is available a priori. While a plenty of methods are available, the vast major...
Chapter
Learning feature representations from multivariate structured data, such as time series or images, is of paramount relevance for data compression, visualization, and understanding. When few or no labels are available, one has to resort to learning in an unsupervised setting. We here review a family of methods that rely on standard convolutional neu...
Chapter
Deep learning (DL) has in the past decade surpassed the boundaries of pure machine learning and computer vision research, and became a state-of-the-art tool in almost every scientific discipline and is exponentially growing. There are a number of future challenges ahead, which relate to the integration of DL with other approaches, most notably four...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding systems by forward and inverse modeling is a recurrent topic of research in many domains of science and engineering. In this context, Monte Carlo methods have been widely used as powerful tools for numerical inference and optimization. They require the choice of a suitable proposal density that is crucial for their performance. For th...
Article
The terrestrial component of the Earth system has witnessed considerable changes in the past decades due to anthropogenic action. Throughout this period, the NASA Terra mission has been constantly monitoring the surface with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. When combined with the MODIS instrument on-board of the...
Conference Paper
Tackling climate change needs to understand the complex phenomena occurring on the Planet. Discovering teleconnection patterns is an essential part of the endeavor. Events like El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impact essential climate variables at large distances, and influence the underlying Earth system dynamics. However, their automatic ident...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many inference problems, the evaluation of complex and costly models is often required. In this context, Bayesian methods have become very popular in several fields over the last years, in order to obtain parameter inversion, model selection or uncertainty quantification. Bayesian inference requires the approximation of complicated integrals inv...
Article
Full-text available
Earth observation from satellites offers the possibility to monitor our planet with unprecedented accuracy. Radiative transfer models (RTMs) encode the energy transfer through the atmosphere, and are used to model and understand the Earth system, as well as to estimate the parameters that describe the status of the Earth from satellite observations...
Article
In past years, we have witnessed the fields of geosciences and remote sensing and artificial intelligence (AI) become closer. Thanks to the massive availability of observational data, improved simulations, and algorithmic advances, these disciplines have found common objectives and challenges to help advance the modeling and understanding of the Ea...
Poster
Automatic anticipation and detection of extreme events constitute a major challenge in the current context of climate change. Machine learning approaches have excelled in detection of extremes and anomalies in Earth data cubes recently, but are typically both computationally costly and supervised, which hamper their wide adoption. We alternatively...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric radiative transfer models (RTMs) simulate the light propagation in the Earth’s atmosphere. With the evolution of RTMs, their increase in complexity makes them impractical in routine processing such as atmospheric correction. To overcome their computational burden, standard practice is to interpolate a multidimensional lookup table (LUT)...
Preprint
Full-text available
The modelling of Earth observation data is a challenging problem, typically approached by either purely mechanistic or purely data-driven methods. Mechanistic models encode the domain knowledge and physical rules governing the system. Such models, however, need the correct specification of all interactions between variables in the problem and the a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Parameter retrieval and model inversion are key problems in remote sensing and Earth observation. Currently, different approximations exist: a direct, yet costly, inversion of radiative transfer models (RTMs); the statistical inversion with in situ data that often results in problems with extrapolation outside the study area; and the most widely ad...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a method for manifold alignment of different modalities (or domains) of remote sensing images. The problem is recurrent when a set of multitemporal, multisource, multisensor and multiangular images is available. In these situations, images should ideally be spatially coregistred, corrected and compensated for differences in the image d...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the last years we have witnessed the fields of geosciences and remote sensing and artificial intelligence to become closer. Thanks to both the massive availability of observational data, improved simulations, and algorithmic advances, these disciplines have found common objectives and challenges to advance the modeling and understanding of the E...
Article
Full-text available
All ocean basins have been experiencing significant warming and rising sea levels in recent decades. There are, however, important regional differences, resulting from distinct processes at different timescales (temperature-driven changes being a major contributor on multi-year timescales). In view of this complexity, it deems essential to move tow...
Article
Full-text available
The modeling of Earth observation (EO) data is a challenging problem, typically approached by either purely mechanistic or purely data-driven methods. Mechanistic models encode the domain knowledge and physical rules governing the system. Such models, however, need the correct specification of all interactions between variables in the problem and t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Satellite-derived soil moisture (SM) products have become an important information source for the study of land surface processes in hydrology and land monitoring. Characterizing and estimating soil memory and persistence from satellite observations is of paramount relevance, and has deep implications in ecology, water management, and climate model...
Article
Full-text available
Forest disturbance regimes are expected to intensify as Earth’s climate changes. Quantifying forest vulnerability to disturbances and understanding the underlying mechanisms is crucial to develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. However, observational evidence is largely missing at regional to continental scales. Here, we quantify the vulnerab...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance data are widely used in remote sensing of the biosphere, as they represent robust proxies for canopy structure, leaf pigment content, and, subsequently, plant photosynthetic potential. Here, we generalize the broad family of commonly used vegetation indices by exploiting all higher-orde...
Article
In this work we study different characteristics of fog long-term persistence, in events with different physical formation mechanisms. Specifically, we focus on the characterization of fog long-term persistence from observational data, by means of a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) of its associated low-visibility time series. We analyze fog eve...
Preprint
Full-text available
The coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentration is the standard measure of humic substance in natural waters. CDOM measurements by remote sensing is calculated using the absorption coefficient (a) at a certain wavelength (e.g. 440nm). This paper presents a comparison of four machine learning methods for the retrieval of CDOM from remote...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gaussian Processes (GPs) has experienced tremendous success in geoscience in general and for bio-geophysical parameter retrieval in the last years. GPs constitute a solid Bayesian framework to formulate many function approximation problems consistently. This paper reviews the main theoretical GP developments in the field. We review new algorithms t...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper introduces a modular processing chain to derive global high-resolution maps of leaf traits. In particular, we present global maps at 500 m resolution of specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content per dry mass, and leaf nitrogen/phosphorus ratio. The processing chain exploits machine learning techniq...
Preprint
Full-text available
Developing accurate models of crop stress, phenology and productivity is of paramount importance, given the increasing need of food. Earth observation remote sensing data provides a unique source of information to monitor crops in a temporally resolved and spatially explicit way. In this study, we propose the combination of multisensor (optical and...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we evaluate multi-output (MO) Gaussian Process (GP) models based on the linear model of coregionalization (LMC) for estimation of biophysical parameter variables under a gap filling setup. In particular, we focus on LAI and fAPAR over rice areas. We show how this problem cannot be solved with standard single-output (SO) GP models, and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Products derived from a single multispectral sensor are hampered by a limited spatial, spectral or temporal resolutions. Image fusion in general and downscaling/blending in particular allow to combine different multiresolution datasets. We present here an optimal interpolation approach to generate smoothed and gap-free time series of Landsat reflec...
Preprint
Spatially and temporally explicit canopy water content (CWC) data are important for monitoring vegetation status, and constitute essential information for studying ecosystem-climate interactions. Despite many efforts there is currently no operational CWC product available to users. In the context of the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surfa...