Guralnick Robert

Guralnick Robert
University of Florida | UF · Department of Natural History

Doctor of Philosophy

About

307
Publications
95,618
Reads
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10,952
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - present
Florida Museum of Natural History
Position
  • Curator of Biodiversity Informatics
January 2015 - present
University of Florida
Position
  • Curator of Biodiversity Informatics
January 2015 - August 2016
University of Florida
Position
  • Curator of Biodiversity Informatics

Publications

Publications (307)
Preprint
Full-text available
The irregular timing and spatial variation in zoonotic arbovirus spillover from vertebrate hosts to humans and livestock present challenges to predicting their occurrence from year to year and within their broader geographic range, compromising effective prevention and control strategies. The objective of this study was to quantify effects of lands...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing conservation priorities requires an understanding of the diversity within and among taxa. Land snails in the subgenus Monadenia consist of six species, three of which are recognized in Oregon, M. fidelis, M. chaceana and a recently discovered M. infumata found north of its presumed range limits in Northern California. Further, M. fidel...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Comprehensive, global information on species' occurrences is an essential biodiversity variable and central to a range of applications in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation. Expert range maps often represent a species' only available distributional information and play an increasing role in conservation assessments and macroeco...
Preprint
Full-text available
Openly available community science digital vouchers provide a wealth of data to study phenotypic change across space and time. However, extracting phenotypic data from these resources requires significant human effort. Here, we demonstrate a workflow and computer vision model for automatically categorizing species color pattern from community scien...
Article
Full-text available
Insect phenological lability is key for determining which species will adapt under environmental change. However, little is known about when adult insect activity terminates and overall activity duration. We used community-science and museum specimen data to investigate the effects of climate and urbanisation on timing of adult insect activity for...
Article
Full-text available
Color polymorphic animals offer a unique system for studying intraspecific phenotypic responses to climate change. Discrete color morphs are easy to identify, and correlated trait responses of morphs can indicate how climate warming may facilitate long-term maintenance of polymorphisms. We use a historical dataset spanning 43 years to examine tempo...
Article
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Urbanization is becoming one of the most important drivers of global environmental change as human population and economic development rapidly increase. However, the effects of urbanization on plant phenology are still poorly understood, especially for leaf senescence and growing season length across large spatial scales. We aimed to fill this know...
Article
Full-text available
A vast range of research applications in biodiversity sciences requires integrating primary species, genetic, or ecosystem data with other environmental data. This integration requires a consideration of the spatial and temporal scale appropriate for the data and processes in question. But a versatile and scale flexible environmental annotation of...
Poster
Full-text available
Here, we quantified effects of landscape on mosquito community composition, abundances, and diversity, and generated prediction maps for West Nile virus vector competent mosquitoes in Manatee County, Florida. We used mosquito abundance data collected across 56 mosquito control district surveillance sites in Manatee County, FL, and used joint specie...
Preprint
Data availability limits phenological research at broad temporal and spatial extents. Butterflies are among the few taxa with broad-scale occurrence data, from both incidental reports and formal surveys. Incidental reports have observation biases that are challenging to address, but structured surveys are often limited seasonally and may not span f...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of citizen science data has resulted in growing applications in biodiversity science. One widely used platform, iNaturalist, provides millions of digitally vouchered observations submitted by a global user base. These observation records include a date and a location but otherwise do not contain any information about the sampling p...
Article
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Anthropogenically-driven climate warming is a hypothesized driver of animal body size reductions. Less understood are effects of other human-caused disturbances on body size, such as urbanization. We compiled 140,499 body size records of over 100 North American mammals to test how climate and human population density, a proxy for urbanization, and...
Article
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Native-range thermal constraints may not reflect the geographical distributions of species introduced from native island ranges in part due to rapid physiological adaptation in species introduced to new environments. Correlative ecological niche models may thus underestimate potential invasive distributions of species from islands. The northern cur...
Article
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Animals and plants are shifting the timing of key life events in response to climate change, yet despite recent documentation of escalating phenological change, scientists lack a full understanding of how and why phenological responses vary across space and among species. Here, we used over 7 million community-contributed bird observations to deriv...
Article
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Researchers often communicate knowledge about biodiversity, especially information about where species are likely to be found, through maps. However, readers do not necessarily interpret such maps in the way the authors intend. We assessed undergraduate students' interpretations of mapped biodiversity data with a mixed-method approach: a survey ins...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of observational and specimen-based biodiversity data available to researchers is increasing exponentially, yet the ability to manage and cite large, complex biodiversity datasets lags behind. This management and citation gap impedes reproducibility for data users and the ability for data publishers to track use and accumulate use citati...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic datasets are now commonly generated using short-read sequencing technologies unhampered by degraded DNA, such as that often extracted from herbarium specimens. The compatibility of these methods with herbarium specimens has precipitated an increase in broad sampling of herbarium specimens for inclusion in phylogenetic studies. Understa...
Preprint
Insect phenological lability is key for determining which species will adapt under environmental change. However, little is known about when adult insect activity terminates, and overall activity duration. We used community-science and museum specimen data to investigate the effects of climate and urbanization on timing of adult insect activity for...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide decline in biodiversity during the Holocene has impeded a comprehensive understanding of pre-human biodiversity and biogeography. This is especially true on islands, because many recently extinct island taxa were morphologically unique, complicating assessment of their evolutionary relationships using morphology alone. The Caribbean remai...
Article
Full-text available
Broad-scale, quantitative assessments of insect biodiversity and the factors shaping it remain particularly poorly explored. Here we undertook a spatial phylogenetic analysis of North American butterflies to test whether climate stability and temperature gradients have shaped their diversity and endemism. We also performed the first quantitative co...
Article
Full-text available
Premise: Large phylogenetic data sets have often been restricted to small numbers of loci from GenBank, and a vetted sampling-to-sequencing phylogenomic protocol scaling to thousands of species is not yet available. Here, we report a high-throughput collections-based approach that empowers researchers to explore more branches of the tree of life w...
Article
Full-text available
Aggregate biodiversity data from museum specimens and community observations have promise for macroscale ecological analyses. Despite this, many groups are under‐sampled, and sampling is not homogeneous across space. Here we used butterflies, the best documented group of insects, to examine inventory completeness across North America. We separated...
Article
A wave of green leaves and multi‐colored flowers advances from low to high latitudes each spring. However, little is known about how flowering offset (i.e., ending of flowering) and duration of populations of the same species vary along environmental gradients. Understanding these patterns is critical for predicting the effects of future climate an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anthropogenically-driven climate warming is a hypothesized driver of animal body size reductions. Less understood are effects of other human-caused disturbances on body size, such as urbanization. We compiled 140,499 body size records of over 100 North American mammals to test how climate and urbanization, and their interactions with species traits...
Article
Shifts in reproductive timing are among the most commonly documented responses of organisms to global climate change. However, our knowledge of these responses is biased towards taxa that are easily observable and abundant in existing biodiversity data sets. Mammals are common subjects in reproductive biology, but mammalian phenology and its driver...
Preprint
Full-text available
Broad-scale quantitative assessments of biodiversity and the factors shaping it remain particularly poorly explored in insects. Here, we undertook a spatial phylogenetic analysis of North American butterflies via assembly of a time-calibrated phylogeny of the region coupled with a unique, complete range assessment for ~75% of the known species. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aggregate biodiversity data from museum specimens and community observations have promise for macroscale ecological analyses. Despite this, many groups are under-sampled, and sampling is not homogeneous across space. Here we used butterflies, the best documented group of insects, to examine inventory completeness across North America. We separated...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Plastid gene loss and pseudogenization has been widely documented in parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plants, which have relaxed selective constraints on photosynthetic function. More enigmatic are sporadic reports of pseudogenization and loss of important photosynthesis genes in lineages thought to be fully photosynthetic. Here we repo...
Article
Full-text available
Conflicting relationships have been found between diversification rate and temperature across disparate clades of life. Here, we use a supermatrix comprising nearly 20,000 species of rosids-a clade of~25% of all angiosperm species-to understand global patterns of diversification and its climatic association. Our approach incorporates historical glo...
Article
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Using self-determination theory, this study investigated the influence of a multimedia-enhanced informal biodiversity awareness event on the evolving culture of science and internal and external motivation to take environmental action among the members of a small community in Southeastern US. The event was hosted by a local life and science museum...
Article
Phenology is one of the most immediate responses to global climate change, but data limitations have made examining phenology patterns across greater taxonomic, spatial, and temporal scales challenging. One significant opportunity is leveraging rapidly increasing data resources from digitized museum specimens and community science platforms, but th...
Article
Full-text available
Body size decline is hypothesized to be a key response to climate warming, including warming driven by urban heat islands. However, urbanization may also generate selective gradients for body size increases in smaller endotherms via habitat fragmentation. Here we utilize a densely sampled, multi-source dataset to examine how climate and urbanizatio...
Article
Full-text available
Premise: Recent advances in generating large-scale phylogenies enable broad-scale estimation of species diversification. These now common approaches typically are characterized by (1) incomplete species coverage without explicit sampling methodologies and/or (2) sparse backbone representation, and usually rely on presumed phylogenetic placements t...
Article
Full-text available
North America is a large continent with extensive climatic, geological, soil, and biological diversity. That biota is under threat from habitat destruction and climate change, making a quantitative assessment of biodiversity of critical importance. Rapid digitization of plant specimen records and accumulation of DNA sequence data enable a much‐need...
Article
The complex forces that shape butterfly wings have long been a subject of experimental and comparative research. Butterflies use their wings for flight, camouflage, mate recognition, warning and mimicry. However, general patterns and correlations among wing shape and size evolution are still poorly understood. We collected geometric morphometric me...
Article
Full-text available
Regional diversity can increase owing to either the packing of species within regional niche space or the expansion of regional niche space. Yet, the primary factors dictating these dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we assess the relative influence of current environmental conditions (net primary productivity, NPP) versus historic environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Quaternary paleontological and archaeological evidence often is crucial for uncovering the historical mechanisms shaping modern diversity and distributions. We take an interdisciplinary approach using multiple lines of evidence to understand how past human activity has shaped long-term animal diversity in an island system. Islands afford unique opp...
Article
Full-text available
Premise: Citizen science platforms for sharing photographed digital vouchers, such as iNaturalist, are a promising source of phenology data, but methods and best practices for use have not been developed. Here we introduce methods using Yucca flowering phenology as a case study, because drivers of Yucca phenology are not well understood despite th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Plastid gene loss and pseudogenization has been widely documented in parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plants, which have relaxed selective constraints on photosynthetic function. More enigmatic are sporadic reports of degradation and loss of important photosynthesis genes in lineages thought to be fully photosynthetic. Here we report the...
Article
Full-text available
Plant and animal phenology is shifting in response to urbanization, with most hypotheses focusing on the ‘urban heat island’ (UHI) effect as the driver. However, generalities regarding the direction and magnitude of phenological response to urbanization have not yet emerged because most studies have focused on remote-sensed vegetative phenologies o...
Article
Full-text available
For more than two centuries, biodiversity collections have served as the foundation for scientific investigation of and education about life on Earth (Melber and Abraham 2002, Cook et al. 2014, Funk 2018). The collections that have been assembled in the past and continue to grow today are a cornerstone of our national heritage that have been treate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Premise: Research on large-scale patterns of phenology have utilized multiple sources of data to analyze the timing of events such as flowering, fruiting, and leaf out. In-situ observations from standardized surveys are ideal, but remain spatially sparse. Herbarium records and phenology-focused citizen science programs provide a source of historic...
Article
Full-text available
Our world is in the midst of unprecedented change-climate shifts and sustained, widespread habitat degradation have led to dramatic declines in biodiversity rivaling historical extinction events. At the same time, new approaches to publishing and integrating previously disconnected data resources promise to help provide the evidence needed for more...
Preprint
Full-text available
Broad-scale plant flowering phenology data has predominantly come from geographically and taxonomically restricted monitoring networks. However, platforms such as iNaturalist, where citizen scientists upload photographs and curate identifications, provide a promising new source of data. Here we develop a general set of best practices for scoring iN...
Preprint
Full-text available
Premise of the Study: Recent advances in generating large-scale phylogenies enable broad-scale estimation of species diversification rates. These now-common approaches typically (1) are characterized by incomplete coverage without explicit sampling methodologies, and/or (2) sparse backbone representation, and usually rely on presumed phylogenetic p...
Article
Since the late Pleistocene humans have caused the extinction of species across our planet. Placing these extinct species in the tree of life with genetic data is essential to understanding the ecological and evolutionary implications of these losses. While ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques have advanced rapidly in recent decades, aDNA from tropical spe...
Article
Full-text available
Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) are integrated information products typically derived from disparate sources of primary observations combined by the use of biodiversity models and data integration algorithms. Furthermore, developing policy-relevant indicators from EBVs requires an additional level of integration between datasets that inform...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current advances in sequencing technology have greatly increased the availability of sequence data from public genetic databases. With data from GenBank, we assemble and phylogenetically investigate a 19,740-taxon, five-locus supermatrix (i.e., atpB, rbcL, matK, matR, and ITS) for rosids, a large clade containing over 90,000 species, or approximate...
Article
Full-text available
Ideally, an information system that automates the integration of disparate datasets should be able to minimize the loss of information from any one dataset, achieve computational complexity suitable for working with large datasets, be flexible enough to easily incorporate new data sources, and produce output that is easily analyzed and understood b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For the last 15 years, Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) has recognized two competing standards for organism occurrence data, ABCD (Access to Biological Collections Data; Holetschek et al. 2012) and DarwinCore (Wieczorek et al. 2012). These two representations emerged from contrasting strategies for mobilizing information about organism occ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent progress in using deep learning techniques to automate the analysis of complex image data is opening up exciting new avenues for research in biodiversity science. However, potential applications of machine learning methods in biodiversity research are often limited by the relative scarcity of data suitable for training machine learning model...