Gunter Backes

Gunter Backes
Universität Kassel · Department of Plant Breeding and Agrobiodiversity

Professor

About

95
Publications
13,225
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1,627
Citations

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Full-text available
Common bunt is a seed borne disease of wheat whose importance is likely to increase due to the growing organic seed market, which, in addition to seed phytosanitary measures, relies on genetic resistances towards the disease. Genome wide association studies in wheat have been proven to be a useful tool in the detection of genetic polymorphisms unde...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To better harness advantages of species mixtures for temperate arable cropping systems it is crucial to understand key factors influencing mixture performance. We evaluated traits of 15 wheat genotypes from Hungary and Western Europe in mixture with a pea cultivar and in pure stands for their genotype-based variation, growth dynamics and plasticity...
Book
Full-text available
Agricultural landscapes host a significant share of the biological diversity in Germany. Protecting and advancing this diversity is an established societal goal. First, Germany has committed to national and international obligations to protect biodiversity in the sense of nature protection. Second, biodiversity secures genetic pools which could bec...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Das Diskussionspapier „Ackerbaustrategie 2035 – Perspektiven für einen produktiven und vielfältigen Pflanzenbau“ des BMEL zeigt anhand von sechs Leitlinien und zwölf dazugehörigen Handlungsfeldern Optionen für die Verbesserung des deutschen Ackerbaus auf. Es enthält viele sinnvolle Ansätze. Allerdings greift das Papier bezüglich des Erhalts und der...
Book
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung: Das Diskussionspapier „Ackerbaustrategie 2035 – Perspektiven für einen produktiven und vielfältigen Pflanzenbau“ des BMEL zeigt anhand von sechs Leitlinien und zwölf dazugehörigen Handlungsfeldern Optionen für die Verbesserung des deutschen Ackerbaus auf. Es enthält viele sinnvolle Ansätze. Allerdings greift das Papier bezüglich de...
Article
Race-specific and race-non-specific interactions with barley have been previously reported for Bipolaris sorokiniana. The aims of the study were to characterize a Uruguayan population of B. sorokiniana, to determine the nature of the interactions, and to identify a set of the most informative barley genotypes to characterize the pathogen. Infection...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study attempts to use wheat lines selected from composite cross populations (CCPs) in order to test the applicability as diverse, but still restricted population for genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
Poster
Full-text available
This study attempts to use wheat lines selected from composite cross populations (CCPs) in order to test the applicability as diverse, but still restricted population for genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
Article
Full-text available
The northwards expansion of barley production requires adaptation to longer days, lower temperatures and stronger winds during the growing season. We have screened 169 lines of the current barley breeding gene pool in the Nordic region with regards to heading, maturity, height, and lodging under different environmental conditions in nineteen field...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, and plumule length of maize and sugar beet seeds. The experiment was implemented in six replicates of 30 seeds per replicate and in sterilized petri dishes under laboratory conditions. Treatments included UV-C (254 nm)...
Book
Full-text available
Insekten sind essenzielle Bestandteile von Ökosystemen. Sie zersetzen unter anderem organische Materie, bestäuben einen Großteil der Pflanzen und dienen vielen anderen Tieren als Nahrungsgrundlage. So generieren sie viele Leistungen, wie die Bestäubung von Nutzpflanzen oder die biologische Schädlingskontrolle, die wir täglich verwenden und auf die...
Book
Full-text available
Die Afrikanische Schweinepest ist auf Grund ihrer Ausbreitung im osteuropäischen Raum (Baltische Staaten, Polen, Tschechien) seit dem Winter 2017/2018 eine reale Bedrohung der einheimischen genetischen Ressourcen bei Schweinen in Deutschland. Die Tötung der Tierbestände von mittelbar und unmittelbar betroffenen Betrieben kann erhebliche Konsequenze...
Book
Full-text available
Der rapide Verlust an biologischer Vielfalt in den Agrarlandschaften, der die Vielfalt der Habitate, die Vielfalt der Arten und die genetische Vielfalt innerhalb der Arten betrifft, ist mittlerweile wissenschaftlich gut belegt. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die Europäische Union (EU) sind rechtlich verpflichtet, die natürlichen lebensgrundlage...
Book
Vorwort zur 1. Auflage: Die Ökologische Landwirtschaft hat sich zu einer stark wissensbasierten Wirtschaftsweise entwickelt. Für eine erfolgreiche Beschäftigung mit und in ihr braucht es neben dem Spezialwissen der Boden-, Pflanzenbau-, Nutztier-, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften auch Kenntnisse über die Querbeziehungen zwischen diesen Gebiet...
Article
Full-text available
Key message: The Bt9 resistance locus was mapped and shown to be distinct from the Bt10 locus. New markers linked to Bt9 have been identified and may be used to breed for resistance towards the seed-borne disease. Increasing organic wheat production in Denmark, and in other wheat-producing areas, in conjunction with legal requirements for organic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing yield instability due to climate change could be mitigated by higher inter-and intra crop diversity. During the course of the INSUSFAR project, several questions regarding the impact of more diverse crops on agricultural systems are adressed. To answer these questions, varieties, mixtures, and composite cross populations of wheat will be...
Book
Full-text available
Schlussfolgerungen: Biologische Vielfalt stellt ein öffentliches Gut dar, das in den heute vorherrschenden landwirtschaftlichen Produktionssystemen unehmend bedroht ist. Es ist die Aufgabe der Politik, durch Produktions- und Nutzungsauflagen oder Anreizsysteme den Rahmen für die Wirtschaftsbeteiligten so zu setzen, dass dieses öffentliche Gut gesch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plant associated soil microbes are known to play an important role in the expression and stability of certain plant traits such as nutrient use efficiency and disease resistance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form one of the primary mutualistic plant-microbe symbioses. Besides known benefits such as improved nutrient mobilisation (mainly phosp...
Poster
Full-text available
This study is a part of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) on pre-breeding initiated by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal for the Barley PPP project is to lay the foundation for effective cereal breeding for disease resistance and harvest stability in changing climatic conditions that meet current and future challenges in the Nordic...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is likely to decrease crop yields worldwide. Developing climate resilient cultivars is one way to combat this production scarcity, however, little is known of crop response to future climate conditions and in particular the variability within crops.
Conference Paper
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role as one of the primary mutualistic plant-microbe symbioses. Plants benefit from root endophytes that extend their zone of activity beyond the rhizosphere (Feddermann et al., 2010; Hohmann et al., 2011, 2012). The main known benefits of mycorrhiza involve nutrient mobilisation (mainly phosphor...
Article
Full-text available
Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels of temperature (+5 °C) and [CO2] (700 ppm) as single facto...
Article
Generation of doubled haploid plants is a powerful tool in breeding, as homozygous individuals will be obtained directly from hybrids. However, genotype variability in regeneration efficiency of most European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has limited its use in wheat. This study intended to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for green...
Article
A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR markers were found to be polymorphic, whereas only 2,532...
Article
Full-text available
Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population...
Data
Genetic diversity and structure plays a key role in the selection of parents for crosses in plant breeding programmes. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat accessions. We analysed 284 wheat accessions from Eritrea using 30 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 539 alleles were...
Article
Genetic diversity and structure plays a key role in the selection of parents for crosses in plant breeding programmes. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat accessions. We analysed 284 wheat accessions from Eritrea using 30 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 539 alleles were...
Conference Paper
This project was conducted in close cooperation between the plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University. The aim was to find molecular markers associated with microspore culture response in wheat. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to genotype a population consisting of 94 bre...
Article
TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) combines the formation of a population with high density point-mutations provided by chemical mutagenesis with rapid mutational screening in pools of DNA. It is mainly applied as a reverse-genetic method to reveal the function of genes with known DNA sequence, but also as a non-GMO knock-out tool...
Article
A set of 85 heirloom apple cultivars aimed for long-term preservation in two germplasm collections in Sweden and Finland was evaluated with 8 SSR primer pairs to evaluate genetic diversity and genetic relatedness. An additional set of 16 European cultivars was included for comparison. The eight SSR primer pairs amplified 9 loci and 105 alleles. Gen...
Article
Full-text available
The ascomycete pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni causes Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) on barley. Although R. collo-cygni is considerd an emerging disease of barley, little is known about genetic diver-sity or population genetic structure of this pathogen. We applied a set of polymorphic AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers to investi-gate...
Article
Barley is primarily grown for feed and malt, but in some regions of the world it is also considered to be a staple food. Some barley types such as high-amylose barley have also gained importance as health-promoting foods. Starch that is not readily digested in the upper mammalian gastrointestinal system, or resistant starch (RS), is considered to b...
Data
Full-text available
A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' ” Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morpho-logical trait (btr = brittle rachis locus). The linkage map extended to 890 cM. Agronomic trait...
Article
Full-text available
Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular markers is not self-evident and is often debated....
Article
Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular markers is not self-evident and is often debated....
Article
Population structure and relationships within and among 185 accessions of wild (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. v. ssp. vulgare) from five countries in the West Asia and North Africa (WANA) region were studied using 36 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The accessions were divided into subspecies/origin (S/O)-groups an...
Article
Full-text available
TILLING is a reverse genetic strategy that allows screening for mutations in genes with known sequences in a plant mutant population. A TILLING population has been developed for the Danish barley variety ‘Lux’ (Hordeum vulgare L.), by using sodium azide to induce mutations. Scoring of four visible phenotypic characters of barley seedling in referen...
Article
Full-text available
Remarkable morphological variation has been found within small Eritrean barley fields. Barley was collected from fields approximately 50m2 in size. Spike shape, type, and colour were observed to vary both between and within fields. A set of 39 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers were used to explore the genetic diversity of the Eritrean barley co...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to screen spring barley cultivars for differences in seed protein profiles. In parallel, 72 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat (SSR)) markers and 11 malting quality parameters were analysed for each cultivar. Over 60 protein spots displayed cultivar variation, including peroxidases, serpins and prote...
Article
Full-text available
Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scald resistance in barley were identified and mapped in relation to molecular markers using a population of chromosome doubled-haploid lines produced from the F1 generation of a cross between the spring barley varieties ‘Alexis’ and ‘Regatta’. Two field experiments were conducted in Denmark and two in Norway...
Poster
Applictaion of Eco-TILLING marker technique to identify different alleles of mlo
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Genetic diversity and relationships within and among 185 accessions of wild and cultivated barley from six countries in the West Asian and North African (WANA) region was studied with 36 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. All SSR markers used in this study were highly polymorphic in all subspecies/origin (S/O-) groups. Analysis of molecular var...
Article
One of the substantial differences between conventional and organic growing systems is the degree to which the farmer can control biotic and abiotic stresses; for organic growing systems varieties are needed with a broad adaptation to annually varying factors, while at the same time a good specific adaptation is necessary with respect to more const...
Article
According to a widely accepted theory on barley domestication, wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) from the Fertile Crescent is the progenitor of all cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare). To determine whether barley has undergone one or more domestication events, barley accessions from three continents have been studied (a) using 3...
Article
Vom 19.–28.01.2007 fand im Berliner Kongresszentrum ICC die Internationale Grüne Woche (IGW) statt. 1600 Aussteller aus 56 Ländern präsentierten den insgesamt 430.000 Besuchern Produkte und Dienstleistungen rund um Ernährung und Landwirtschaft. Bereits zum 72. Mal nutzten nicht nur die Erzeuger und Produzenten von Lebensmitteln die IGW als Plattfor...
Article
DIOGENES (Diet, Obesity and Genes) is a pan- European multi-centre research project to advance understanding of how obesity can be prevented from a dietary perspective (the macronutrient composition of the diet). It aims at identifying the genetic, physiological and psychological factors that determine the individual's susceptibility for obesity. B...
Article
In this investigation the successful implementation of a CEL I-based mutation detection technique for the discovery and detection of DNA polymorphism in the genes mlo and Mla of barley is described. The technique is called EcoTILLING, which is a high-throughput method to detect and discover new point mutations and small insertions/deletions in DNA....
Article
A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of quantitative powdery mildew resistance was performed on 216 doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between the winter-barley varieties ‘Igri’ and ‘Danilo’ using 67 RFLP loci. Resistance to powdery mildew was determined in the field with natural infection and on detached primary leaves with a specific...