Guiomar Calvo

Guiomar Calvo
University of Zaragoza | UNIZAR · Departamento de Didácticas Específicas

PhD in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

About

60
Publications
30,682
Reads
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543
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2021 - present
University of Zaragoza
Position
  • Researcher
September 2020 - February 2021
Universidad Internacional de La Rioja
Position
  • Master's Student
September 2019 - April 2020
University of Zaragoza
Position
  • Researcher
Education
March 2018 - March 2019
September 2011 - February 2016
September 2011 - February 2013
University of Zaragoza
Field of study
  • Energy efficiency

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
A conventional passenger car demands almost 50 different types of metals, along other raw materials. Some ofthese metals, such as tantalum, indium, niobium or rare earths elements, are considered critical by the EuropeanCommission and many other institutions. Additionally, their functional recycling is practically absent. Thetransition to fully ele...
Article
To keep the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C the use of renewable energy sources is essential. There are various scenarios for this energy transition depending on the amounts and types of renewable energies implemented. However, the material requirements to build new renewable power systems is rarely considered. It is key to unders...
Book
Full-text available
El arsénico está presente en casi doscientos cincuenta minerales, nos rodea en el aire, nos envuelve en el agua y forma parte de la tierra que pisamos; pero ¿es verdaderamente el arsénico el elemento más letal de la Tabla Periódica? ¿Dónde hay arsénico y cómo se obtiene? ¿Qué usos tiene? ¿Existe vida «a base» de arsénico en nuestro planeta? ¿Conocí...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo hace una revisión crítica del informe de la AIE titulado El rol de los minerales críticos en la transición hacia energías limpias. El objetivo principal de este informe es identificar los minerales y metales clave que podrían generar problemas de suministro y cuellos de botella en una transición energética limpia. La AIE establece una...
Article
Earth has become a huge mine, with a greater quantity and variety of fundamental mineral resources being extracted year after year. Technology, from electric cars to everyday electrical equipment, consume vast amounts of scarce raw materials. On a planet with limited resources, are these minerals being properly assessed? Will there be enough raw ma...
Article
Full-text available
Niobium and tantalum are mainly produced from columbite–tantalite ores, and 60% of their production is nowadays located in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. The concentration of supply, the scarcity, the wide range of use in all electronic devices, and the expected future demand boosted by the clean and digital transition means that Nb a...
Article
With the rush of metal consumption in the last decades and the expected raw material demand driven by the clean and digital transition, a growing concern has emerged about the decline of ore grades. Research of the effect of ore grade decline on energy consumption during the processing of metals has conventionally been addressed using historical da...
Article
Full-text available
Demand for niobium and tantalum is increasing exponentially as these are essential ingredients for the manufacture of, among others, capacitors in technological devices and ferroniobium. Mine tailings rich in such elements could constitute an important source of Nb and Ta in the future and alleviate potential supply risks. This paper evaluates the...
Preprint
Demand for niobium and tantalum is increasing exponentially as these are essential ingredients for the manufacture of, among others, capacitors in technological devices and ferroniobium. Mine tailings rich in such elements could constitute an important source of Nb and Ta in the future and so alleviate potential supply risks. This paper evaluates t...
Chapter
There are alternatives to compensate for the exponential increase in raw material consumption. Substitution is the most straightforward one, replacing an element with another that is less critical or more abundant. This situation will be explored for electric vehicles, different renewable energies, printed circuit boards and lighting, as each techn...
Chapter
Currently, different scenarios are being created to analyse how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and so limit the global temperature rise to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. To reach this goal, we must reduce consumption and change the foundations of our energy system, and the most effective way seems to increase the use of renewable energy so...
Chapter
Humankind has relied on the extraction of different raw materials for centuries, starting with iron, copper or gold to a large number of metals and fossil fuels currently used in multiple sectors, thanks to technological development. Still, this change has also led to other issues, such as increasing CO2 at a global level and climate change. One wa...
Chapter
For millions of years, nature has formed and concentrated minerals in the deposits we know today. Such deposits represent the natural stock or cradle from a life cycle assessment point of view. The conventional cradle-to-grave analysis can be combined with grave-to-cradle analysis using Thanatia, a resource-exhausted planet, as a starting point. Us...
Chapter
Fossil fuel and mineral demand have considerably increased in the last few decades, even reaching an exponential trend. Oil and natural gas consumption accounts for more than half of the total demand in recent years, the Middle East and Saudi Arabia being the main producing regions. Regarding unconventional fossil fuels, the United States is the co...
Chapter
In this chapter, we will analyse the global historical extraction of mineral resources from an exergy point of view. Exergy allows us to assess the degradation caused by the extraction of minerals by humans considering the resource quality. The loss of total mineral wealth from 1900 to 2018 was around 200 Gtoe. This means that we would need a minim...
Chapter
It is broadly true that matter here on Earth, like energy everywhere, is conserved but degrades. If the energy of a system degrades until it reaches equilibrium with its environment, so also does the Earth’s stock of economically valuable non-renewable materials of various kinds. However, there is a big difference, inasmuch as the Sun renews the en...
Chapter
Fossil fuels and minerals are non-renewable resources. What’s available on Earth to extract is finite and is determined by several factors such as technology, global resources and economic value. This section will first introduce the different terms used in the mining industry related to raw materials and how they are formed. Then, we will proceed...
Chapter
The hidden costs of technologies, considering the physical quality of the elements of which they are composed, will be analysed through a thermodynamic approach. First, the thermodynamic rarity of electrical and electronic devices is calculated and compared with the wastes this sector generates. Additionally, this same analysis is carried out with...
Article
The use of electric and electronic equipment has been increasing dramatically in the last years and entails an important amount of waste containing many valuable metals which could constitute an important source of raw materials if appropriately recycled. In this paper, an expression has been developed to value waste of electric and electronic equi...
Article
Full-text available
Desde tiempos de la colonia, América Latina ha sido una región que tradicionalmente ha suministrado materias primas que han servido para el desarrollo económico y productivo de otras regiones del mundo. Minerales de América Latina, como hierro, alumi-nio, oro, plata y cobre, entre otros, han llegado a ser "commodities" altamente valorados en un mun...
Article
Full-text available
En la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático 2015 (COP21) se acordó que el incremento de la temperatura media global no debe superar los 2ºC respecto a la temperatura de niveles preindustriales. Una manera de alcanzar este objetivo implica la incorporación masiva de las llamadas tecnologías verdes, en especial en la generación...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A conventional passenger vehicle demands more than 50 different types of metals, some of them such as tantalum, indium, niobium or rare earths elements (REE), are considered critical by the European Commission. Besides this, their functional recycling is practically absent. Moreover, the transition to fully electric vehicles will require more elect...
Poster
Full-text available
In 2008 European Commission launched the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) program with the aim to encourage that local governments worked to reduce at least a 20 % their greenhouse gases emissions before 2020. To renew their commitments to further horizons, Covenant of Mayors program proposed that signatories should reduce at least a 40 % their greenhouse...
Conference Paper
A conventional passenger vehicle demands more than 50 different types of metals, some of them such as tantalum, indium, niobium or rare earths elements (REE), are considered critical by the European Commission. Besides this, their functional recycling is practically absent. Moreover, the transition to fully electric vehicles will require more elect...
Chapter
Material flow analysis is a key tool to quantify and monitor natural resource use. A very visual way to undertake such analyses representing the mineral trade of a certain nation or continent is through the well-known Sankey diagrams, in which the mineral resources that are extracted, imported, exported, recycled and consumed within the given bound...
Article
Full-text available
Modern living is heavily dependenton mining activities. Having a secure and stable supply of mineral resources has proven to be a key for societies, especially during periods of war. A total of 39 raw materials are identified as ‘strategic’ for the current European defense industry and 16 are additionally considered critical due to economic reasons...
Article
Full-text available
Moving towards a low-carbon economy will imply a considerable increase in the deployment of green technologies, which will in turn increase the demand of certain raw materials. In this paper, the material requirements for 2050 scenarios are assessed in terms of exergy to analyze the impact in natural resources in each scenario and identify which te...
Article
Latin America has always been a region of great interest not only for its rich-multicultural heritage, and diverse flora and fauna, but also for its natural resources that have become valuable commodities worldwide. In this paper an exergy-based analysis is used to investigate the cost of mineral depletion. By applying exergy replacement costs (ERC...
Article
Full-text available
Decarbonizing world economies implies the deployment of “green technologies”, meaning a renovation of the energy sector towards using renewable sources and zero emission transport technologies. This renovation will require huge amounts of raw materials, some of them with high supply risks. To assess such risks a new methodology is proposed, identif...
Poster
Full-text available
•From 1995 to2013 inLA 20, iron production represented 72% of the total production intones,while in Mtoe it only represented 13%, and the contrary was observed fora luminum.Thus, the loss of natural stockofLA-20 was mainly causedb yaluminum and not by iron. •Economic revenues of the sales of minerals (GDPextractive/GDPtotal) was far from equal when...
Article
Full-text available
Latin America has traditionally been a raw material supplier since colonial times. In this paper, we analyze mineral exports from an exergoecology perspective from twenty countries in Latin American (LA-20). We apply material flow analysis (MFA) principles along with the concept of the exergy replacement cost (ERC), which considers both quantity an...
Article
Among the existing methodologies to assess future availability of mineral resources, the Hubbert peak model is a direct approach that can provide useful information about non-fuel mineral depletion using BAU production trends. Using lithium as a case study, the influence on the fluctuations on extractable resources has been analyzed. Accounting onl...
Article
Full-text available
This paper makes a review of current raw material criticality assessment methodologies and proposes a new approach based on the second law of thermodynamics. This is because conventional methods mostly focus on supply risk and economic importance leaving behind relevant factors, such as the physical quality of substances. The new approach is propos...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster tries to answer the following questions: Is the energy transition going to be really renewable? Will there be a net exergy reduction of non-renewable resources consumption?What is the weight of mineral resources in this transition? What are the most demanded metals to build GreenTechnologies?
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Latin America has been a region of great interest not only for its rich-multicultural heritage and diverse flora and fauna, but also for its natural resources that have become valuable commodities worldwide. In fact, Latin American countries have valuable reserves of copper, silver, tin, bauxite, nickel and other non-fuel minerals that are needed i...
Chapter
Any activity around the world as well as further development of humankind relies on natural resources. The primary deposits, which represent the work that nature offers us, are essential for current and future civilizations. There are several examples of ancient civilizations that collapsed due to the depletion of local natural resources; the most...
Chapter
Natural resources can be evaluated from different points of view. One of them, and perhaps the most commonly known is the economic point of view. Nevertheless, the price-fixing mechanisms, rarely take into account the concrete physical characteristics which make them valuable. But natural resources have at least two physical features which make min...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resumen: La extracción de recursos naturales en América Latina ha sido y sigue siendo una actividad que tiene diversas implicaciones tanto en aspectos sociales como culturales, económicos y políticos. El presente trabajo busca, a través del uso del concepto de Coste exergético de reposición (ERC), desarrollado por Valero et al., determinar el coste...
Article
Full-text available
Mining industry requires high amounts of energy to extract and process resources, including a variety of concentration and refining processes. Using energy consumption information, different sustainability issues can be addressed, such as the relationship with ore grade over the years, energy variations in electricity or fossil fuel use. A rigorous...
Article
Full-text available
Intensified mineral consumption and reserve depletion means that it is becoming increasingly important for policymakers to account for and manage national mineral capital. Exergy replacement costs (ERC), an indicator based on the second law of thermodynamics, provides a physical value of mineral loss. When only a unit mass analysis is used, the rol...
Conference Paper
A research activity was carried out to identify the most important resource efficiency indicators used at the industry level for five main categories: energy, material use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions and waste generation and management. Fifty eight indicators were found in the literature but only twenty of them were applicable to the proce...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows how exergy can be used to assess the mineral balance of a country and at the same time assess its mineral resource sustainability. The advantage of using such an approach is that the quality of the resources is taken into account, as opposed to the conventional procedure that uses tonnage as a yardstick. The exergoecology method ev...
Article
This paper describes a way to account for mineral depletion through exergy replacement costs, which are defined as the exergy required to replace minerals from a complete dispersed state back to the initial conditions of composition and concentration in which they were originally found and with the best available technologies. The advantage of usin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Even if Spain does not have large deposits of tin and tungsten, the production throughout the twentieth century underwent many fluctuations due to political and economic interests. In the case of tungsten, large amounts of ore were extracted during the World War I and even more during the World War II, as Spain, with Portugal, ended up being the on...
Conference Paper
Three Ordovician ironstone levels occur in the Aragonian Branch of the Iberian Range, near the vicinity of Luesma village. The mineralogy is the same in all of them and it consists mainly of magnetite, haematites, goethite, chlorite, quartz and apatite, with rutile, maghemite, pyrite, zircon and muscovite as accesory minerals. Whole rock major and...
Article
Full-text available
IINTRODUCCIÓN La medalla nace prácticamente a la vez que la mone-da, aunque con diferentes objetivos. Dejando aparte el aspecto fiduciario de la moneda, la medalla se ha fabri-cado básicamente como transmisor de un mensaje artís-tico, de homenaje, recompensa, publicitario, religioso, político, etc. Aunque ya se elaboraron medallas nota-bles en époc...
Article
Full-text available

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
TREASURE is a 3-year- Research and Innovation Action co-funded by the European Commission under the H2020 programme willing to offer new opportunities for testing innovative technologies to make the automotive sector more circular.
Project
Minerals are essentials for keeping today´s standard of living. Most of these valuables minerals are produced in Latin America. From the Second Law of Thermodynamics a new horizon for a more accurate assessment of minerals resources is investigated in these works.