Guillermo A. Lemarchand

Guillermo A. Lemarchand
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization | UNESCO · Division of Science Policy and Capacity Building, Natural Sciences Sector

About

161
Publications
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637
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
267 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022010203040
Introduction
Guillermo A. Lemarchand currently works as Senior Consultant and Principal Investigator of the Global Observatory of STI Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN) at the Division of Science Policy and Capacity Building, Natural Sciences Sector, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Guillermo is an international expert on STI policy studies, scientometrics, long-wave theory.Their current project at UNESCO is 'Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN).' He is Academician at the International Academy of Astronautics and between 1990-2010 he was an active researcher on astrophysics, astrobiology and radioastronomy.

Publications

Publications (161)
Technical Report
Full-text available
Science, engineering, technology, and innovation (SETI) is increasingly important to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and governments are stressing more and more the need for sound and concerted STI policies that contribute to targets of the national interests. At the African Union Summit in June 2014, the Heads of State and Governm...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The characteristics of the GO->SPIN surveys have been evolving with the programme since it was launched in October 2010. The first versions were used for capacity-building purposes during three training workshops held in 2012 in Harare (including high-level officials from Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), in 2013 in Dakar (including...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We present a series of definitions and concepts on how to design, implement, monitor, and analyse SETI policies. Particularly, we introduce a brief description of the GO-SPIN theoretical framework in terms of the main analytical units (e.g., content analysis of the SETI policies; SETI legal framework, SETI ecosystem, and SETI operational policy ins...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Science, engineering, technology, and innovation (SETI) is increasingly important to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and governments are stressing more and more the need for sound and concerted STI policies that contribute to targets of the national interests. At the African Union Summit in June 2014, the Heads of State and Governm...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The characteristics of the GO-SPIN surveys have been evolving with the programme since it was launched in October 2010. The first versions were used for capacity-building purposes during three training workshops held in 2012 in Harare (including high-level officials from Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), in 2013 in Dakar (including...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Here we present the complete set of lecture notes of a course given in the Republic of Kenya on the methodological approach use to analyse science, technology and innovation policies and policy instruments, based on UNESCO's Global Observatory of STI Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN).
Technical Report
Full-text available
We present a brief description of the GO>SPIN theoretical framework in terms of three main analytical units (i.e. SETI ecosystem, SETI legal framework and SETI operational policy instruments). After giving some examples of different policy instruments associated with each individual analytical unit, we present the guidelines to complete the survey’...
Presentation
Full-text available
We describe some restrictions to the medium term evolution of the National Science, Technology and Innovation System of Panama. This review was made in the context of the presentation of the new National Strategic STI Plan of Panama (PENCYT 2019-2024). The meeting was held at the National Secretariat of Science, Technology and Innovation of Panama...
Book
Full-text available
Mapping Research and Innovation in the Republic of Paraguay is the eighth in a series of country profiles prepared by UNESCO’s Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN). The series is designed to expose – through the rigorous application of an assessment lens – usable insights about science, technology, a...
Presentation
Full-text available
The GO-SPIN programme was designed for helping Member States to reform and upgrade national science systems and governance. It promotes building capacity to monitor and evaluate the policy performance, through a structural analysis covering the science, technology and innovation (STI) explicit policy, the STI national ecosystem, the STI legal frame...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is the translation into Spanish of the chapter on Latin America published in the UNESCO Science Report Towards 2030. Describes the situation on science, technology and innovation policies, institutions, policy instruments and achivements from 2010 - 2015 from all Latin American countries
Book
Full-text available
Mapping Research and Innovation in Lao People’s Democratic Republic is the seventh of a series of country profiles prepared by UNESCO’s Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN). The series is designed to expose – through the rigorous application of an assessment lens—usable insights about science, techno...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation was made during the 39th UNESCO General Conference during a special side event on the Global Observatory of STI Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN) with 85 diplomants from UNESCO Member States. We showed a short description of GO-SPIN time line since 2010-on and we described the main charcteristics of the future GO-SPIN Online Platform w...
Book
Full-text available
Mapping Research and Innovation in the Republic of Guatemala is the sixth of a series of country profiles prepared by UNESCO’s Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN). The series is designed to expose – through the rigorous application of an assessment lens – usable insights about science, technology, a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract ( this chapter is in Russian) the methodological approach to collect and analyse science, engineering, technology and innovation (SETI) policies and policy instruments, institutions, legal framework and contextual factors from Member States, employed by the GO-SPIN programme is used to produce a review of STI policy landscape of Latin Amer...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present the main results of the UNESCO GO-SPIN study on science, engineering, technology and innovation policies in the Republic of Guatemala and their policy instruments from 1960-present. The results will be published as a book by UNESCO on April 2017
Chapter
Full-text available
Depuis maintenant deux décennies, le Rapport de l’UNESCO sur la science dresse à intervalles réguliers le tableau de la science, de la technologie et de l’innovation (STI) dans le monde. Comme la STI n’évolue pas en vase clos, cette dernière édition fait le point des évolutions survenues depuis 2010 par rapport aux tendances socioéconomiques, géopo...
Conference Paper
En este estudio se utiliza un modelo matemático auto-organizado que describe la evolución de la población mundial desde el surgimiento de la especie homo sapiens hasta el presente y donde los distintos períodos identificados por los antropólogos (edades) aparecen como consecuencia de las propiedades matemáticas de auto-similitud del modelo analizad...
Presentation
Full-text available
A description on STI input and output indicators is made in the long run. We show the connection among different types of indicators and the the long-term contextual indicators of different nations. We show how the introduction of specific operational STI policy instruments is reflected in slope changes from different temporal series of STI indicat...
Presentation
Full-text available
GO-SPIN is a global observatory of policies and policy instruments on science, engineering, technology, and innovation (SETI), legal frameworks, organization charts, contextual factors and indicators on research and innovation. In this presentation we describe the characteristics of the UNESCO GO-SPIN programme and we distribe the methodological ap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: In this paper we analyse the link between long-term political stability and government effectiveness to evaluate the performance of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. It is shown that the impact of these STI policies and their policy instruments will highly depend on the previous conditions. Using a long-wave theoretical f...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is the presentation made for a training workshop for high-level authorities in science and technology for Ibero american countries, held in Montevideo at AECID Uruguay.
Book
Full-text available
The Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN) series of country profiles are designed to expose – through the rigorous application of an assessment lens—usable insights about science, engineering, technology and innovation (SETI) policies and their context. This is meant to encourage choices that harness...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present the methodological approach applied by UNESCO to collect information on science, technology and innovation (STI) national policies, STI policy instruments, STI legal framework, STI organizational charts. We describe the limitation of the traditional approach of using STI input-out indicators to promote evidence based policies. We present...
Chapter
Full-text available
We analyse the productivity of academic knowledge in all fields of science within Ibero-American and Caribbean countries between 1966 and 2013. We provide the growth constants for the number of publications (ρ), the number of publications per million inhabitants (σ) and the ratio between the number of publications and the GDP per capita (λ) for 30...
Chapter
Full-text available
the methodological approach to collect and analyse science, engineering, technology and innovation (SETI) policies and policy instruments, institutions, legal framework and contextual factors from Member States, employed by the GO-SPIN programme is used to produce a review of STI policy landscape of Latin American countries. For completing the anal...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this lecture we describe in detail the characteristics of UNESCO’s Global Observatory of STI policy instruments, and its methodological approach. The programme is composed by six different components: (a) GO-SPIN survey; (b) GO-SPIN on-line platform; (c) GO-SPIN training workshops; (d) GO-SPIN country profile in Science, Technology and Innovatio...
Book
Full-text available
The Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN) series of country profiles is designed to expose – through the rigorous application of an assessment lens—usable insights about science, technology, engineering and innovation (SETI) policies and their context. This is meant to encourage choices that can help...
Book
Full-text available
One of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi nevertheless spends 1% of its GDP on reserach and development (R&D), one of the highest ratios in Africa. Although R&D spending remains low in real terms, Malawian scientists publish more in mainstream journals -relative to GDP- than reserachers in any other country with a similar populationn size.
Book
Full-text available
The present profile of science, technology and innovation in Zimbabwe has been produced within UNESCO's Global Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments (GO-SPIN), a relative new UNESCO initiative which stresses the importance of having a wide range of policy instruments to ensure effective policy implementation. GO-SPIN...
Book
Full-text available
This first volumen in UNESCO's new online series GO-SPIN Country Profiles in Science, Technology and innovation Policy is dedicated to a study of the research and innovation landscape of Botswana. It represents the first published inventory of the science, technology and innovation policy instruments of an African country.
Presentation
Full-text available
In accordance to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (36 C/5), Major Programme II, Natural Sciences, MLA 1: “Promoting STI policies and access to knowledge” and with the framework of the project Capacity Building in Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in Africa, funded b...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a brief description of the GO-SPIN project with some examples of poliy instruments for the promotion of science, technology and innovation activities in developing countries
Technical Report
Full-text available
This researh was realized as part of a programme on the reform and repositioning of the science and innovation in Tanzania, which was elaborated and coordinated by UNESCO in response to the request of the President of Tanzania. particularly, the present work is part of the first component of the project designed to provide policy advise and guidanc...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a historical evolution of the differnt proposals on Hippocratic Oaths for Scientists over time and we analyze their philosophical bases to promote an ethical analysis of the impact of R&D activities
Presentation
Full-text available
We analyze the historical evolution of military R&D over the last sixty years, their impact it the development of mass destruction weapons and the increase of the lethality cofficient over time. We analyse how military R&D policies are design.
Presentation
Full-text available
This was the original presentation of the GO-SPIN project held at UNESCO HQ in Paris on 19-20 October 2011.
Article
Full-text available
A description of the Basic and Engineering Sciences (SC BES) and Science Policy and Sustainable Development (SC PSD) programmes at UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science in Latin America and the Caribbean is made. An account of the innovation patterns and the relation between science, engineering and industry in LAC, based on a recent study performed a...
Book
Full-text available
A collection of essays presented during an international workshop organized by ISTIC, UNESCO and the World Federation of Engineering Organization during the World Engineering Congress held in Buenos Aires in October 2010.
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of the present chapter is to call the attention of scholars to the need for a systematic exploration of cognitive universals that might be used to develop new strategies for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) research programs and eventually to seek for new ways to design schemes for communication among hypothetical galacti...
Book
Full-text available
A collection of essays presented during the Second Ibero American School of Astrobiology, held in Montevideo in 2009
Article
Full-text available
In this article an analysis of the fundamentals used to search for extraterrestrial artificial signals in the galaxy, which have been developing for more than five decades, is presented. It is shown that the key factor for the success of these research projects is given by the technological civilizations lifetimes. Assuming the Principle of Mediocr...
Article
Full-text available
The work is divided into three sections: the first one describes the historical evolution of the main arguments presented about the plurality of inhabited worlds, from the presocratics to the birth of modern science. The second section analyzes the race to define the search for life beyond Earth as a scientific activity under a specific name. Final...
Article
Full-text available
During the Second Iberoamerican Graduate School on Astrobiology interesting debates, between the experts from the biological and physical backgrounds, arose about the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings in the universe. For this reason, it is appropriate to reproduce -for the first time in Spanish- the debate on the...
Presentation
Full-text available
A description of the Basic and Engineering Sciences (SC BES) and Science Policy and Sustainable Development (SC PSD) programmes at the UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science in Latin America and the Caribbean is made. An account is presented of innovation patterns and the relationship between science, engineering and industry in LAC, based on a recent...
Book
Full-text available
The present volume is the first of a series we hope will extend over time. It presents a study of the evolving Science Technology and Innovation (STI) policies in LAC over the past six decades, together with an inventory of the region’s national science, technology and innovation systems.
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a synthesis of the role of the UN system and UNESCO in the development of STI policies in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last 60 years. We describe the recent role of the Regional Bureau for Science of UNESCO in LAC in the promotion of STI policies. A description of the SPIN (Science Policy Information Network) regional platfor...
Article
Full-text available
This article shows the importance that has had the scientific research, the technological development and the innovation processes in increasing the lethality of the available weapons during the last century. A set of initiatives promoted by the scientific community to stop the nuclear arms race that threatened the continuation of life on the plane...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article shows the importance that has had the scientific research, the technological development and the innovation processes in increasing the lethality of the available weapons during the last century. A set of initiatives promoted by the scientific community to stop the nuclear arms race that threatened the continuation of life on the plane...
Article
Full-text available
We present a review of the science, technology and innovation (STI) policies applied in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) between 1945 and 2010. We show the long term evolution of economic and social indicators in correspondence with STI input and output indicators. We describe the role of the Regional Bureau for Science of UNESCO for LAC durin...
Book
Full-text available
A collection of essays on the use of Hippocratic Oaths for Scientists since the development of nuclear armament
Book
Full-text available
Se presenta un estudio de la evolucion entre 1950-2010 de las politicas en ciencia, tecnologia e innovacion en America Latina y el Caribe. Se presenta una descripcion de los sistemas nacionales de CTI en cada uno de los paises de la region.
Article
Full-text available
We study the national production of academic knowledge in all Iberoamerican countries (IAC) between 1973 and 2007. We show that the total number of mainstream scientific publications listed in SCI,SSCI and A&HCI follows an exponential growth, the same as the national productivity expressed in the number of publications per capita. We also explore t...
Article
Full-text available
Several very long-term biological and ecological studies have shown that different species on Earth emerge, develop, and become extinct with similar evolutionary patterns. Assuming the Principle of Mediocrity, we can expect that the distribution of different technological galactic species will behave with similar evolutionary patterns to the terres...
Article
Full-text available
For almost 50 years the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) research program was pursued under the hypothesis of the universality of the physical laws in the cosmos. The authors call attention to some epistemological issues that make it necessary to seek other aesthetic, spiritual and ethical cognitive universals. They propose the parti...
Chapter
Full-text available
We use the mathematical model developed by Mallmann and Lemarchand to explain the long-term cycles in the production of classical music between the year 950 and 2000. The density of great composers per capita per year living simultaniously in continental Europe presents a 160+/- 15 year recurrencies consistent with the Mallmann and Lemarchand model...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a brief description on the activities of SETI and astrobiology in Argentina
Article
Full-text available
SETI researchers believe that the basic principles of our science and the science of extraterrestrial beings should be fundamentally the same, and we should be able to communicate with them by referring to those things we share, such as the principles of mathematics, physics, and chemistry (a similar cognitive map of nature). This view assumes that...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a brief description of the role of the recent development of bioastronomy and astrobiology, origin of planets and life, the search for exoplanets and traces of life markers, the habitable zones around exoplanets, as well as the radioastronomical search for extraterrestrial intelligence. (Presentation is in PORTUGUESE)
Presentation
Full-text available
In this presentation we made an analysis of the main characteristics that may put in danger the survival of our human species. We define the properties of the present technological adolescence age and we discuss their implications.
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we displayed a new biological criterion that restricts the traditional habitable zone. We set the internal boundary of this new UV habitable zone from the maximum radiation that tolerates the DNA and its external boundary from the levels of UV radiation needed in the biogenesis processes. We also analyzed the evolution of the habitabl...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentamos un análisis de las metodologías empleadas en el diseño de las políticas militares de I+D por los países desarrollados durantelos últimos 50 años. Analizamos su aplicación y extensión a las políticas civiles de I+D
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The application of bibliometric indicators to estimate the characteristics of international scientific cooperation networks have been highlighted in the past by different authors (Davison Frame et. al, 1977; Holmgren and Schnitzer, 2004; Wagner and Leydesdorff, 2005). Several studies used them in the analysis of the cooperation patterns of Latin Am...
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a brief description of the ethical dimension of science and tecnology activities and their influence on R&D policies
Presentation
Full-text available
We present a short analyses of the main characteristics of defense R&D policies and the priority setting methodologies. We analyse the ethical impact of military R&D.
Article
During the last decade, there was a paradigm-shift in order to consider terrestrial planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars, as suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Here we analyze the influence of UV boundary conditions to three planetary systems around dM (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020). We ap...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed the UV habitable zones (UV-HZ), defined in Buccino et al. (2006), around planetary dM stars observed by IUE: HIP 74995, HIP 109388, HIP 113020 and around two dMe stars: Ad Leo and EV Lac. We found that moderate flares could be an energy source in the biogenesis processes. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH
Article
Full-text available
Several very long-term biological and ecological studies have shown that different species on Earth emerge, develop, and become extinct with similar evolutionary patterns. Assuming the Principle of Mediocrity, we can expect that the distribution of different galactic species will behave with similar evolutionary patterns to the terrestrial ones. Us...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We present the Backgroun Document on Science, Technology and Innovation Public Policies prepared for the Strategic Forum for National Development of Argentina. The document is in Spanish.
Poster
Full-text available
Nearly the 70% of Milky Way Galaxy are composed by dM stars. Even they are low mass stars, they represent almost the 20% of luminous mass in our galaxy. Due to their faint intrinsic luminosity, only those M stars that are within the solar neighbourhood are possible to be observed. The last surveys of exoplanets have reported very few M stars with p...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present an empirical study of the long-term evolution of several social indicators (e.g. human population growth, statistics of deadly quarrels, diffusion of democratic systems, etc.). We assume that the human species emerge, develop and become extinct with similar evolutionary patterns that other terrestrial species. We propose that the long-te...
Article
In a recent paper, a cosmological model based on El Naschie E infinity Cantorian space–time was presented [Iovane G. Varying G, accelerating universe, and other relevant consequences of a stochastic self-similar and fractal universe. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 2004;20:657–67]. In that work, it was claimed that the present accelerated expansion of t...
Poster
Full-text available
The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has long evolved during the last 40 years developing new technologies and search strategies to improve more than ten orders of magnitude their sensitivity and sky coverage. The interest will grow in the future as more sensitive instruments will be built, like the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). In t...
Article
Full-text available
We present an empirical study of the long-term evolution of several social indicators (e.g. human population growth, statistics of deadly quarrels, diffusion of democratic systems, etc.). We assume that the human species emerge, develop and become extinct with similar evolutionary patterns that other terrestrial species. We propose that the long-te...
Article
Ultraviolet radiation is known to inhibit photosynthesis, induce DNA destruction and cause damage to a wide variety of proteins and lipids. In particular, UV radiation between 200 and 300 nm becomes energetically very damaging to most of the terrestrial biological systems. On the other hand, UV radiation is usually considered one of the most import...
Presentation
Full-text available
This was an invited Argentine Physical Society Lecture held at the Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche. We present a brif description of the different projects on astrobiology and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence to detect life beyond Earth
Book
Full-text available
This are the proceedings of the First latin American Forum of Presidents from Parlarmentarian S&T Committees, held in Buenos Aires on 7-8 March 2005. This book includes all the presentations as well as the transcriptions of the discussions which took place during this meeting.
Chapter
Full-text available
El propósito de este trabajo es ofrecer, al legislador y al tomador de decisión, en general, una revisión de los instrumentos de cooperación e integración regional en políticas de ciencia, tecnología e innovación (CTI). En el mismo, se presenta una descripción de las distintas iniciativas desarrolladas en América Latina y el Caribe, durante los últ...
Presentation
Full-text available
We analize the cooperation betwen Joseph Shklovsky and Carl Sagan for the publication of the seminal book ”Intelligent Life in the Universe”
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we displayed a new biological criterion that restricts the traditional habitable zone. We set the internal boundary of this new UV habitable zone from the maximum radiation that tolerates the DNA and its external boundary from the levels of UV radiation needed in the biogenesis processes. We also analyzed the evolution of the habitabl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Argentina is the only developing country that has been active for almost 20 years developing SETI observational activities, using the facilities of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR), a research institute that belongs to the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET). In this presentation, we make a historical introd...
Article
Full-text available
We speculate about possible cosmic exploration by extraterrestrial civilizations using interstellar smart probes. We call attention to some emerging technologies that may be used for interstellar exploration. We estimate that advanced civilizations may already have these technologies and may be using them to contact their galactic neighbors. We exp...
Article
Full-text available
We have studied the UV radiation in the range 180 to 330 nm emitted by several stars with planetary systems, in order to determine the constraints on the habitable zones posed by the radiation levels. The observations were taken from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) satellites database. The stellar s...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the study of several long-term societal indicators we estimate the phase transition between the ``Technological Adolescent Age'' (TAA) and the ``Technological Mature Age'' (TMA). Assuming the ``Principle of Mediocrity'' and using the Drake Equation we estimate a lower threshold for the number of technological civilizations in the galaxy.
Article
Full-text available
We describe the ongoing high and ultrahigh-resolution survey of OH masers in the southern hemisphere. The study is made using one of the 30-m antennas of the Argentine Institute for Radioastronomy (IAR) connected simultaneously to two different spectrometers: (a) one 1008 channel correlator with a spectral resolution of 33 to 312 Hz, and (b) an eig...
Article
Full-text available
We have studied the UV radiation in the range 180 to 330 nm emitted by several stars with planetary systems, in order to determine the constraints on the habitable zones posed by the radiation levels. The observations were taken from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) satellites database. The stellar s...